The political role of Queen Amani Renas in the Kingdom of Meroe and her role in confronting the Roman ambitions towards the Kingdom of Meroe during the period (10-40 BC)
Keywords:Amani Renas, Meroe, the Romans, Kandakkah, pyramids, treaty
The research touched on the political role of the Queen in the Kingdom of Meroe and her role in confronting the Roman ambitions towards the Kingdom of Meroe during the period (10-40 BC). She is one of the great queens in the history of the Kingdom of Meroe and was the wife of King Tertiqas, who succeeded him on the throne of the Kingdom of Meroe after his death, and she is the warrior queen who ruled the Kingdom of Meroe (10-40 BC). That is, the queen. As for her royal insignia in the Kingdom of Meroe, they are the crowns, the sceptre, and the one snake on the forehead. As for her role in the Kingdom of Meroe, it was represented by building temples, establishing truth and justice, and eliminating the elements of evil from the enemies of gods and humans. The second axis is entitled (Arrival of Amani Rinas to The authority of the throne and the rule of the Kingdom of Meroe) The feminine monarchy gradually developed in the ancient Sudan until women in the Meroitic era achieved the advantage of sitting on the throne and ruling either alone or in partnership with their husbands, as is the case in “Amani Rinas”; This type of rule appeared in the first century BC and was represented by the partnership between the king and his first wife; And perhaps their eldest son, and this type of participation in governance indicates that the wife who lives after the death of her husband automatically becomes the ruling Kandaka, the third axis entitled (The Romans’ threat to the lands in the Kingdom of Meroe and their encroachment on it) The Romans directed towards the south of the country of Nubia for several reasons, including the wealth of the country of Nubia , in order not to disturb the Roman rule in Egypt by threatening the southern borders of Egypt, and not to be exposed to the Red Sea trade, as well as Meroe’s control of the most important trade routes linking between Meroe and the Mediterranean basin; Therefore, the Romans wanted to control the Kingdom of Meroe and subject it to their control, the fourth axis entitled (The leadership role of Queen Amani Renas in leading the Meroitic army and confronting it against the Romans) and she played an important role in securing the Kingdom of Meroe for several centuries after that and its struggle against the Roman forces distinguished it as one of the few historical figures that She resisted the Roman rule and was able to confront it and defeat its progress until it was described as the one-eyed tomboy woman who lost her eye in one of these raids on the Romans; This queen is also depicted in a victorious position and ten of the bound prostrate before her, as this description coincides in terms of shyness and physical strength completely with the scenes of the great queens of Meroe, which were represented by the queen "Amani Renas", the fifth axis entitled (The peace treaty between the queen of Meroe Amani Renas and the Romans) was held. This treaty after Queen Amani Reinas saw a lack of equality between the two parties, and Emperor Augustus welcomed this treaty, and the Roman forces withdrew from Meroe to the old borders, and the “incinerator” became a fixed point for the borders between the empire and the Meroitic kingdom, as well as exempting the Meroites from tribute, the sixth axis entitled ( The death of Amani Rinas after thirty years in the rule of the Kingdom of Meroe) and she died in (10 BC. M) and researchers differed about the location of her burial; She may have been buried in Al-Bajrawiyah due to the transition of the burials in Meroe to Al-Bajrawiyyeh.