Journal Of Babylon Center for Humanities Studies <p style="direction: ltr;">The journal is devoted to the publication of subjects of various human and linguistic specialties for the purpose of scientific and cultural publication as well as for the purposes of scientific promotions for academic staff. The journal publishes researches or articles in both Arabic and English and the journal aims to publish in other languages.</p> <p style="direction: ltr;">Journal Of Babylon Center for Humanities Studies is a official Journal issued by the Babylon Center for cultural and historical studies at the University of Babylon, and specializes in the deployment of research and academic articles in the fields of humanities and historical and cultural, Journal is published Quarterly, four times each year which it been edited by a panel scientific works on research Assessment sent where each search is sent to the management of the Journal is working on at least two experts in the evaluation of every aspect of it, and according to form designed for this purpose and we do not publish any articles or research without authorize of the deployment by our experts. </p> <p> </p> University Of Babylon en-US Journal Of Babylon Center for Humanities Studies 2227-2895 Grammatical aspects between case and distinction In the Holy Quran <div> <p>Is a case of discrimination and the similarities in Arabic grammar , in Mouncobac grammatical ,Search and reveals aspects of the difference between them in terms of grammatical meaning of the sentence if the current unbearable sense grammar or grammatical meaning of discrimination. Where is a case of discrimination and the abundance of camel droppings in Arabic grammar to what he sees as some grammarians , and destination search find the need to clarify the concept of favorites when grammarians , they were referred to it as a quick signals and those signals note of them , are favorites dispute the mayor ,Mayor : What is indispensable Calfaal , and favorites are irreplaceable Kalmfol it may delete favorites that did not hurt in the meaning of the sentence , and anything more than pillars attribution Kalmfol the case and discrimination , about : hit Zaid , came Zaid , laughing , and planted land trees . And objected to some grammarians on the fact that the case leftovers ; because the favorites but it comes after completing the speech and indispensable , and the case may not be talking , but it, in terms of meaning and grammar indication of speech is not without it , do not dispense then them , it becomes deliberately talk that indispensable in the sentence. This view , which Aoadh research and tends to him , to force the grammatical significance of the event, where you can not do without it in a sentence for the clarity of its grammatical significance is not its only meaning . And As shown above, the fact that the name of the abundance in speech but is linked to the construction of this talk and meet a corner bases ( Musnad and ascribed to it ) , the purpose of the speech is to get the interest , if you do not get interest did not talk , but if there is Rknah , and when he stopped health meaning it back from a two pillars , the fact is that in the examples above are not only speak out , then it is part of one of the two pillars of the sentence, as well as the case may come from debutante as is the doctrine of Sibawayh , concurred seraphic , and corrected son of the owner ,It is one of the two pillars of attribution. For this is determined by the concept of the abundance of the case referred to by grammarians , and perhaps they did not want , saying that the case of the abundance in the speech that the case does not make sense and do not benefit underneath, but what is meant is the possibility that the case ruled that comes after words if minted by the speaker of the boarded himself. The fact is you can not promise to scrap Arabic grammar to the meaning of grammar it , when you delete a case sentence becomes incomplete meaning Qur'aan smiled and chuckled of saying and said , Lord Oozni to thank the grace that blessed me and my father and I do good works for you and brought me mercy on Thy righteous ( ant: 19) , quoted above smiled and chuckled word , laughing , is the case of a single in this sentence , which shows if the Prophet Solomon (AS) when the speech ant him , which is something of a miracle, the Qur'an , Vhaz story for dialogue and discourse between the Prophet Solomon and the ant , None of the Quranic miracle , and when you break down the meaning of grammar deleted , and the loss miracle in this short story of the Prophet (p) and the ant .This guide is clear and conclusive that the case is one of the mayors of speech and not residue . As well as discrimination in the verse Lord, I said they bone me and flared head Sheba and I did not Bdaaúk Lord Hqia ( Mary : 4) . The words flared head Chiba Vcolh ( Chiba ) : It is discrimination Mansob , and clear in the verse , and when you delete it breaks down the meaning grammar , and it becomes unclear meaning is considered discrimination also deliberately speak to the power of meaning grammar , and the adoption meaning of the sentence him , and when you delete it breaks down meaning of the sentence .</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Anwar Rahim Jabr Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 13 4 1 42 Laws issued in the republican era <div> <p>Several studies have been carried out to find out the events that have passed in the modern history of Iraq, and it is obvious that the study of laws will receive a share of this interest, especially since Iraq is going through an unstable phase politically and administratively.Iraq was much restricted by conventions and treaties, which are largely concerned with foreign interests that do not take into account the people of this country, and we do not forget that this sector was semi-disabled, the cause of financial hardship, as well as the lack of competent elements that occupy these positions, so the body covered by this matter decided to enact Laws in an urgent manner or quoting from the laws of other countries, with some minor amendments that may not fit with the customs and traditions of this country.There is no doubt that making laws is one of the serious and grave tasks in the lives of peoples because it is the basis that regulates the progress and development of the state. Legislation is one of the most prominent manifestations in which the extent of the nation’s civility is evident. This study was of great importance to find out the most important laws that were issued in the republican era, and the articles contained in these laws that regulate the civil life of the state. The Ministry proceeded to get rid of the old methods of the royal era, reform the judicial system, and prevent it from following in the footsteps of the judicial organization of other countries. The republican era witnessed a number of new laws, whether for Sharia and personal courts or the beginning, reconciliation and purification of the government apparatus. The research period witnessed an important step in purifying the judicial system and judicial institutions from bad-behavior employees, and the creation of the Legal Codification Office, which is one of the most prominent achievements of the Ministry of Justice, which would audit legal regulations from legal scholars, audit them and circulate them to other ministries and their functioning according to laws to ensure the rights of citizens.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Wafa Kazem Madi Al Kindi Hossam Karim Mazhar Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 13 4 43 64 The effect of the story map strategy on improving the skills of understanding the Quranic text among fourth grade middle school students in Iraq <div> <p>This research came to find out the effect of the story map strategy on improving the skills of understanding the Quranic text among fourth grade middle school students in Iraq. Understanding the Qur’anic text among the fourth preparatory students in Iraq, and the study community was identified in the researcher’s field of work, the Directorate of Education of Dhi Qar, and then the researcher selected the study sample from the Al-Rifai Education Department. Their number is (50) students, with (25) students in each group of the experimental group and the control group. All conditions for the work of this study were taken into account in terms of adjusting the variables and determining them using the controls for that. Qur'anic among the fourth preparatory students in Iraq, and this in turn helps to extract the Qur'anic meanings that are considered keys to understanding life in an Islamic way to develop the student's awareness and increase his intellectual security. They are story maps, where I use a set of organized graphics that help the student learn the elements of the Qur’anic story and know its environment by introducing them to the subject of the Qur’anic story, its events, problems, and proposed solutions in order to achieve the goal or idea that the teacher seeks</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Ahmad Mutashar Sajit Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 13 4 65 78 The impact of the American-Somali rapprochement on Ethiopia 1977-1981 <p>The research aims to shed light on the impact of rapprochement in the US-Somali relations on Ethiopia in the period between 1977-1981, as the relations were based on strategic military foundations, after the Ethiopian turn towards the Soviet Union in 1977, and its conclusion of huge military agreements with it. The United States sought in Somalia to create a kind of balance in the US military presence in the Horn of Africa and the Red Sea, which is close to its areas of influence in the Arabian Gulf, and what this region represents of strategic importance to the United States of America, as this rapprochement aroused the ire of Ethiopia and its objection to the threat it poses to its unity And for her security. The beginning of the Somali-American rapprochement was the first meeting between the US ambassador and Somali President Siad Barre in Zanzibar, the capital of Tanzania in 1977, and Somalia seemed disturbed by the Soviet-Ethiopian rapprochement, and Somalia's desire to reduce dependence on the Soviets and head towards the West, specifically towards the United States. The United States of America supported the Somali transformation, and gave the green light to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia by offering military and economic aid worth three hundred million dollars to Somalia in exchange for a complete separation from the Soviets, because the United States was monitoring the fluctuations in Ethiopia, because it did not feel the need to abandon Ethiopia in exchange for Somalia. While Somalia sought to obtain assurances from the United States in principle to provide Somalia with military and economic aid, while Somalia was concerned about the ambiguity of the US response. The Ogaden war in 1977 also had an impact on delaying military aid until the war stopped. While the US air, naval and military presence in Somalia became active after 1979, Ethiopia responded to these activities by keeping the Cuban forces at the same levels and expelling them from the US ambassador in Addis Ababa, which increased the tension in the relationship between the two parties.</p> Salah Wahib Hanash Mohammed Yahia Ahmed Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 13 4 79 96 Ink in Isolation: Delving into the Poetic Responses to the Global Pandemic <div> <p>The outbreak of the global pandemic has had a profound impact on various aspects of human life, including the arts. Poetry, as a literary form, has emerged as a powerful means of expression during these challenging times. This paper delves into the realm of pandemic poetry, examining the ways in which poets have responded to and reflected upon the crisis. This study examines the characteristics of pandemic poetry published in the anthology titled Together in Strangeness: America's Poets Respond to the Pandemic, edited by Alice Quinn which was published in 2020 during the peak of the pandemic when a definitive resolution was yet to be ascertained. Through an analysis of selected poems, this study explores the themes, emotions, and artistic techniques employed by poets to capture the essence of the pandemic experience. It considers the unique role of poetry in providing solace, connection, and a creative outlet amidst isolation and uncertainty. Additionally, the paper discusses the broader literary significance and legacy of pandemic poetry, shedding light on its potential to inspire resilience, foster collective healing, and serve as a testament to the human spirit. By engaging with these poetic responses, we gain insight into the power of words to confront, process, and transcend the challenges of our time.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Hadeel Aziz Mohammed Ridha Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 13 4 1 24 Bloom's taxonomy based evaluation and comparison of the content questions of the Islamic education textbook and the Ministry of Education exam questions for the sixth grade students <div> <p>This study aimed to know the evaluation and comparison of the questions of the content of the Islamic education book and the questions of the ministerial exam for the sixth grade of middle school in the light of Bloom's classification. The results of the research with regard to the questions of the Islamic Education Book showed that the level of understanding ranked first with a percentage of (44%), and the knowledge ranked second with a percentage (32%), and the level of creativity came in the third place with a percentage of (12.66%), and the research ranked The fourth is the application with a percentage (6.66%), the fifth rank is the analysis, and the analysis is at a percentage (4.66%) and the sixth and last rank is the evaluation that did not get any recurrence. With regard to the ministerial exam questions, the level of understanding ranked first with a percentage (54%), and the second place was the level of knowledge by a percentage (45%), while the ranks from the third to the last ranked levels of creativity, application, analysis, evaluation, where they did not get any repetition. In light of the results, the researcher recommends paying more attention to putting more questions</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Radwan Farouk Kassem Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 13 4 97 122 The significance of personality in the novel The Old Lemon Tree by (Rajaa Salih al-Jubouri <div> <p>The characters contribute to showing the course of the fictional work through their psychological and emotional significance. As it works to move the intellectual path for which the fictional work is created, as it is the main engine in which the semantic axes of the characters are established, just as the diversity that appears in any novel works to highlight the psychological tendencies, and shows the extent of influence and vulnerability in the narrative and artistic work, so the semantic has its conscious presence In presenting the characters and showing the extent of influence and vulnerability that appears through the internal introspection of their psychological and emotional impulses that govern the overall structure of the literary work with all its cognitive standards. She lives and coexists with him, and this is what the novel The Old Lemon Tree performed, as the indication was able to interfere in the models of the characters despite their multiplicity, and showed and disclosed the ways of thinking, as it showed their emotional impulses and how they were affected by their lived reality, so the indication provided us with a behavioral clarification of the characters, as it showed the features of the personality Accurately, she worked on drawing her characteristics, and the impact of those characteristics on society through her behavior and movement, and how she interacted with each other so that a theoretical framework for events is formed through all the concepts that revolve around her and in which the characters live intertwined with each other. Because the main role of evidence is based on showing and clarifying, so it showed the environment that contained these personalities, and showed how it affected the statement of the value of the environment in which these personalities live through the ideas and visions it presented, and what it contributed to in explaining the impulses of good and evil. To be the best evidence in clarifying the idea that (a person is the son of his environment in which he lives), the study stated the extent to which the significance of personality affects the display of the ingenuity of the literary work, and it also contributed to the statement of the influence and influence that accompanies these personalities with the development that takes place within the literary cause in all its sentimental concepts. . The literary work is nothing but an emotional work that searches for the significance of the characters, and how they are diverse and multiplicity based on the surrounding concepts that are consistent with the lived reality</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Rafel Hazem Khalil Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 13 4 123 146 The authoritarian policy of the Umayyads towards the loyalists, a historical study <div> <p>Islam relied on the principle of equality and affection between all those who said there is no god but God, and did not adopt racial and class distinction in dealing with people, but rather made the principle of Islam the decisive factor, depending on the Almighty’s saying: “Indeed, the most honorable of you in the sight of God is the most pious of you.” So the Messenger (PBUH) began to broadcast Those teachings to his workers and governors over the countries and calls them to be kind to those who converted to Islam from the slaves and their fear of their oppression, but this matter did not last in the days of the Umayyads and when they began to treat the slaves in a very harsh manner, and the class distinction became very clear, and the political approach of the state became the low dealing with the slaves, And they made them a financial source in dealing with the economic crises that the state is going through, and those who converted to Islam were not excluded from that, but the matter became generalized to all the loyalists, whether Muslim or non-Muslim, and the loyalists became suffering from injustice and arbitrariness under the weight of the workers of the Umayyads, especially during the days of the pilgrims, who were taken from the loyalists A tool to solve his financial crises, as well as the loyalists became a low social class in relation to the rest of the classes. Sometimes, as we will see, in the countries of the East and the West, when they dealt with them in a very harsh manner, and the mawali became a persecuted and destitute class during the days of the Umayyad dynasty.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Muhammad Jasab Azouz Saad Kazem Al-Janabi Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 13 4 147 174 The rhythm of blackness and whiteness in the prose poem The poetry of Jamal Jassim and Abdul Amir Jaris as a model <div> <p>The hollow white lines that give rise to contemplation and call upon the recipient are rather an activation of the reader's imagination and the interaction of reading, and they are part of the recipient's contribution to authorship as another producer of the text. And revealing his artistic aesthetics by which he rises poetically, and we sometimes find a fragmentation of the word, through which the writer seeks to delude the recipient in combining individual syllables, and this is what the writers of the modern text wanted to communicate by receiving the text. In general, the void that occurs between the interpretation of the uttered sentence and the decoding of the void makes the receiver an integral part of the receiving process, as it is the last link that receives and carries out the task of interpretation, regardless of the extent to which the poet’s idea matches what is being interpreted by the receiver. No one was able to arrive at interpretations or try to decipher the codes that the two poets tried to invest in their texts, which were evidence of what we went to. The ellipsis technique in the modern text, especially in the prose poem, reflects the poet's ability to multiply the connotations, in addition to that it constitutes a stylistic feature of the poet through his use of the techniques of the modern text and his understanding of the necessities and function of each of these techniques. The pauses symbolized by the ellipses are one of the mechanisms of the internal rhythm of the modern prose poem. Blackness and whiteness have an alternating presence on the space of the page for poets, which results in a rhythmic alternation that contributes to enhancing the overall significance of the text</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Hussein Ghanem Fadala Rahman Gharkan Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 13 4 175 190 The aesthetics of storytelling in the short story collection (Seasons) by Nawaf Sinjari <div> <p>Aesthetics is a science that searches for beauty and shows the standards that are associated with it, and man, since the beginning of creation, began his life searching for beauty and appreciating the value of beauty, and tasting beauty depends on what aesthetic awareness is derived from the beauty of the universe. In the matter of talking about the aesthetics of storytelling and sensing the places of beauty in the collection of stories (Seasons) by Nawaf Sinjari, we will try to highlight how storytelling takes some of the artistic elements as a key to accessing the text, observing the aesthetic characteristics of the narrative patterns in the collection of stories, revealing the hidden angles in the fictional text to demonstrate its aesthetics. In our study, we relied on the description of the stories contained in this group of stories and the statement of their aesthetic values by extrapolating the fictional contents of this group and linking them to the significance of their titles. The collection of stories (The Seasons) by Nawaf Sinjari included twenty-one short stories, in addition to a short play from one scene in the challenge play. The group relies on raising the status of the event and the character compared to the other elements of the story. As the event and the construction of characters constitute the most prominent distinctive aspects of these stories compared to the element of dialogue, for example, which we find in a way that can be said to be semi-occult. More than being a narrative structure subject to the requirements of balancing the elements of fictional work and conducting them according to a systematic plan that makes all elements in a state of synergy to advance the art of work?</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Faiza Muhammad al-Mashhadani Jasem Mohammed Jasem Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 13 4 191 204 The repercussions of the problem of succession to the throne and its impact on The stability of the Ottoman State between 1544-1553 <div> <p>Anyone who follows the political history of states and ruling families throughout history will almost never find a political system devoid of the repercussions of the struggle over the inheritance of the throne. These repercussions are represented in the occurrence of competition that develops into an armed struggle between members of the ruling family or sometimes with outsiders, with the aim of controlling power or monopolizing power. This conflict often erupted in the event that some of the brother princes objected to the installation of one of them as a sultan. In a quick look at many Islamic countries, we find that their history is not devoid of such repercussions on the system of government in them.The Ottoman Empire was not immune from such conflict, which appeared early in its history, as power in it was transmitted naturally within the members of the ruling family, mostly from the father to the eldest son, and this situation continued until the reign of Bayezid I and after his death, the struggle over the throne did not stop. Not only among his sons, but it extended to continue among his grandchildren as well, and the matter continued as well until the era of Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent, who witnessed a struggle over the inheritance of the throne between his sons during his reign, while he was still alive, a struggle that left a somewhat significant impact on the stability of the state, as it intensified Disagreement within the regime in the Ottoman Empire at the end of its reign, with the presence of women’s interference in the affairs of government and politics, with the absence of a law regulating the succession to the throne in the state, and as a result of this, the sons of the Sultan began to feel fear for their lives from the bloody struggles for the throne, especially with the advancing age of their father, and because they They are not all siblings from one mother, which had serious repercussions for the state. This is what this research tries to clarify, through an introduction, a conclusion, and the following two topics: The first topic: Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent, his wives, and his sons, and the second topic: The repercussions of the conflict over the inheritance of the throne between 1544-1553.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Eman Jassim Hassan Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 13 4 205 226 Writing and existence in the labyrinths of (Burhan Shawi) <div> <p>The dominance of the novel in its literary form and its fulfillment of its obligation to express the social and ordinary purposes of the language. Within the limits of its genre, along with its boldness in adopting realistic topics. As well as the richness of its human content, had a role in the writer's adoption of many questions to define his genre and literary form. Writing is a set of rituals that Literature begins from it, which is the hidden or clear celebration through which it announces the gender of what was written and its literary affiliation. As the experimental novel is positioned in the category of hybridity and is known as the characteristic of the launch, as it feeds on various discourses and texts, and uses the artistic and cognitive achievement as a reference to build its novel form open to texts. The other with its multiple spectra, and because the search for the world of writing and existence in the fictional text is not an easy matter because it pours into the door of continuous critical research in the world of the novel. I found it critically important to stand on a critical theme that has its creative presence in the labyrinths of (Burhan Shawi) by searching for the most important issues that In it. He employed (beyond the narrative) in those labyrinths, and from there is the nature of his work on the (cognitive) area, especially on the level of (existential philosophy), which contributed to enriching the techniques of novel writing.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Hanan Hassan Ali Darwish Al-Bakri Samer Fadel Abdel-Kadhim Al-Asadi Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 13 4 227 260 The Theory of Semantic Field in Arabic: Unveiling the Contributions of Arab Linguists <div> <p>This research explores the semantic field theory in Arabic, focusing on its historical development and application within the Arabic linguistic context. This research aims to investigate the foundational principles and classifications of semantic field theory, as well as the contributions of Arab linguists to its development. Depending on the works of Bin Yunis (2015) and Qador (2008) who emphasize the advanced knowledge of semantic fields in ancient Arab linguistics, this analytical-descriptive research sheds light on the valuable insights of Arab linguists and their contributions to the theory. By examining the organization and interrelation of words within specific fields of meaning, this research sheds light on the semantic structure of Arabic and bridges the gap between Western and ancient Arab linguistic perspectives. The findings contribute to the understanding of semantic fields in Arabic and recognize the valuable insights of Arab linguists. In conclusion, this research illuminates the development of the semantic field theory among Arab linguists, emphasizing their recognition of language as a cohesive system organized within conceptual fields. Ancient Arab linguists, through works like linguistic letters and lexicons, made significant contributions by categorizing and classifying words based on meanings. These early efforts not only demonstrate their meticulous attention to the Arabic language but also precede Western linguists by centuries, underscoring the vital role of Arab scholars in advancing linguistic theory. This heritage stands as a testament to the rich cultural and linguistic significance of the Arabic language and showcases the historical linguistic sophistication achieved by Arab scholars</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Saad Ismail Al-Sultan Ahmad Bashir Al-Qattan Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 13 4 25 40 Body- Place Relationship in Edna St. Vincent Millay's Poems "First Fig" and "Second Fig" <div> <p>The corporeal-spatial relationship needs to be examined to understand the place of the body in the world. The body is one of the most important intellectual issues because of its semantic and ideological dimensions that formed the basis for most of the literary production. It plays a significant role in shaping individual and cultural identities. Poets and writers often use the body to explore themes of gender and race. Incorporating the body in literary works adds depth, realism, and emotional resonance. Moreover, Depicting the body in relation to power dynamics allows writers to critique societal structures and examine issues of privilege, marginalization, and resistance. Accordingly, the body began to take an analytical space in the new semiotic currents. Place plays a crucial and functional role in shaping a person's life, consolidating his being, establishing his identity, framing his nature, and then determining his priorities, orientations, and his perception of things, because the place grasps a sensory perception that begins with a person's experience in her/ his body. In poetry, place may appear as a refuge from the chaos of the world. It can be a source of inspiration, stirring the creative spirit of the poet. Furthermore, the usage of place in verse can be symbolic. It may embody notions of home, belonging, identity, or even act as a metaphor for human condition. However, the body and the place can be integrated to form the psychological powers mental, emotional and vitality of a human being. The present study deals with the body- place relationship in Edna St. Vincent Millay's poems "First Fig" and "Second Fig." It intends to show the nature of this relationship and its role as a means of struggle to get the female wits right position and function in a patriarchal community. Millay's poems present the body through the images of a "candle" in "First Fig" and a "house" in "Second Fig." The poems resonate with defiance of conventionality. In both poems, the space that includes the body is characterized by its fragility; a dark atmosphere in "First Fig" and "sand" in "Second Fig," that reflects the common vision towards the female's weak place in a masculine environment. The poet uses such fragile images as a kind of challenge to create a vigorous female existence. Millay tries to present female pride in spatial terms.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Ghada Abdullah Mohammad Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 13 4 41 52 Experimental categories (furnishing - communication - readiness) Read reviews In the book Aesthetics of Narrative Experimentation By Dr. Jassim Khalaf Elias <div> <p>The differentiation between the storyteller and the critic comes through sensing the written pleasure between the two, and the extent of the critic's judgment and interaction with the narrative material. Little rush or even monetary courtesy. On the contrary, the critic employed all the assumptions and interpretations with his monetary tools, and checked the criticism that preceded him about what was written about the storyteller Mahmoud Jandari. He was speaking with a constructive strategy, and an undoubted evaluation measure. To areas of the storyteller's imagination, and this matter requires experience, accuracy, and scrutiny, and criticism remains the decisive point in judging the text read in examining the superstructure (criticism and the critic) and the substructure (the narrator and what is behind his story) at a moment of permanent clash and process.The research was divided into several axes that came connected and sequentially in a successive manner, and they are on axes: a procedural thalamus dealing with the authority of experimentation, experimentation and penetration of proofs, then the statements followed as follows:The first argument: the strategy of critical writing. The argument included the objective critical culture / methodological grading. The focus of the argument was: the critic is a starting point towards the truth, and the critic and the concept of aesthetic sniping.The second argument: idiomatic excavations confronting the text. The critic's realistic expressive saying included the stream of consciousness, the internal monologue, the free association, the dream, the vision, and the soliloquy.The third argument: Critical ingenuity and the dynamism of communication. The argument included criticism of the term, criticism of the critic, and deconstruction of the gender text according to a specialized critical mechanism.The fourth argument: title interaction / parallelism and communication; The headlines had psychological dimensions that paralleled and connected with the rest of the headlines in an invisible fabric.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Jaafar Ahmed Abdullah Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 13 4 261 284 Vocal accumulation in Al-Mutanabbi's poem "Rest on Thinner" <div> <p>This study is based on clarifying some aspects of the phonetic significance in Al-Mutanabbi's poemWith the aim of revealing the relationship between sound and meaning, by examining the significance of the phonemic accumulation of the single sound, as the poet described the sounds of the vocabulary; To clarify its purposes and alert the feelings in the human self of the recipient. The research was divided into two axes: the first is a theoretical thalamus, and the second is an analysis of the poem by standing on the phonetic connotation that came within the words of the poem. In formulating the meaning, Al-Mutanabbi’s poem was manifested in three sections: The first is the relative, describing the conditions of the lovers and their suffering, and the second: wisdom and taking lessons and exhortations from death, and the third section: in praising Muhammad bin Aws and his people. Thus, Al-Mutanabbi was able to adapt the sounds to express his purposes in the poem. The relationship between the accumulated sounds in Al-Mutanabbi's poem is not arbitrary or random, as it has a special system that is in complete harmony with the requirements of the text.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Esraa Khazal Jabr Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 13 4 285 298 (Sound connotation of Surat Al-Fajr) <div> <p>This research seeks to clarify a type of signification, which is the phonetic signification in a specific surah of the Holy Qur’an, which is Surat Al-Fajr, the definition of sound by the narrators, and the opposing qualities of the letters, including loudness and whispering, intensity and softness, opacity and openness, eloquence and silences, amplification and thinning, and others. And the application of these qualities to the surah, also to the matching of the qualities of the letters to their meanings, the phonemes above the compositional, and it included: the comma linguistically and idiomatically, the types of commas in terms of the letter rawi, and in terms of weight and its application to some of its verses, and the forms of realizing the commas, and it was for deletion, introduction and delay A share of them, and the division of commas taking into account the amounts of evidence, and then highlighted the findings. The letters have nineteen qualities, and these qualities in turn are divided into two types: opposing qualities, non-opposing qualities, and we dealt in the research with antagonistic qualities, and we found that all the voices of the whispered are present in Surat Al-Fajr, and all the vowels are present except for (Al-Zaa). With regard to the thalaqa and the asamat, the letters of the thalaqa are more frequent in Surat al-Fajr than the letters of the asamat. And the letter R, the letter D, the cliff of the Qaf. The research section commas according to the letter al-Rawi, and it was found that similar commas with their images in Surat al-Fajr prevailed over other commas, and that the most common symmetry is the omission of the last letter, which is the ya’, and it was omitted in the noun and verb in two places of the surah, verses 4 and 9, “and the night when it becomes easy” al-Fajr : 4, as for the name, the word Al-Wad, in the Almighty’s saying: “And the Thamud who hewed the rock in the valley” Al-Fajr: 9, and the aim was to achieve the commas. The commas have a role in understanding the meaning, as well as their role in the rhythm generated from the syllables. The research found that the commas were mentioned in which the weight was taken care of, as they were distributed between parallelism and balancing. Submission, delay, and deletion were a form of achieving the commas, and it was reported that the subject was delayed in Two places in the surah, in verses 25 and 26, including the deletion of the ya’ from the verb and the noun. The difference in the clues in length and shortness, and the equal number of its words has a great impact on dividing the commas, as it was mentioned equal in the surah in the two verses: 2, 3, and different in all the other verses, taking into account the type of difference.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Fatima Abdul-Hussein Sihoud Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 13 4 299 324 American foreign policy towards developing countries in the field of human rights 1977-1981, a documentary study <div> <p>The US foreign policy during the Carter era was characterized by a consistent approach in the field of human rights, as it found that this approach gives a clearer picture of the directions of the US administration in this field and had a significant impact in activating special laws and regulations in preventing human rights violations, and through that the government sought The US has to adapt its foreign policy in accordance with the requirements of those laws and regulations, and focus on other factors influencing foreign policy, and that the political factor is one of the important factors in determining the country's foreign policy and directions, and the US government has found that the economic factor is one of the most important factors in determining the course of its policies In the field of human rights, I also found that economic sanctions are a means of pressure on developing countries to prevent them from carrying out actions that violate human rights, so the title of the research tagged (American foreign policy towards developing countries in the field of human rights 1977-1981, a documentary study) was chosen, which reliedon The American documents published from the records of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, which are considered one of the most important sources and references on which most researchers in the field of modern and contemporary history rely, especially with regard to the history of the United States of America and European countries, so the first topic (the political factor and the role of human rights in it) aimed to highlight the role of the political factor and its impact In preventing human rights violations through published American documents, the second topic dealt with (economic and humanitarian aid that supports human rights in developing countries) and the third topic dealt with (imposing sanctions on countries that violate human rights from developing countries).</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Farooq Essa Mohammed Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 13 4 325 344 The Phenomena of the Irregular and the Rare in Plural Structures in the Book of “Shaza al-‘Arf in the Art of Morphology” by al-Hamlawi <div> <p>The study handles the phenomena of the irregular and the rare in plural structures in the book of “Shaza al-‘Arf in the Art of Morphology” by al-Hamlawi, and their state of being scarce, trying to explain his method of presenting the irregular and the rare of these structures and their places in the section of the plurals. Among the objectives of the study that researcher aimed to achieve: Knowing the meaning and regulations of the irregular and rare grammar, and studying and discussing the irregular and rare grammar points according to what was mentioned in the most important books of morphology and language. The researcher followed the descriptive approach, taking from its tools the analytical one.It is clear in this research that Al-Hamlawi’s approach in mentioning the irregular and rare grammar varies between defining it and commenting on it, along with mentioning the regular grammar and referring to them without commenting in others places, perhaps this is to give opportunity to researches for further studies. And that there are situations of morphological irregularities in the masculine and feminine plural forms. The mentioning of the irregular in some structures does not mean that they are wrong, as it was mentioned in the language books, and the major morphological books. This irregularity may be due to the linguistic use of some Arabs, as will explain in the body of the research. What was mentioned of the irregularity of the plural structures in the Book of “Shaza al-‘Arf in the Art of Morphology” reached was seven structures out of twenty-three structures in the plural of many, and two forms from four structures in the plural of the few. And that what came of the rarity in the structures of plurals was in seven structures, all of them in the plural of the many. (Al-Hamlawi) expressed the rare in some structures with the term (وقَلَّ), and the few and scarcity are synonymous, as appeared in the idiomatic definition of the rare, in addition to the advent of the (فَعائِل) as one of structures of plural of many in the irregular and the rare. There are places of irregularities in the book recommended to the researcher for further studies, and clarify its importance among the morphological Books</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Abohaneefa Omeralshareef Ali Omer Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 13 4 345 370 The Place Element in the Novel of Al-Sabilyat by Ismail Fahd Ismail (An Analytical Study) <div> <p>This research attempts to proceed from the vision that when the writer goes to the use of time and place and their manifestations in his novel, he reveals awareness of the essence of the conflict in life, as well as his awareness of the interactions of this conflict and its implications. And activating the language, with the various methods and machines it provides, plays an effective role in creating new prose formats that are able to absorb his perceptions about the problematic of this conflict and its different circumstances. Al-Atoum is one of those writers who tried to build dreams from reality, and from reality a fiction, as if he wanted to live a world He changed his world and changed his life. We have adopted the descriptive-analytical approach in our study of the aesthetics of the place in the intended narrative narration and how to show it in the narration of “Al Sabilaat.” The result was that he found in the language what he wanted. In his aim, he employed this art at the level of the subject, especially in the field of his struggle with, the place and the events he witnessed and contemporaneously, and at the level of art, especially in the field of narrative images and the artistic paradoxes they create.aistakhdim asmaeyl fahd aismaeil hadhih alfanus alham li ean alsirae alqadim mundh alazil wahu sirae al'iinsan walmakan aladhi kashaf fih watakayaf maeah hayth an riwayat yuealij sirae al'iinsan mae masqat rasah aladhi bialraghm min kuli alzuruf hayth yabdhul kulu juhudih wamaeah alabar waealaa almakan aladhi tarabaa fih falraawy. ealaa alwasf waltahlil liadrus jamaliat aleunsur almakan falkatib tajribatan ealaa hadhih almasayil almutaealiqat bialraghm min kuli alsueubat waleaqabat lilwusul 'iilaa masqat alraas lakina altawafuq mabin almakan walansan hi altawafuq alaqwaa lilwusul ala ghayatih hayth hawal alraawy bikuli alfunun alaidabiat an yubayin lana ahimiat almakan wajamaliitatan eind alansan hayth yabuthu alhayaat limakan ghayr masdar aihalamuh wamniaatatun.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Marwan Saadi Saleh Behrouz Marouf Gurbanzadeh Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 13 4 371 388 Manifestations of Tawli and Tabrih in the poetry of Ibn Hani Al-Andalusi <div> <p>Perhaps it is one of the important issues that occupied not a small space among the Shiites, especially the Shiites of Andalusia, and tawli and disavowal have become something that distinguishes the Shiites from others since ages. And on top of them: Ibn Hani Al-Andalusi, he is one of the most famous poets in the Andalusian period, who wrote many poems in praise of the imams and Ahl al-Bayt (PBUH). In language and terminology and giving linguistic and idiomatic definitions about tawli and taburi, and the second axis is about the history of Shiism in Andalusia and the political history of Andalusia. We also started, through the descriptive and analytical approach, by analyzing and studying the poems of Ibn Hani al-Andalusi and the statement of tawli and taburi in which they are mentioned. It should be noted here that we have limited ourselves to this The article Ali al-Tawli and disavowal in the poems of Ibn Hani al-Andalusi, as he appeared with voices opposing and defending the House of Prophethood (pbuh) and disavowing their enemies, deriving his defense from foundations firmly rooted in the Islamic mentality, as if he was rooting for firm legal rulings, whose verses were manifested in his poems, the manifestation of the entitlement of the House (PBUH). P), leaving us poems that have become a landmark in the era of the Islamic state in Andalusia</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Morteza Ghaemi Nasir Qarakhani Ahmed Khairy Khader Al-Badiri Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 13 4 389 410 The wisdom in ibn Hamdis al.skali poetry <div> <p>This research aims at tracing the beauty of wisdom and the different connotations in light of the analytical reading of each word in the text. additionally , It focuses on the phenomenon of artistic and intellectual wisdom. Wisdom is one of the purposes of Arabic poetry that has multiple meanings, interpreted by the poet’s perspective on a specific event. This study primarily employs a descriptive-analytical approach, which includes studying the concept of wisdom in language and terminology, as well as exploring the poet’s life. Furthermore, it examines the themes of wisdom, including fate and destiny, disdain for the world, description, praise, and lamentation Andalusian poetry was distinguished by the abundance of meanings and the translation of the word into connotations that are enriched with wisdom and aphorisms that intertwined with poetic expressions. The poet tries, in light of the poetry of wisdom, to convey his idea in an artistic manner that affects the other: ((wisdom aims at advice and guidance and comes as an expression of personal experience)).. The research reveals important findings, such as, Delving into the meaning of wisdom is essentially an authentic portrayal of human emotions stemming from human nature. The predominant characteristic of wisdom is surrendering to fate as a result of the struggle with life and death, which led the poet to the theme of asceticism . The study relies heavly upon the collection of Ibn Hamdis Al-Sicilian, edited by Ihsan Abbas, as well as linguistic dictionaries such as “Arabs tongue” and “definitions dictionaray.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Saba Essam Abdel Hussein Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 13 4 411 420 Self-estrangement and identity fragmentation: a critical reading of the book (Coffee with Uranium) by Ahmad Khaled Tawfiq <div> <p>The self lives in the shadow of extensive ideological and global discourses, a crisis, and cultural and intellectual alienation. This crisis is magnified whenever the gap widens between what the Self believes in terms of ideas, customs, and values and what it does not believe in and rejects. In every society, there are fixed beliefs and value habits; exceeding them constitutes a flagrant violation of the culture of that society; bypassing them, dissolving them, and then replacing them with new ones robs the self of its culture, social, and religious identity and throws it into alienation and isolation.This study sheds light on the representations of alienation and fragmentation of identity in the book Coffee with Uranium) by Dr. Ahmed Khaled Tawfik. In the book, literary essays observe in a satirical style the most important Customs and traditions that deepened the crisis of self and its alienation in Egyptian society and at the same time restructured identity and stereotyped it with a pattern that does not correspond to the Customs and values of society, which resulted in its voices criticizing and criticizing the globalized reality, so to speak The study also reveals the details that the writer employed artistically about the phenomenon of alienation, whether in the title or the text..</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Hammam Yassin Shukr Almashita Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 13 4 421 444 Keywords in ((Ra’iyah Muslim Ibn Al-Walid Al-Ansari as a model)) <div> <p>The literary text, whatever its time or place, is nothing but emotional, existential, and life charges with all the connotations and meanings of these three directions, implied by a number of repercussions that the writer or creator broadcasts in the folds of his work, and these repercussions cannot have been arbitrary. Or unintentionally, on the contrary, everything the creator says is intentional, but the degree of clarity or ambiguity of this intent remains dependent on the creator's ability to deceive the reader, but the creator is not strong enough to blind the reader to a degree that reaches the point of completeness, but rather he must disclose His vision and philosophy in life through (words) that he colors in the folds of his text are (keys) through which the reader resorts to reach what the creator wants.In our work, we stand at the forefront of a poem by one of the poets of the Abbasid era, who took it upon themselves to open the doors of renewal, and to come up with a new poetic style that differs from the old poem on the one hand, and is deeply connected to it away from blind imitation on the other hand. :And the witch of the eyes does not improve magicYou communicate with me secretly and you cut me openlyWhich we will study according to the key words approach. As one of the approaches to modern stylistics</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Hammam Yassin Shukr Almashita Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 13 4 445 458 The relationship of the ego to the other in the poetry of Ibn Anin al-Dimashqi, who died (630 AH) Objective study <div> <p>This study aims to examine the problematic relationship between the ego and the other as represented in the poetry of Ibn Anin al-Dimashqi . The study further extrapolates the position on which the ego stands, with its multiple forms and manifestations, in its relationship with the other. This position mostly seems full of tension and confusion. It is the role of the poetic text to uncover its implicit connotations which, in some of their manifestations, reveal the multiple self crisis and its conflict with its surrounding where the relation with it, in its best, has not been satisfying. Finally, the study examines the ego suffering and failures resulted from the acute deep irony of the ambitious goal, which has been experienced by this ego, and the complexities of the reality that cannot always simulate this growing ambition or respond to it. The researcher explains that the relationship of the ego with the other in the poetry of Ibn Anin al-Dimashqi in an artistic study by focusing on literary texts. It is consistent with the poetic vocabulary that focuses on the words that overlap the ego with the other through poetic analysis that expresses his happiness and sadness with others. The relationship of the ego with the other is a relationship It is based on the fact that the ego is the main component of the movement of thought and culture in general, and the other supports it, as the ego pushes it to be in need of the other. Our need to know the other, whether he is an enemy or a friend, is an existing need, but it is not compared to our need to know ourselves, as this knowledge of the self comes first. Because it is not possible for a person to know another if he does not know himself, and the ego refers to the soul, “to whichh the acts of feeling refer, all of which are emotional, mental, or voluntary, and it is always identical to himself, and it is not easy to separate him from his symptoms and confront the other and the outside world, and he tries to impose himself on others</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Safaa Ali Hussain Ahmed Abdel Mahmoud Ibrahim Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 13 4 459 472 Methods of dealing with difference of speech Until the end of the fifth century A.H (plural method) <div> <p>The subject of “various hadith” is one of the topics in which there is a great deal of difference in opinions and consideration between the two teams, due to the large number of reasons and reasons for the difference in the hadith. , and forgery and lying to the Prophet (PBUH), which led to the overlapping of hadiths and mixing of some with others, or the difference of narrators in transmitting the hadith verbally.One of the reasons for choosing such a subject is the desire to learn about the mechanism of dealing with hadiths in which there is disagreement, and how to benefit from them among the scholars of both teams. Also, one of the hypotheses of this research is the mention of the scholars of the two teams when searching for different hadiths, multiple ways to deal with the difference in them, including the Arabic language and the sciences of the Qur’an and what is related to Islamic jurisprudence and the Arabic statement and the study of texts and analytical studies, and this in itself is the commonalities and divergences of the two teams.One of the objectives of this research is to show that among the methods and methods of dealing with various hadiths are patchwork methods, they should not be relied upon to benefit from these controversial hadiths. due to its inability to solve the problem. As well as clarifying the faces of the multiple opinions of Muslim scholars about the various hadiths and their problem until the end of the fifth century AH.The research methodology relied on the descriptive inductive approach on the one hand, and the critical approach on the other hand, for issues, topics and applications, by tracking their perspectives in books, studies, letters, treatises and research, and what was classified in the different hadith section and its reasons for the two teams.And that what is meant by different hadiths is the existence of two acceptable hadiths that are contradictory in the apparent meaning. And that there is no real difference between the hadiths, but the difference is due to the view of the mujtahid. And that there is a difference between the various hadiths and the problem of the hadith, and there are reasons that lead to the existence of differences between hadiths. Imam Ibn Hazm agreed with other scholars in the sentence in the approach of guiding hadiths that appear to differ, and he was unique in the issue of considering the transmitter from the original as one of the methods of knowing the abrogated and the abrogated..</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Ghasem Bostani Mina Shamkhi Nidal Hanash Al-Saadi Sattar Jabbar Yassin Mousavi Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 13 4 473 524 Flouting of Maxims in Jonathan Swift’s Essays <p>The present research proposes a pragmatic study of sarcasm in four essays written by Jonathan Swift. Sarcasm can be pragmatically defined by relating it to Grice's maxims which means that the utterance is flouting one or more of Grice's maxims in order to convey something indirectly. This indicates that the words are being used for something other than their literal meaning. This study is a descriptive qualitative one that uses content analysis as one of the qualitative types. As a result, the researcher examines the transcribed data in as much depth as possible. The analysis in the four essays demonstrates that although sarcasm is a type of irony, there are significant distinctions that establish it as a distinct rhetorical type, including intentionality, reference to prior events, insincerity and the presence of a clear target or victim. Also, the speaker flouts all the maxims in order to make mockery of someone or a particular situation. The conclusion is that all maxims can be flouted to accomplish sarcasm. The research paper contains five sections. The first section provides a pragmatic definition of what sarcasm is. Section two discusses Grice's maxims and how they are considered a model for effective communication by speakers. Section three discusses flouting and types of maxims flouting. Section four presents the methodology of the study. Section five tackles how the extracts from the essays under investigation are flouting the maxims to carry out the indirect meaning. The study ends with section six the conclusion, followed by a list of references consulted..</p> Noor Riyadh Neama Alhasnawi Maysa'a Kadhim Hussein Shabeeb Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 13 4 53 72 Significance of cracking plurals in the Qur’anic text (language study) <div> <p>Morphology is one of the most important topics in preserving the Arabic language from corruption, decay and melody, and it has a direct and clear impact on all Arabic sciences. The search came about the important morphological topics that are frequently circulated, represented in the plurals of the few and the plurals of many, and the collective gender noun towards the word (nigger, nigger), and (and Jews, Jew). Which the research concluded with a fact revealed by the Holy Qur’an to the effect that the word denotes the name of the tribe, as it is said, he is from the tribe of the Jews, and so on. Morphology is one of the important linguistic morphological sciences that deals with morphological formulas, their movements, and their impact in the context of the Qur’anic text, in terms of the examples contained in the Qur’anic text and the statement of their morphological and semantic connotations at the same time. And since we had to understand the Qur’anic text and its various meanings, especially after the entry of non-Arabs among foreigners into the true Islamic religion and their mixing with Arabs in a great way, which necessitated the influence of the Arabs’ language among them, hence the importance of this science in relation to the language of the Holy Qur’an. The Holy Qur’an is the decisive factor in the nature of word pronunciation and its weight, and thus we notice how Arabic scholars deal with morphological words in the Qur’anic text or other Arabic books.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Anwar Rahim Jabr Al-Hasnawi Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 13 4 525 550 The right of the accused to appoint a lawyer in the inference phase In the laws of Islamic countries, Iraq, Sudan and Iran as a model ( A comparative study ) <div> <p>International law guarantees any person accused of the crime of the right to appoint a lawyer of his choice at all stages of the criminal case. Islamic states have sought to achieve the accused guarantees of a fair trial, including the guarantee of the right to defense, and his right to appoint a lawyer to defend him. This guarantee is emanating from the presumption of innocence that was devoted to Islamic law, other international covenants and covenants, and criminal legislation. The assumption of innocence in the accused requires him to be treated in all stages of the criminal case. And enabling him to defend this innocence and give him the opportunity of a fair trial and one of its guarantee, his right to defend before the criminal courts, and his right to attorney a lawyer to defend him. This right to the legislation of Islamic states was stipulated, so it is a binding constitutional and legal right. He won the sacredness in some of its constitutions, and stipulated in its punitive and fundamentalist laws. However, most of the Islamic countries focused this right in the preliminary and trial investigation stages. She did not give the accused this right in the stage of reasoning. She had to give this right to the accused at this stage . From the first moment of his accusation and the issuance of the accusation decision, what is the benefit of attending the lawyer with the accused after his confession of the charge on the pretext of the investigation secret, or the lack of clarity of the provisions of the law, or that the police and investigation agencies, and members of the judicial seizure are responsible for the initial investigation stage, or that the instructions issued prohibit the presence The lawyer with the accused at this stage, and prevents contact between the accused and his lawyer. And because of the importance of the phase of inferences, the accused must be enabled by his right to defense, by appointing a lawyer he chooses himself, his connection to him and his definition of all his rights, including the right to defense, and his right to silence until a lawyer attends his side to defend him. And not limiting this right to the primary and judicial investigation stages. And the text explicitly on the invalidity of the declarations and procedures in the event that the accused does not enable this right and that there is a penalty (procedural, disciplinary and rewarding)) will affect everyone who is deprived of the accused of his right to defense. The study of the accused's right to appoint a lawyer as one of the guarantees alone is not sufficient to achieve this result. Rather, the penalty must be indicated that the accused is deprived of this right</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Ali Jassim Muhammad Hassan Al-Saadi Ruhollah Akramy Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 13 4 551 592 A Semantic Study for the Transference of the word (heaven) in the Glorious Quran into English <div> <p>The term (heaven - transliteration -asama) is a pivotal word in the Glorious Quran for it has a wide semantic Spectrum in Quranic verses like roof, rain, clouds, our Lord's oneness, the heaven of Paradise and pivotal hell as well as punishment. Thus the current study describes semantic and translational axes of the word (asama) in the Glorious Quran. As translation concentrate on terms and their importance in drawing the scope of meaning ,the study also aims at exploring the challenges and the best strategies for effective and successful translation of the word (asama) from Arabic- as a source language into English- as a target language. In order to achieve these aims the study hypothesizes that translating the word (asama) in an appropriate way requires restoring to the reliable authentic exegesis. The research adopts (12) Quranic verses depending on four Quranic exegeses to understand the intended meaning of the word (asama). After that, assessing the English translation of the word under focus through 3 various translations for (Arberry, Ghali and Kassab) to see whether they are successful in transferring the intended meaning of the term (asama). The study will analyze the Quranic word (asama) through Quranic text, compare and discuss their choices in translating the term and the implications of these choices on the reader's understanding of the Quranic text. Finally, the study comes up to conclude that the most accurate and appropriate way to translate (asama) into English is the dependence on both the lexical meaning and the contextual meaning.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Fatin Izaldeen Yousif Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 13 4 73 88 Moral Courage and its relationship to Academic Excellence among university professors <div> <p>The current research aims to identify the Moral Courage and Academic Excellence of the professors of the University of Babylon, and the statistically significant differences in the Moral Courage and Academic Excellence, according to the following variables: gender (male-female), academic specialization (scientific - human), academic title (teacher) assistant, teacher, assistant professor, professor), the nature of the correlation between Moral Courage and Academic Excellence among, and the extent of the contribution of the variable (academic excellence) to the total change of the variable (Moral Courage). The descriptive relational approach was used, and the researcher built two scales, the first to measure Moral Courage based on Martins' theory, and the second to measure Academic Excellence based on Bandura's theory, and after verifying the psychometric properties of the two scales, they were applied to a sample consisting of (500) male and female teachers from the University of Babylon After processing the data with appropriate statistical means, the results showed the following:1- The professors of the University of Babylon enjoyed (Moral Courage) and (Academic Excellence).2-There are statistically significant differences in moral courage according to the gender variable and in favor of males, meaning that male teachers are more Moral Courage than female teachers, and there are no statistically significant differences in Moral Courage according to the academic specialization variable, and there are statistically significant differences in courage Ethical according to the scientific title variable and in favor of professors who hold the title of professor.3- There are no statistically significant differences in Academic Excellence according to the variable of gender, academic specialization and scientific title.4- There is a positive direct correlation between Moral Courage and Academic Excellence among professors at the University of Babylon.5- The variable of Academic Excellence contributes relatively statistically in predicting the variable of Moral Courage. In light of the results of the current research, a set of recommendations and proposals were put forward.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Hawraa Abbas Kurmash Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 13 4 593 650 The structure of time in the novel Baghdad Clock <div> <p>The novel is one of the narrative forms that did not know stability. It is and has always been a rich field for academic research. It has attracted the attention of writers, critics, and readers. So, its writers and whom study it become diverse. Time is one of the most important constituent elements of it, as it is the template that follows to build events and their development. Time is a multifaceted category with different functions, and Perhaps this is what made us adopt the value of time in the novel. So, our research came under the title "The Structure of Time in the Baghdad Clock Novel by Shahad Al-Rawi" Time forms the geometry of the narrative art The contemporary novel reader finds a different ideology from what it was in the past. This what made us to build a set of problems represented in: What is the time? How did Shahd Al-Rawi treat time in the Baghdad Clock novel? We have chosen this topic because of the rumors and interpretations that appear on the novel, Thus, the times have multiplied in the novel and Hence, our study was divided into the concept of time. The Time is a rich field to the novel’s study when it merges with the components of the narrative speech and in the narrative term means a set of time relationship, speed distance…etc, between locations and spoken situations and their spoken process and between the time, narrative speech and the narrative process. The problem of multiple time appears, as there is a time that passed before writing, which is the time of the story, and the present time which represents the narrative time and the two times may overlap therefore, a distinction should be made between the natural time (chronological) and the story time. The natural time is a continuous linear move as a clockwise while the story time represents the time when the event happened compared to the normal time such as distant past, recent, definite and indefinite and it has its types and its importance in the novel concept.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Hossam Saadi Abdel Razzaq Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 13 4 651 672 Uri Rubin's translation of the meanings of the Holy Qur'an (Surat Yusuf as a model) <div> <p>Many Jewish orientalists, past and present, paid great attention to Islamic studies in general and the Holy Qur’an in particular, in order for these Jewish orientalists to discover that Islam has power, which made them consider that power as a challenge to them, because of what they saw in Islam as a contradiction and criticism of many Jewish beliefs and worship. Islam also clarified many inaccuracies that pertain to the Jewish religion, and its alteration and distortion, which led the Jewish orientalists to take a position on Islam in general and the Holy Qur’an in particular. Which was issued by him at Tel Aviv University, and despite the many positive aspects in Uri Rubin's translation of the meanings of the Holy Qur'an, he made many mistakes, just like many of his predecessors in translating the meanings of the Holy Qur'an into Hebrew. Which prompted the researcher to respond to these errors, which required study and scrutiny. In order to clarify the extent of the difference between the meaning of the Qur’anic term and the Hebrew translation of the Holy Qur’an by Uri Rubin. The research will be divided into two requirements. The first one deals with the theoretical study of the Hebrew translations of the Holy Qur’an. With a brief history of the Hebrew translations of the Holy Quran. Passing through Uri Rubin's translation of the meanings of the Holy Qur'an and the reason for the researcher's choice of Surat Yusuf. As for the second requirement: it dealt with the applied study of Uri Rubin's translation of Surat Yusuf, where it was also divided into two chapters. The results and recommendations came to be the conclusion of the research that preceded a list of sources and references that the researcher relied on in this study.ملخص البحث</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Aftan Mahawish Sharqi Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 13 4 673 698 Al-kharshi's footnote on his explanation on the introduction of Al- ajromiya analytical study <div> <p>The Arabic language is the most honorable of languages in branch and origin, the best of it in statement and separation, the most bountiful in the sight of God, the most correct structure, the most accurate meaning, the most weighty in weight, and the sweetest in melody. Therefore, it is necessary to research its sciences and learn about the life of its scholars and their scientific production, and they enriched Arab libraries with their books whose fame reached the horizons. Among these scholars is Sheikh Muhammad bin Abdullah Al-Kharshi Al-Maliki, who is considered one of the great scholars of language and grammar in Egypt, and he is the first to take over the sheikhdom of Al-Azhar, testifies With his knowledge, knowledge, and wide access to the various jurisprudential sciences, including transliteration, rhetoric, and morphology, everyone who lived with him, translated for him, and quoted from him, and as a result, many books that enriched Arab libraries in general and Egyptian libraries in particular . Among those products of Sheikh Al-Kharshi (Hashiyat Al-Kharshi on his commentary on Al-Ajrumiyah), which is considered one of the most important footnotes to his explanation on the board of Al-Ajrumiyah or the so-called Introduction Al-Ajrumiyah by its author Ibn Ajroom Al-Sunhaji, which is considered one of the most important texts of Arabic grammar. The research came with an introduction, two sections, and a conclusion. The first topic dealt with the life of Sheikh Muhammad bin Abdullah Al-Kharshi and in it Talking about his name, his biography, his upbringing, the stages of his education, his birth and his death, his morals and status, and his sheikhdom to Al-Azhar. And his writings, and I say scholars in it. As for the second topic, it dealt with the definition of Al-Kharshi’s commentary on Al-Ajrumiyah, and the definition of Al-Kharshi’s footnote on the introduction of Al-Ajrumiyah, its attribution to him, and the methodology of Sheikh Al-Kharshi explaining it and his footnote, and the sources that A in composing his footnote</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> DHEYAA Saadoun Hussein Al-Khaikani Hussein Kadmi Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 13 4 699 722 The rule of the art of Ibro in Islamic Jurisprudence <div> <p>Ebru is a Persian word made up of two syllables “ab” meaning water and “ro” meaning face. Art Ebru is known in the Arabic language (painting on water), but in Europe it is called “art marbling”, meaning the art of marbling. . It is considered one of the most beautiful arts known in Turkey and is currently spreading in many countries. It depends on drawing on water mixed with certain materials to make it thick and uses special colors that are sprayed and formed on the surface so that later that drawing can be taken on special thick alabaster paper to withstand water.Its pigments and ibro colors are extracted from the natural mineral oxides of the clay. It is filtered and ground to form different colors, and to prepare a color, a quantity of color powder is mixed with some water and heated until the powder is completely dissolved and the color becomes curd and preserved, with the addition of an oxide substance to it to help the dye spread on the water board or what is called a technique It is one of the Islamic arts whose history has been neglected and forgotten not only in the Arab world, but also in the homeland in which Turkey flourished Modern art is one of the types of art that emerged in the late 1860s until the end of the 1970s. It is an art that rejected traditional forms and focused on individual and sensory experimentation. And modern art applies to a large number of arts that extend for more than a century. Modern art is characterized by the artist’s depiction of the subject as it exists in the world, which highlights the beauty of modern art, in addition to that it rejects traditional patterns and traditional values. If they are animate or non-animal, we will discuss them in detail</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Yasser Adnan Hassan Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 13 4 723 734 The image of the Prophet Muhammad, may God bless him and grant him peace, in the book Nasir al-Din Dinah (Mohammad is the Messenger of God) <div> <p>The study of the Prophet’s biography took a great deal of attention from the fair or unfair orientalists, so they considered the prophet’s biography an important material in dealing with Islamic issues. By writing about the biography of the Prophet and drawing their information from the historical sources approved by Muslims, and they made comparisons with what was written by the previous orientalists and extracted the historical truth about the biography of the Prophet. Based on what Arab Muslims wrote about Islamic history, rather their concerns included the orientalists, whether they were fair or unfair, and Nasir al-Din Dinah entered Islam with complete conviction and did not care about what the orientalists wrote from among his peers or his contemporaries at the time, so he relied on the method of the scientific method in tracking the truth Historical from its approved origins, which were not affected by distortion or forgery, as he presented it on the accurate scientific method in tracking the correct hadiths and narrations, as mentioned in the introduction to his book on the correct prophetic biography. In particular, highlighting the real positive side of the Muslim Arabs, which was distorted by Westerners in general and the French in particular. Nasser al-Din Diniyeh was able, through his writings, to convey a beautiful picture of Islam and remove all the uncivilized accumulations made by the previous orientalists. Rather, we find that he criticized these opinions and fabrications about The path of a solid scientific approach through the Arabic Islamic sources such as the biography of Ibn Hisham, the major classes of Ibn Saad, and the biography of Al-Halabi by Burhan Al-Din Al-Halabi.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Mohammed Jehad Abid Qahtan Adnan Bakr Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 13 4 735 762 The possibility of re-extrapolating history with a new vision of the Prophet's lineage and birth as a model Mother <div> <p>The research is an attempt to extrapolate the historical narratives that convey the news of the Prophet’s lineage and the blessed birth, as there is a picture of the thought relying on what is transmitted from the first narrators, the Companions and the followers, and those who came after them. They are the basis of the historical thought written in the books of Islamic heritage. Seeing them in this context wrote the biography of the Prophet and the Islamic historical, can the researcher abstract in his reading of the historical texts and try to prove the truth? Or did he remain a prisoner of the ideological and intellectual impact on which he was raised, and is it possible to read the Prophet’s biography and Islamic history in an impartial manner? The research will leave answers to this question with a discussion of the possibility of fair reading or not. The research is divided into two axes:The first axis: The Prophet's lineage and re-studying some of the ancestors with a new vision.The second axis: the possibility of reading the accounts of the birth of the Prophet Muhammad (may God bless him and his family) with a new vision. The study attempts to analyze and dismantle historical narratives in order to reach a mature and indicative reading of the truth of historical events, or to bring the historical picture closer to the interested party, or to try to find a set of answers to many questions lingering in the minds, as the ancestors of the Prophet (may God bless him and his family) lived their roles and exercised their responsibilities towards their society. It is clear from the research that they stood against polytheism and atheism, and insisted on changing the erroneous teachings and correcting the shortcomings of the Quraysh society, while the second axis will be concerned with the blessed birth narratives and the many and great exaggerations that some narrators made as an appropriate picture of the birth of the greatest human being created on the face of the earth from the point of view of Islam and Muslims, in addition to the Jewish care and future knowledge of childbirth, while verifying historical narratives that are not based on an acceptable opinion or compatible with the events of that era.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Alaa Hassan Mardan Al-Lami Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 13 4 763 784 Tafiyat of al-Sharif al-Murtada (died 436 AH) A study in the music of poetry <div> <p>The music of Poetry is an important and influential artistic factor in the creation of any creative text, because it touches the ears, both external and internal. In addition, it represents an important entry point for influencing the recipient, and contributes in making vocal reverberation and rhythmic harmony to increase the effectiveness of poetic discourse, and through our study of the music of Tufayyat al-Sharif al-Murtada (died 436 AH), we noticed that it achieved its desired goal of In influencing and conveying sincere feelings and feelings to the recipient with words - I took pain, grief, and grief over what happened to Imam Hussein and his family (peace be upon them) on the day of Ashura - as a veil for her, thus forming a poetic text with a beautiful external rhythm, and sweet internal tones that were the best expression of the goals he intended. The poet through his Tafiyah texts. Our study aims at trying to reveal the concept of the term “tafiyat” in language and terminology, in addition to highlighting the important role it played in Sharif Al-Murtada’s poetry, by showing the psychological and aesthetic dimensions of this artistic phenomenon in his poetry. It was imposed on us by the nature of research - a path to identifying, describing and analyzing them, leading to the desired function. As for the most important sources and references that accompanied us and we benefited from them on this study trip, we mention: “Diwan Al-Sharif Al-Murtada”, the book “Al-Tafiyat, the Saying and the Critical Procedure” by dr. Ali Kazem Al-Maslawi, the book “Music of Poetry” by Ibrahim Anis, the book “Issues of Contemporary Poetry” by Nazik Al-Malaika And other books that were written in the list of research sources and references.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Ahmed Salim Obaid Al-shammari Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 13 4 785 810 The effect of Climate on bee diseases ( in Fallujah district ) <div> <p>Climatic factors are considered as the most significant factors affecting bees in the study area, which have a direct and indirect impacts on the life of the bee insect ,on the apiary, or on their damage that they cause to the colonies. As for their indirect impact, they will be on plants and dry up nectar sources. As a result, viruses can attack all forms of life, multiplying and spreading independently, and cause very serious chronic disease conditions. When viruses exist inside the hive or on bees , they cause them various diseases. Some climatic factors that affect life in the study area are temperature, relative humidity, and wind, which have a significant impact on nectar and pollen, bee hives, and the increase of activities. The increase of temperature in the study area leads to limit the activity of honey bees in all areas of food collection, incubator breeding, and reproduction. In this case, the bees' flight shifts from flowers and food collection to water collection and they transfer to the hives to moderate the temperature inside. Such transfer leads to abortion of bees and serious damage to the life of the bee colony. The lack of incubator production and the lack of ages of bees cause a decrease in the external food represented by the plant because of the effort exerted by them and because of the lack of honey stock, which leads to a decrease in the number of bees inside the hive .Thus, the collapse of these colonies will be as a result of the lack of control over the regulation of temperature inside the hive, and this happens in the hot season. The climate of Anbar governorate falls within the desert climate, which is characterized by its little rain and the long dry summer season. It is also considered one of the most important natural problems facing the development and breeding of bees. Accordingly, the research is based on evaluating the impact of climatic factors on bee diseases and explaining the relationship between climate elements with each other and between climate elements and bee diseases .</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> jinan Seger Abid Azooz AL – Qaraghouli Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 13 4 811 834 Al-Rushdia (official) schools in the district and districts of Aleppo in The Hamidian era (1876-1909). Historical study In light of the Ottoman salamat <div> <p>The importance of this study is evident by shedding light on an important cultural and civilizational aspect that has a role in the field of educational renaissance in the district and districts of Aleppo in the Ottoman era during the reign of Sultan Abdul Hamid II, namely, Since the length of the reign of Sultan Abdul Hamid II, which extended for nearly thirty-four years, enables us to issue an objective and accurate judgment on what the Ottoman Empire offered culturally through education in the district and districts of Aleppo, especially the Rashidi schools, the aim of which was to prepare and prepare students to attend In preparatory schools (civilian and military), which then enables them to work in state departments, and this indicates the interest and desire of the Ottoman state to improve its administrative institutions by providing them with qualified employees to work in state departments on the one hand, and to meet the requirements of the modern era on the other hand, especially the intellectual invasion of the Levant By missionary missions supported by foreign countries the official Rashidi schools Which was represented in the establishment of several schools in the various districts of the Aleppo district. What was written about this type of education in the Aleppo district during this period was brief and not focused on by researchers, and it does not give an integrated picture of this important educational aspect of the Aleppo district, which Our study will be keen to clarify it by relying mainly on many sources, the most important of which are the published Ottoman government publications represented by the general Ottoman salnamat of the Ottoman Empire, the salnamaat of Nazareth al-Maarif, and the salnamat of the province of Aleppo. Where I enclosed in the research several statistics with the names of those schools in the district and districts of Aleppo and the names of their teachers, and the number of their students in several coordinated tables and according to each district of the many districts of Aleppo.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Ameen Ghanem Muhammad Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 13 4 835 878 A treatise on the science of grammar, and a treatise on the science of eloquence by Sheikh Abdullah Al-Nabrawi (1275HD), study and investigation <div> <p>The heritage manuscripts in Arabic sciences and other valuable and useful treasures that our ancestors left for later generations, so this research is based on the study and achieving one of those manuscripts, which is concerned with the knowledge of the statement, as the research included astudy of the manuscript and its owner, and then achieve the text of the manuscript the nature of the research required that it be divided into two parts. The first part is for studying and the second part is for investigation.As for the study section it was divided into two branches: the first branch included talking about the biography of sheikh AL-Nabrawy, talking about him was brief dueto the lack of what was mentioned about him in thw books of translations. As for the second branch, which includes the study of the manuscript, it included verifying the title of the manuscript , its attribution to its author, the motives for its author ship, its methodology, adescription of the copies of the manuscript, and the method used in th investigation. As for the second section related to the investigation, it included the text of the manuscript ( atreatise on grammar and atreatise on rhetoric) in which the approved principles were followed in the investigation of themanuscrips, ensures the writing of the manuscript in the modernization of write and punctuation, and editing the text on the contemporary spelling, and naskhi script with adherence to punctuation marks, extracting texts from their sources, introducing the flags mentioned in the manuscript text, and graduating text from their sources, and clarify some paragraphs that need explanation and elaboration.This work I put it in the margin to preserve the text as wanted by its author.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Esraa Salah Khalel Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 13 4 879 910 Gifts and foods through the book explaining the problem of effects of Imam Tahawi <div> <p>A gift in Islam is desirable and it is a prophetic Sunnah. The Messenger of God, may God’s prayers and peace be upon him, used to accept the gift and urge it, and he said: (If you gave me a cubit, I would accept it, and if you were called for me as a shepherd, I would answer).And the gift has a great effect in attracting love, and proving affection, because it is the removal of grudges and the formation of hearts, and it is the evidence of love and the purity of hearts.The Messenger of God accepted it from the followers of other religions and rejected it from the polytheists. How many grudges went because of the gift.As for foods, which are originally permissible except for what is proven by the text prohibiting them, and they were common in Islam with many types of foods, Imam Al-Tahawy mentioned them, including: the food of the banquet that must be attended for the hadeeth, as well as other foods that were prevalent, including the digest, which is the food of funerals, the food of excuses, and the food of circumcision. .... To other foods that were customary during the Jahiliyyah and Islam, some of them are what Islam left as they are, which is the food of the banquet and the wedding food, and there are some foods that Islam left, which are the food of circumcision, excuses, and others. The Messenger of God (PBUH) forbade accepting gifts from his governors over the regions when he used them to collect alms from their regions, and a narration on the authority of the Messenger of God (PBUH) on the authority of Urwa on the authority of his father: “The Messenger of God (PBUH) employed Ibn al-Lutbiyyah, one of the Azdis On the alms of Bani Sulaym, and that the Messenger of God (PBUH) came to him, and when he took account of him, he said: This is for you, and this was given to me, so the Messenger of God (PBUH) said: “Why did you not sit in your father or mother’s house until your gift came to you if you were truthful?” . When comparing this narration with the books of the Prophet’s biography and history, we found that it is in agreement. Al-Waqidi mentioned a narration stating that the Messenger of God (PBUH) when he returned from Al-Ja’rana, he came to Medina on Friday, and stayed for the rest of Dhul-Qa’dah and Dhul-Hijjah. Al-Azdi to Bani Dhibyan and sent a man from Bani Dhibyan, so they came and settled in their districts, then they ordered the gathering of the livestock of Khuza'a to take alms from them.As for the people of the classes, they mentioned that the Messenger of God (PBUH) sent Ibn al-Lutbiyyah al-Azdi ... and commanded his cronies to take forgiveness from them and to wait for the best of their wealth. When the Messenger of God (PBUH) held him accountable, he said: This is for you and this is a gift for me. So the Messenger of God (PBUH) said, and Al-Tahawi sees He said: “There was something in these narrations that indicated that earning through guardianship from gifts and the like is obligatory for the governor to return it to the money that he was entrusted with, so I gave him what was given for his guardianship over him, and Abu Yusuf and Muhammad bin Al-Hassan, may God have mercy on them, differed in this Abu Yusuf used to say: What the people of war gave to the imam of the Muslims was his property and he was not obligated to return it to the Muslims’ money, and Muhammad said about that: He returns it to the Muslims’ favour, so he puts a fifth of it in the place of the fifth, and returns the rest of it to the Muslims’ money for the meaning to which it was given as a gift. This is the best of the two sayings we have, and the first of them is what we have narrated from the Messenger of God (PBUH)”, and that the Messenger of God (PBUH) is not commanded by this saying because no one commanded him, but his mandate was from God Almighty and he did not accept the gift from the people of alms. And he did not accept gifts from the people of war, for his gifts were from non-Muslim kings and princes, and if he accepted them from non-princes, then they were not at the expense of anything. As for the gifts of Muslims to their Prophet, they stem from their love for him. It was narrated on the authority of Ali bin Abi Talib: He used to do the same with what was given to him when he took charge of the affairs of the Muslims, he returned it to the fay’ of the Muslims and put one-fifth of it in the place of the fifth, and likewise what Omar bin Al-Khattab did in terms of the gift of Ubayy bin Ka’b in what he gave to Omar bin Al-Khattab, so he accepted it from him After he returned it to him before, and that was due to the debt that he owed him, then he accepted it from him after he returned the debt to him. Because that is what is meant by it leaving the demand from the gifted to the gifted with that debt that he owes, and sometimes that happens to those who brought charities with their gifts on the grounds that he gave them gifts with the charities in return for leaving claiming the Muslims’ money from the sadaqa. In his father's and mother's house.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Qahtan Adnan Al-Bakr Hamid Sabbar Awaid Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 13 4 911 928 Iraq's foreign policy towards the Emirates of the Arabian Gulf from November 18, 1963 to July 17, 1968 <div> <p>This research aims to explain the Iraqi political role in the first republican era, so that Iraq witnessed a new political system after November 18, 1963. The platform of this political system gave special importance to the issue of the Arabian Gulf, so it provided all support and assistance to the people of those emirates, and opened the doors of Iraqi universities and institutes. To the students of the Arabian Gulf, it expressed its readiness to provide extensive assistance in the economic, cultural and social fields. This Iraqi policy called for joint Arab action in order to stand against colonial plans and called for their liquidation, the removal of foreign bases, and standing up to those that aim to undermine the Arabism of the Arabian Gulf.While Iraqi foreign policy was based on supporting the struggle of the Arab liberation movements militarily by providing weapons and military expertise, and politically by supporting them within the framework of the United Nations and in diplomatic activities in the capitals of foreign countries, united with similar activities of other Arab countries, in addition to supporting them financially as well.The Iraqi policy of the emirates of the Arabian Gulf was represented by broad openness in order to remove British control from them, and to stand against Iranian immigration, as well as to develop the Arab spirit among their children and work to achieve their independence. Iraq was active in working for these aspects at the level of the General Secretariat of the League of Arab States and summit conferences. Arabic, in addition to his role in the United Nations and its affiliated committees, including the Decolonization Committee, and the opening of cultural centers in some of those emirates. Iraqi policy worked to establish the University of Basra to develop Arab culture among the people of the Arabian Gulf.The importance of the historical period under study during the sixties of the last century comes from the status of these emirates and the active role of Iraq in raising this issue at the Arab and international levels. It was also possible in the wave of independence that began with the State of Kuwait in 1961 and Iraq’s demand that Britain withdraw from the rest of the emirates. Arabic...</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Jabran Iskandar Rafeeq Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 13 4 929 958 The probabilistic grammatical significance in the nominative sentence <div> <p>The diacritical sign is of great importance, as it is one of the grammatical clues specific to the function of the word in the sentence, and this clue may be absent from the words that build the grammatical structure, which leads to multiplicity in the grammatical analysis, and also the absence of this sign leads to difficulty in understanding the intended meaning and thus Syntactic clues are resorted to to define functions, and there is no doubt that the absence of this sign increases the circle of possibility and the multiplicity of grammatical faces, and therefore it is natural that the opinions of scholars and commentators in this section multiply. Ibn Al-Nazim believes that one of the reasons for building the noun is its similarity to the letter in the mode, so if someone says: (hand) and (blood) on two letters, and we see it as an expression, then the answer is; Because it is originally composed of three letters, ... As for building the name due to its resemblance to the letter in meaning, then if the name includes a meaning from the meanings of the letters, it is necessary for the pronunciation, or the place is not opposed to what necessitates the syntax, then it is built, and its saying (because of the similarity of the letters is civil) i.e. For a close resemblance to letters.The research was divided into two sections: the first section in which I studied the probabilistic grammatical significance in the built noun and it has only two possibilities, and the second section studied the probabilistic grammatical significance in the built noun and it has three possibilities, and I followed the analytical descriptive approach to clarify the probabilistic grammatical significance.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Dakhil Jabr Dakhil Dhaher Muhsin Kadheum Al-Shukri Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 13 4 959 984 Perceived Digital Stress Among Middle School Students <div> <p>The current research aims to identify digital stress as a concept in addition to its components, theories, and behavioral, personal and social effects. The research also aimed to determine the level of digital stress among middle school students, and to determine the nature of the differences between the mean scores of students on the digital stress scale according to the gender variable. The research sample is limited to male and female middle school students in the center of Babil Governorate, who are (30) male and female students, who were drawn in a simple random manner, during the second semester of the academic year (2022-2023), The researcher relied on the analytical descriptive approach, where the researcher built the scale after ascertaining its validity and reliability by presenting it to a group of arbitrators, in addition to reviewing the theoretical literature and previous studies on how to design the scale in this field, and she adopted it in collecting data and information to answer the research objectives. The results concluded that the level of digital stress among middle school students is high, as the arithmetic mean of the scale phrases was (70.5333) with a standard deviation of (16.92013), which is higher than the hypothetical mean. And it found that there were no statistically significant differences between the mean scores of the students according to the gender variable. The researcher suggested conducting studies to determine the effects of digital stress and designing training programs to educate students about the dangers of digital technology and how to deal with digital stress. She also suggested the need to educate students about the dangers resulting from excessive use of the Internet and electronic applications. And the need to regulate the use of the Internet by setting specific times for the use of mobile phones among adolescents</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Leqqaa Sharif Abd Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 13 4 985 1010 Nicknames for women's disabilities and physical differences and their connotations <div> <p>The surnames of individuals that indicate physical disabilities have received the attention of historians. They dealt with them as surnames by which people are known, and they were not known by others, although some of their owners were tired of them and were not satisfied with them, because it reminds them of their sufferings or generates a feeling of inferiority in them, and these surnames became associated with the proper name and attached And it was like an adjective for him, whether these titles were praise or slander, and this matter has been inherited since God Almighty created humans on this globe, and no nation of nations or an era of ages was excluded from it, and some of these titles related to disabilities and physical differences for women may be Nicknames are opposites that were taken for the opposite of something or for fear of envy, and this is what happened to one of the women in the Arab Islamic country who She was called al-Jarbaa, and she was a master of beauty and beauty, and she was called al-Jarbaa because women did not stand by her for fear of being disrespectful to her. In various aspects of life that pertain to Muslim affairs, and many women who bore the titles of social disabilities did not affect them because they were distinguished by memorizing the Noble Qur’an and were scholars in the field of the Prophet’s hadith as well as Their prowess in the rest of the different sciences, this indicates that most of those who bore the titles of disabilities and physical differences did not affect them with these disabilities, even the title of a people for their mother’s disability and they were known as “sons of the deaf”, and also one of the most prominent examples in history is the exploitation of the disability or disease of women and some of their children were called We resent and disapprove of Ibn al-Qar’a’ in order to belittle and underestimate them, and in order to be more clear, we must deal with some titles of disabilities for individuals and explain their implications:</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Asmaa Majeed Mahmoud Badie Mohamed Ibrahim Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 13 4 1011 1030 The Aesthetics of the Internal Rhythm of Mr. Jaafar Al-Hilli in Diwan of The Magic of Babel and The song of nightingales <div> <p>The inner rhythm that is considered the artistic depth of the modern poem, Rhetoric scholars depict it as a vessel into which the poet pours all the rich imagination and creative ideas of his heart, To mold it into a template full of beauty, And that the students of the origins of the Arabic vertical poem, When they began to study rhythmic structures, They examined the relationship between poetry and music, An attempt by them to reveal the inner rhythms of poetic texts, They directed their attention towards the relationship of sounds with meanings and images and the rhythm of phrases, In addition to the renewal of the musical rhythm through the diversity of poetic phenomena, and if the external rhythm is naturally subject to knotting and modeling, the internal rhythm is not subject to its nature, This makes each poetic text integrated with its own internal rhythm. From here, the researcher seeks to identify the aesthetics of the inner rhythm in the collection of poetry of Mr. Jaafar al-Hali (The Magic of Babel and the Saj’a al-Balabel), What is its importance in the structure of its text and architecture?, What are the manifestations of that rhythm, which is described as internal?, To trace the components of the poetic text that helped in the rhythmic diversity besides (weight and rhyme), By examining the inner rhythm in his poems, Being the vessel prepared to receive everything that would enrich the aesthetic and artistic aspects, To reveal the effectiveness of the internal rhythm in the poetic text, It concludes that the most important characteristics of the poetic text is its celebration of the rhythmic aspect, And it is distinguished by the internal poetic music resulting from the use of the overlap between the letter and the other letter, This has a major role in the formation and intonation of the text's music This is what we will find in repetition, alliteration, subtraction, and balancing, All of which are elements that contributed to the popularity of the poem and the enhancement of its lyricism.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Wissam Hamza Hadi Al-Zarkani Al-Husseini Behrouz Gurbanzadeh Hussein Yousfi Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 13 4 1031 1058 Motives of the people of falsehood to promote their falsehood (an inductive and descriptive study) <div> <p>The research aims to reveal the motives of the people of falsehood to enhance their falsehood, through the collection and study of Quranic verses and books of interpretation, and to achieve the objectives of the study, the descriptive approach was used in its deductive approach. The introduction included the importance of the research, the objectives of the research, the research problem, the research methodology, previous studies related to the research, and the division of the research. The conclusion is to present the most important findings and recommendations The study leads to a number of results, including: the motives of the people of falsehood throughout the ages, either envy, or arrogance, or ignorance, or blind imitation of parents, or love of lusts, or following whims, or killing, exclusion, and expulsion. Condescending to people, Falsehood has no benefit, value, or stability. As for the recommendations, the most important of them were avoiding falsehood and its people, and siding with the truth and its people; for no matter how severe the harm of falsehood is, the end will be for the righteous in this world and the Hereafter. The necessity of paying attention to Da’wah studies in order to know the reasons and motivations of the people of falsehood. Following the path of Islamic law, and arming yourself with the weapon of science and knowledge, to confront the people of falsehood and refute their falsehood. The people of truth should come together and not be divided, and reject differences, so that the people of falsehood will not find an outlet through which they can resort to the people of truth.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Mozdalefa Alsir Muhammad Ali Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 13 4 1059 1088 Significance of implication and interpretation in the denial of polytheism with God Almighty in the Holy Qur’an <div> <p>The contemplator of the Qur’anic text in the context of denying polytheism with God realizes that there are phenomena towards expressive semantics spread in multiple places that have their significance presented in this context in order to exalt and glorify. Al-Kareem, in order to find out what this phenomenon is of intended expressive significance, and that is by violating the requirements of the apparent by delaying its interpreter with the intention of exalting and the great often mentioning that interpreter after him, and that is because you look at something vague until the soul of the listener yearns to find what is intended, then do not leave it, so it is more immersive in the soul . In addition to that, that interpreter will be mentioned together in beauty first, and in detail second, so it will be emphasized in the expression. It will become something if it is completely enclosed. Explain, that was like a speck of slowing down from reaching an enumeration.I followed this research into two sections. The first topic was devoted to clarifying the concept of implicitness and interpretation, and the second topic was held for the significance of implicitness and interpretation in denying polytheism in the Holy Qur’an. I followed the descriptive and analytical presentation of the verses in the context of denying polytheism. And to clarify the significance of this apparent phenomenon in expressing the denial of polytheism in God Almighty.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Shrooq Majid Shreef Hassan Obaid Al Mamouri Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 13 4 1089 1102 Measurement on opposite and analogs in revealing meaning in the interpretation of the Albaidhawy <div> <p>This research unveils Al-Baydawi’s analogy on opposites and counterparts in revealing the linguistic meaning of some words in order to clarify and enhance the meaning in the mind of the recipient and to highlight the strength and linguistic beauty in Quran speech. Antitheses and counterparts are known as one of the methods used by commentators to interpret Quran meanings and concepts The opposite is the term that corresponds to another concept from the opposite point of view, while the counterpart in Quran interpretation is the term that is similar to the original term in some aspects and characteristics, but may differ from it in other aspects. For example, there could be a word that is similar in meaning but different in origin and structure The nature of the research required it to have an introduction and two requirements. In the first requirement, we dealt with analogy with opposites. We included the words whose lexical meanings Al-Baydawi explained by mentioning their opposites and then referring to linguistic dictionaries to understand the meanings of words in an accurate and consistent manner in accordance with the rules and linguistic principles. The second requirement came to reveal the veil. Regarding analogy, we also mentioned words that share a linguistic meaning, which enhances our understanding of the Holy Quran One of the most prominent findings of the research is that Al-Baydawi did not stop at the lexical meaning of the word, but rather wanted to reveal it by mentioning its opposite or counterpart, which is a method known to the Arabs. In this way, he seeks to convey a broader vision of the concepts and meanings that the Holy Quran carries through revealing the meaning of the opposite of the word or its counterpart. His counterpart referred in his book to this linguistic color, like other commentators who were concerned with this linguistic phenomenon, which contributed to the growth of verbal wealth and breadth of expression. It also helps us better understand Quran expressions and monitor the diversity of meanings and messages behind the words of the Holy Quran.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Saja Rahim Odeh Hussein Ali Hadi Al-Mhanna Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 13 4 1103 1120 The civilizational creativity of Muslims in Andalusia during the fourth century AH <div> <p>The Arab Islamic civilization in Andalusia was characterized by many aspects of creativity in various fields of intellectual civilization, including the scientific ones. That the Europeans deliberately transferred and developed the civilizational innovations of Muslims, and witnessed the success of non-Muslims in the creativity witnessed by Andalusia, their language, literature and the abundance of their intellectual production in an unprecedented way, thanks to the policy of tolerance and justice that prevailed in the atmosphere of Andalusia under Islamic rule. The Islamic civilization in Andalusia was a mixture of civilizations in the East and the Maghreb, so they invested in the products produced by the civilizations that preceded them, so they proceeded to develop it until it was dominated by the Andalusian character. Andalusian women contributed with men to the advancement and development of Islamic civilization there. She had a prominent role that appeared clearly and clearly on the pages of Andalusian civilized history, and the female writers were among them. As well as their contribution to other sciences such as medicine and engineering .The issue of intellectual cross -fertilization, which was one of the most important things that gave Andalusian life the character of overlap between the people of society, has emerged, so he drew the features of a culture in which the bright creativity mixed with Moroccan. Moreover, the Islamic culture and its religious forgiveness had the most prominent effect on the survival of Andalusian society, full of security and reassurance, to be A fertile environment for creativity in various fields, which made it the focus of attention of Europeans, who have taken a place to send to those who wish to learn and provide knowledge.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Jawad Kazem Mutlak Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 13 4 1121 1152 The Qur’anic use of the verses of the days and nights (interpretative study) <div> <p>The effort of this research focuses on: Qur’anic employment of the verses of days and nights, and the verses related to days and nights were sufficiently mentioned in the Noble Qur’an, but the research efforts were according to a Quranic vision emphasizing the symbolism of days and nights . When referring to the Holy Qur’an, we find that it was used (day and night) with multiple uses so that the intended meaning in the blessed verse becomes clear. The Qur’anic word has been carefully selected, as it has been improved, meant, and specialized with unique characteristics of its kind, the impossibility of its existence in other words of human speech. And the days mentioned are: The Day of Resurrection, Al-Furqan, Hunayn, and the names of the days (Friday and Saturday), mentioned in the Holy Qur’an. It was employed in an indicative manner. Every day indicated a certain symbolism. The symbolism of Friday is due to its highness, honor and favor with God Almighty. That is why we can say the symbolism of Friday is the meeting (devotional acquaintance) As for the days that depicted how a person flees from his brother and the blackness and whiteness of the face, they are the circumstances of the events employed in the forms of structures that fit the Qur’anic contexts, and one of the manifestations of employing the nights is swearing by them through glorification and reverence for them.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Bushra Yas Khudair Riad Hammoud Hatem Al-Malki Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 13 4 1153 1172 The concept of state philosophy among some Western philosophers <div> <p>The current research is concerned with studying the semiotic significance of art concepts and this research is located in four chapters, the first chapter of it deals with the research problem, its importance and the need for it, the research objective and its limits and identifying the most important terms. Contemporary styles within conceptual art. While the second chapter included the theoretical framework and previous studies, which included two sections, the first of which is semiotics as a sign of semantics, and the second topic is conceptual art, a reading of methods. All during its presentation to the experts, so that four models for each type of conceptual art had a share in the analysis of the research sample. The fourth chapter included the results of the research and the two researchers mention them: The semiotic significance was formed in conceptual art with all its currents through the processes of raising questions and assumptions that lead to skipping the artistic impact in order to realize The implications behind this idea through the questions that are raised in the mind and through which a conscious mental awareness and taste is achieved, and this appeared in all the samples of the research sample. On a set of conclusions, the two researchers mention, including: There is a clear shift between modernity and its aftermath at the level of contemporary art within its conceptual orientations, which represented the trends of Laven in the era of modernity, while referring to the large community, orientation and artistic and stylistic currents that raised the ideas on the formal aesthetic, we find that this The transformation is more value than aesthetic, as well as includes recommendations and suggestions put forward by the researchers, including: linguistic connotations in the products of body art, and the study concluded with a list of sources and references, then supplements</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Fouad Yaqoub Al-Janabi Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 13 4 1173 1206 The religious element in Abbasid poetry: a study of the religious influence on poets and their works in the Abbasid era <div> <p>The religious element is a source of inspiration and artistic expression in literary and artistic works, and contributes to shaping the cultural identity of societies and cultures. In this study, the Abbasid era and its historical and cultural background are highlighted, which helps in understanding the context in which this poetry arose. Then an overview is presented. On the prominent poets of this era and their literary works, the focus was on how the religious element influenced the style and content of the poets of the Abbasid era. Many poems that contain religious elements and that represent topics such as faith, prayer, religious ethics, and others were analyzed, and literature was used. The Abbasid as a window to understanding the religious values and beliefs of that era, and the religious diversity in Abbasid poetry is highlighted, as there was a diverse influence of the dominant religions of the era, such as Islam, Christianity, and Zoroastrianism, on the poets and this was reflected in their poems. In addition to the religious aspects, it was explored how Abbasid poets were influenced by the political and social events of the era, and how this was reflected in their poems in a way related to religion.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Sirwan Jabbar Khader Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 13 4 1207 1234 Demographic characteristics of urban women in the districts of Hilla and Mahaweel <div> <p>The research aimed to reveal the demographic characteristics of urban women at the urban level of the districts of Hilla and Al-Mahawil, their geographical distribution, spatial and temporal variation, and the problems they face in order to address them. The research relied on census data (1997) and estimates (2011, 2017, 2021) and the field study for the year (2023), as well as office sources, as reliance was made on statistical methods using the statistical analysis program (SPSS), and a set of important maps were prepared by systems Geographic information (GIS).The study reached several results, most notably:The Hilla district center occupied the first place in terms of the number of urban women, with a percentage of more than (76.7%) of the total number of urban women in the two districts. It was found that the largest part of the urban women was their hometown in the urban areas, reaching (532) urban women out of (634) women. The number of urban women whose hometowns are in rural areas is (102) rural women. It became clear through the field study that the percentage of married females was very high, recording the highest rates, amounting to (52.1%), followed by early females (unmarried) at (33.6%). The field study also showed that the age at marriage for women in the districts of Hilla and Mahaweel increases in the age group (20-24 years) by (36.8%). It was found that the age group (20-29 years) represented the highest percentage of urban women in the districts of Hilla and Al-Mahawil, as the number of urban women reached (244) urban women, constituting a rate of (38.5%). It turned out that the average birth rate for urban women in the districts of Hilla and Mahaweel was (4) births / women. It was found that the problem of the lack of job opportunities for urban women came in the first rank among the total problems facing urban women in the districts of Hilla and Al-Mahaweel, with a rate of (32.2%).</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Haider Salem Jabr Al-Jubouri Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 13 4 1235 1266 Jurisprudential provisions related to patients with sickle cell anemia in Islamic jurisprudence (jurisprudence of worship as a model) <div> <p>This research is summarized in two axes: the first axis: the jurisprudential definitions from the title, and the second axis: the jurisprudential rulings that pertain to patients with this type of disease.I have reached the following results, types of anemia that affect red blood cells, and among the most famous hemolytic blood diseases that follow the autosomal recessive pattern in their inheritance, which cause the breakage of red blood cells, and they are the most common in the world in general and in the countries of the Mediterranean basin, the Middle East, Africa and India in general private . The problem of the disease is that the bone marrow produces abnormal red blood cells - which transport food and oxygen to various parts of the body. Hemoglobin (hemoglobin) and its quantity as well.There are several names for this disease, for example it is called sickle cell anemia or sickle cell disease, the disease spreads in several African and Asian countries, and it is present in almost all Arab countries, but in some regions of the Arabian Gulf such as the Qatif and Jazan regions in Saudi Arabia, every 4 individuals carry one Among 20 individuals, this disease, that is, the percentage of carriers of the disease is about 20%, and it is a percentage that cannot be ignored, as every time a woman who is carrier of the disease and is married to a man is also a carrier of the disease annot be ignored, as every time a woman who is carrier of the disease and is married to a man . And if the patient with sickle cell anemia does not hope for his recovery, then the principle is that he is addressed with legal costs unless there is a text that exempts him for his excuse, and if the one who is obligated by the legal costs such as prayer, zakat, Hajj ... etc., is incapacitated, a continuous disability that does not hope for its disappearance and does not hope for recovery, such as the elderly, and the hopeless patient as the sick sickle cell anemia, he performs legal expenses according to his capacity</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Hamid Abdul Latif Jassim Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 13 4 1267 1284 The Qur’anic witness in the subject and the news According to Abu Al-Fath Al-Baali (T.: 709 AH) in his book Al-Fakher <div> <p>The Qur’anic witness occupies a large space in the grammatical code. Because the grammarians have the four most reliable texts in establishing language requirements and invoking them, it is their first linguistic support, in addition to other poetic and prose evidence. After the book (Al-Fakher fi Sharh Jamal Abd Al-Qahir) by Abu Al-Fath Al-Baali (d. 709 AH), he discovered among the grammar books that were rich in evoking Qur’anic evidence in several topics that were covered with explanation and clarification , Therefore, this grammatical study was descriptive and analytical of the Qur’anic witness in this valuable book. Al-Baali paid great attention to the Qur’anic witness, and gave it precedence over other evidence. In addition, this brilliant grammarian was not given much attention, as I did not find previous studies on his scientific output except two studies, The first: a doctoral dissertation, written in Baghdad in 2011 AD, entitled: (Muhammad bin Abi al-Fath al-Baali and his linguistic efforts - a descriptive study) by researcher Walid Hamdi Abd Gharib. The other: a master’s thesis written in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in 2012 AD, entitled: (The foundations of Al-Baali’s grammatical preferences in his book Al-Fakher fi Sharh Jamal Abd Al-Qahir) by the researcher: Rahma bint Bakhit bin Tuwaim Al-Qathami. And eat This is a search for the Qur’anic witness in the subject and the report according to Abu Al-Fath Al-Baali (T.:709 AH) in his book Al-Fakher. The research studied the following issues: the initiation of the predicate, the necessity of introducing the subject, the necessity of delaying the subject, the coming of the news as a divisional sentence, and linking the sentence of the news to the subject, The report was multiplicity), and the study was analytical and descriptive, so that I present the Qur’anic witness at (Al-Baali, T. Opinions on this issue, and most of the issues that are mentioned in this research are deviating from the usual, such as beginning the denial, delaying the news, and other matters .</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Hameed Mazloom Hadi Hassan Obaid Al Mamouri Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 13 4 1285 1302 The endowments of Suleiman Abd al-Hadi in Palestine 1253 AH / 1837 AD - 1255 AH / 1839 AD : an analytical study <div> <p>This study aims to investigate the texts of the endowments of Suleiman Abd al-Hadi through tracking the endowed properties of various types, and how the endower obtained the , in addition the conditions set by the endower in each of them. In this study, the researcher relied on several approaches, the most important of which is the historical and analytical approach based on collecting historical scientific material, coordinating and organizing it, then analyzing it and synthesizing the information extracted from legal documents. He also relied on the statistical quantitative approach, which relies on collecting numerical data, presenting it in tables, and analyzing it. The study also relied on the comparative approach by comparing the four endowments and comparing the real estate contained in them with the real estate acquired by the endower contained in various legal records. The study relied mainly on the texts of endowments, in addition to the records of the Nablus Sharia Court. The study was divided into several axes that dealt with the life of the endower, the language of endowments, the conditions of the endower, and endowed real estate. The study concluded with several results, the most important of which is that the endower was able, through his job and influence, to obtain large and illegal real estate, and his family became one of the most important families in the Nablus Mountain region during the period of Egyptian rule over the Levant, which contributed to the arrival of this family to power and leadership, so it combined the real estate and administrative powers, and was a city Nablus, the main nucleus of that family's power . The study was confined to a specific place and time. Temporally, it dealt with the period between1253 AH/1837 AM-1255 AH/1839 AM As for the place, it was the cities of Nablus and Jenin, in addition to other areas where the endower owns certain real estate.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Muhammad Majed Al- Hizmawi Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 13 4 1303 1360 The diversity of the tool’s significance and its impact on the Qur’anic expression The book Al-Amali by Ibn Al-Shajari (d. 542 AH) as a model <div> <p>Praise be to God. We praise Him، thank Him، seek His help، seek guidance، and seek His forgiveness، and may blessings and peace be upon our Master and our Master، the beloved Messenger Muhammad، may God’s prayers and peace be upon him، and upon his good and good family، and those who followed them with goodness until the Day of Judgment. Therefore، the numerous studies came to include the Noble Qur’an and the Prophet’s hadith، and many books were written in language and grammar. Grammarians divided speech into a noun، verb، and letter، and identified all its characteristics and features. It is the third part of the word، and by it the beauty of language is known and by it is the understanding of methods. It has many connotations and meanings. In fact، it has in the different linguistic structures of cults and secrets that do not appear except with it، so scholars turned to study it، and some of them specialized independent books for that، such as the one made by Abu Al-Hasan Al-Ramani in (The Meanings of the Letters)، Abu Al-Qasim Al-Zajji in (The Letters of Meanings)، and Abu Al-Hassan Al-Harawi in “Azha fi Al-Alam Al-Hroof” and Hassan Bin Qasim Al-Muradi in “Al-Jana Al-Dani fi Al-Hroof Al-Ma’ani” Rather، some of them singled out a single letter in a separate book، such as Al-Zajazi in (Al-Lamat) and Ibn Khalawayh in (Al-Alif). It is known that the grammarians studied (the letters) in their works that research the rules of Arabic، and they referred to them within the topics of which the letter is a part، and participated in the study of letters in their books، linguists، rhetoricians، interpreters، scholars of origins، and commentators of literary and religious texts. The grammatical and literary books of Al-Amali were not immune from this trend، as their compilers addressed the study of letters and clarifying their meanings، types and related matters، despite the difference between them in terms of brevity and length. My choice was signed on the book Al-Amali by Ibn Al-Shjari; Because this book can be considered one of the books of Quranic studies، where Ibn Al-Shjari simplified in it many issues from the interpretation of the Noble Qur’an، its parsing، its omission and its problem. In addition to that Ibn al-Shjari is considered one of the most important who dealt with the study of the meanings of letters، their meanings، their work and evidence، and the entry of some of them in the place of others. Ma)، and then held a chapter in the seventieth council to enter the lowering letters، some of them in place of each other، and Ibn Al-Shjari came with many evidences from the Holy Qur’an that are useful in the field of Qur’anic studies. I ended it with a conclusion in which I explained the most important thing I wanted from writing this research.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Muhammad Ahmed Zaki Al-Marzouk Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 13 4 1361 1384 Tribulations of Scholars of Sects and Doctrines in Andalusia (138–897 AH/ 755-1492 AD) <div> <p>The research deals with the most important trials and tribulations that the scholars of the sects and sects in Andalusia were subjected to from the era of the emirate until the fall of the city of Granada at the hands of the Christians, as scholars and jurists gained a prestigious position among the princes and the general community of Andalusia, due to the status of knowledge in the hearts of the public and rulers on the one hand, and on the other hand the need These rulersReligious legitimacy with the aim of consolidating their influence and consolidating their rule and authority through the support of scholars and jurists for them. The state in Andalusia used to respect scholars, seek help from them in solving its problems, and assign them jobs, whether it was with his consent and conviction, or for a political purpose, especially in the era of the emirate.The scholars were respected by the generality of the Andalusian people who loved them, and saw in them the protectors of Islam who are keen on the interest of society. The higher the status of a person, the greater the amount of difficulties that he is exposed to, and scholars, like others, are subject to trial in themselves, their money, or their loved ones. It is a Sunnah that God enacted for His faithful servants, and this affliction may be general and afflict the scholars and jurists as it afflicts the general public.Some of the rulers of Andalusia deceived them for fear of increasing their influence or intensifying their power. Some scholars and jurists were subjected to the ordeal of imprisonment and arrest for political reasons, scientific opinions, or reasons related to hatred, envy, and slander, while grudges and grudges prompted some guardians to rob money or property from a number of Scholars and jurists praise through flimsy arguments and pretexts, and the weakness of the state in some periods was a reason for the scholars to be subjected to such ordeals, and another part of them was exiled from their homes and homeland, so they tasted alienation and suffered from a life of homelessness and loss, and part of them were killed and removed from office and property confiscated .</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Anwar Abdullah Farhan Eman Mahmoud Hammadi Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 13 4 1385 1402 Obstacles to developing the human capabilities of working women A field study of female employees at the University of Babylon <div> <p>Based on the fact that the human element is one of the most important active elements in social, economic and cultural development, the development of human capabilities comes to achieve that development. Therefore, the aim of the current study is to identify the nature of the role of women and their impact on work, clarify the general goals of human development, and then identify the most important Obstacles that affect the development of women's human capabilities. In order to achieve these goals, the researcher used the social survey approach (the researcher used the comprehensive survey approach for the study population) because it is compatible with the nature of this research. An interview form was also used that included some questions related to the subject of the research, in addition to adopting the mechanism of simple observation and interviews as means of obtaining information. Of female employees. The research population consisted of all the female employees of the Presidency of the University of Babylon, who numbered (399) permanent employees, and (20) female employees were excluded for reasons related to childbirth, maternity, study, or regular vacation, so that the total number of the research sample became (379) female employees. The study reached a set of important results, including: (55.1%) of female employees confirmed that the work climate at the university does not represent a positive work climate, and (56.7%) of female respondents confirmed that the incentive system (material and moral The applicable method encourages the development of the employee’s human capabilities. (56%) of them confirmed that the university administration does not recognize their effort at work.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Prof. Dr. Dhahir Mohsin Hani Al-Jubouri Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 13 4 1403 1426 The Impact of vices on the fall of civilization <div> <p>The Holy Qur’an raised the mind on good judgment, reasoning and argument to know the truth, and this way of thinking implies the order of results and premises. Lost, forcing people, and arrogance, the fate of those will perish. Civilization is not material progress. Rather, moral values, belief in the oneness of God, and righteous deeds are the real basis for building civilization, while abandoning values means civilization downfall and destruction. God hates injustice because It is common in any society, even if the oppressors are Muslims, and the impact of vices in the downfall of civilization is emphasized by the Holy Qur’an. This is because God, His Majesty, does not accept that the Islam of Muslims from among His servants should intercede for them in committing injustice and usurping the rights of others. God in His servants will recompense the societies in which justice is common, in the abode of the world, even if its people are infidels, then this same Sunnah decrees that he will punish the societies in which injustice is common, in the world, and that civilization remains, lives, and continues as long as the network of social relations is sound and strong. If civilization is corrupted, it will deteriorate and fall, and Islam offers the best solution in achieving justice through the establishment of social justice and the elimination of differences between individuals and classes in order to advance the Arab nation. Safety, security and peace،Islam has taken great care to establish the rule of justice as one of the rules of governance in Islam, as it is the main pillar in the establishment of the Arab Islamic state and Islamic rule. Islam does not really exist in a society that is dominated by injustice and does not know justice. And the Messenger ((peace be upon him)) commanded the establishment of justice among people, he said ((peace be upon him)) “Justice for a day is like worshiping forty years,” and God has prepared for those who judge with justice among people a high position on the Day of Resurrection when God will shade them in His shade on a day when there is no shade but His shade, he said The Messenger of God ((peace be upon him)): There are seven whom God will shade on the Day when there will be no shade but His, and he mentioned the first of these seven, the just Imam. And after abandoning justice unjustly in the eyes of Islam, God Almighty forbade injustice and vilified its people and threatened them with severe punishment on the Day of Resurrection and destruction in this world.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Mohammed Hamza Al-Shaibani Naqaa Ali Hassan Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 13 4 1427 1454 Space and time in the novel" The Living in Truth" by Naguib Mahfouz, an analytical study <div> <p>Space and time in the modern novel play a prominent role in shaping the sensual and imaginary image of the recipient, especially in historical novels that rely heavily on the elements of time and space in narrating events. Through the title, we can discern from the word living the two elements of time and place, as those who live must have a specific time and a specific place The place is the network of relationships, visions, and viewpoints that unite with each other to construct the narrative space in which the events will take place. The place is organized with the same precision as the elements. other in the novel. The embodiment of place in the novel differs from the embodiment of time, as the place represents the background in which the events of the novel take place, while time is represented in these events themselves and their development. in events. There is another phenomenon that has great importance in shaping the world of the novel, which is giving a spatial dimension to abstract facts, i.e. the role of (image) in shaping human thought As for time, its concept remains the most fluid in defining it and revealing its essence as an abstract reality that we do not perceive explicitly, but we perceive it in living things and things. Therefore, the concept of time created difficulty for the researcher in any scientific, philosophical or literary field. Time is the true spirit of existence and its inner fabric. It is tilted in us with its invisible movement when it is past, present, or future. These times are lived by man and constitute his existence, in addition to the fact that time is external, eternal, and infinite, working in the universe and creatures, and exerting its action on those around it .</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Khalid Mohammed Yassin Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 13 4 1455 1472 Al-Neel Flower and its Effects on Surficial Water In Iraq And Ways to Treat It <div> <p>The study aims to determine the most important damage caused by the spread of the Al-Nile flower on the water resources in Iraq and the accompanying large economic losses, especially when it spreads in the waters of dams and water reservoirs, causing the loss of a lot of water through transpiration. It comes among the ten most dangerous bushes in the world, characterized by its length its roots that sunk deeply in the Euphrates and Tigris Rivers. Al-Neel Flower threatens Iraq, where each flower can absorb four to five liters of water per day, and can dry up the water resources of one of the hottest countries in the world. This plant has spread from its original habitat in the Amazon Basin in Brazil to various regions with a suitable environment for its reproduction. It appeared in Iraq for the first time in the mid-1980s. At first glance, one can be amazed by those purple flowers and their large, bright green leaves that float on the surface of the water. Before private nurseries and shade plants in fish ponds, the research revealed that the plant, Al-Neel flower, occupies large areas of the course of the Tigris River and the streams branching from it in its section that extends from Mosul to the north of Maysan governorate, its spatial presence is concentrated to a large extent from the south of Baghdad to the Kut Dam, with a length of 280 km, while it is spatially concentrated in the course of the Euphrates River and its branches to a much lesser extent than it is in the Tigris, if it is present in the Euphrates section that extends from the south of Babylon and Karbala governorates to the north of Dhi Qar governorate.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Khalid Jawad Salman Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 13 4 1473 1498 The struggle of political forces in the Kingdom of Castile between Leon and the Almoravid state (479-501 AH / 1086-1107 AD) <div> <p>This study deals with the conflict over the Kingdom of Castile and its impact on the relations between the Kingdom of Castile between Leon during the reign of Alfonso VI and the Almoravids, where the light is shed on the campaigns of King Alfonso VI against the Almoravid state in Andalusia in the period 479 AH-501 AH and analyzes a number of treaties that occurred between the two parties to resolve the conflict Between them, the study of the history of the Middle Ages was interested in studying the political aspects of the history of the Spanish Christian kingdoms in Andalusia, due to the multiplicity of relations between the states of the sects and Almoravids with Christian Europe, and in talking about the Kingdom of Castile during the reign of Alfonso and then the struggle between his sons for power and I elaborated on talking about Alfonso VI In Castile and his relationship with the Almoravids, as well as the campaign of the leader of Alfonso the Rahans on the states of the sects, and what distinguishes the era of this king from the emergence of racism among the Spanish Christians with the aim of expelling Muslims from Andalusia, and in which Alfonso VI became king over the great kingdom of Castile, Leon and Galicia after the killing of his brother Sancho, It ended with the control of some Islamic cities in Andalusia, the crossing of the Almoravids to Andalusia during the reign of Yusuf bin Tashfin, and the victory of the Almoravids in the Battle of Zalaqa.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Tahrir Mohammed Jadan Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 13 4 1499 1520 Phonetic Repetition in the Protests of Imam Reza (peace be upon him) <div> <p>The research highlights the appearance of sound repetition, which is one of the most prominent sound phenomena that serve pilgrims and protests, and which the speaker uses as a way to express his evidence and proofs directly through literal, verbal, or sentence repetition; For the purpose of influencing the recipient and persuading him, he finds that the speaker is different from the speech of the Hajj, and the repetition is different from it, as it gives indications of caution and other beauty, and its effect is in harmony with the nature of the recipient's mind and soul. Vocal repetition is considered one of the most prominent stylistic and visual techniques that convey the rhetorical event and illustrate its semantic details. It can be said that repetition is important in drawing the rhythm of the verbal event and directing it in the direction that the speaker sees that leads to influencing the listener. The Arabic language has been characterized by the phenomenon of gentle repetition in which there is no affectation or harshness in it. It is tormented by the ears and desired by the souls, so it imprints meanings in the minds. Therefore, we see that the Arabs have mastered phonetic repetition and have made it a method of direct warning in an artistic and literary way that does not offend the ears. Most Arabic texts are not devoid of phonetic repetition or verbal or syntactic repetition. These are all linguistic tools to which one resorts. The creator of the rhetorical text is to show its meanings and connotations by focusing and emphasizing certain formulations, whether they are musical tonality through the selection and arrangement of sounds, or through words by repeating them or repeating specific structures, and all of these come from the point of emphasizing the meanings and connotat. The protests of Imam al-Ridha (peace be upon him) took place in al-Ma’mun’s council and we find that they varied at the level of content, with the diversity of the people and their religious and cultural backgrounds. The phonetic repetition had a role in showing the indications of Imam al-Ridha (peace be upon him) intended in directing the conversational process of argument according to a drawn-out vision and dimensions. Logical obliges the listener to what the speaker wants.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Muhammad Hassan Keitan Ali Hassouni Sharifi Ali obayes Hussein Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 13 4 1521 1538 Christianity in Northern Kipchaks till the Mid 8 th C.A.H. / 14 th C.A.D <div> <p>The north of the Caucasus has not received sufficient scientific research and academic studies, through which it is possible to understand the history of that region and form a clear picture of it. Most Islamic historical studies directed their interests to the Islamic East or West or the center of the Islamic state, and avoided interest to some extent in what is happening in the north. The Islamic world, I mean the northern Qafqaq, knowing that those regions were influenced by their neighboring countries, and acquired their civilization from the countries that surrounded them, especially the Islamic state and the Byzantine state, religiously, economically, socially and scientifically, and they were connected to them in the northern Qafqaq and even influenced the course of their history, so many historical events What the Islamic State, or its counterpart, the Byzantine State, went through, cannot be understood without studying the history of the countries and peoples of the northern Caucasus located on their borders. The research shed light on the historical aspect of the religion of Christianity in the northern Caucasus, from the beginning of its spread there, the manner in which it spread, the importance of the geographical location and its role in accepting Christianity among its countries and peoples, as well as its impact in changing many of the customs, traditions and religions of those countries and peoples that lived in it, The midst of paganism before the heavenly religions reached it, and the role of the Byzantine state and its continuous attempts to spread that religion, which resulted in winning over the Slavic and Russians to embrace it and even unifying the two countries into one state ruled by the Russians. They became the official sponsor of the Christian religion and its defender in the face of the Islamic tide, which thwarted the plans of the Byzantine state. In spreading Christianity among the rest of the other countries and peoples of the northern Caucasus neighboring the state of the Russians, such as the state of the Khazars, the state of the Bulgars, the Pegnak people, and other small tribes in the eastern part of the northern Caucasus.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Emad Kamel Marei Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 13 4 1539 1566 Semantic implications of punctuation Marks in Hebrew Syntax <div> <p>This research, titled "Semantic implications of Punctuation Marks in Hebrew Syntax," deals with one of the issues facing writers and readers alike, for a sentence or for a text, which is the issue of punctuation. Those symbols that would show and explain to the reader the meaning of the sentence or text and would also lead the sentence to multiple and different meanings in the event of their absence from writing or if they were placed in the wrong place within the sentence or the text, as this research explains the concept of these signs, their roots, types and the extent of their impact on Creating problems and difficulties while writing or reading or solve these problems. This research also refers to the syntactic and rhetorical functions performed by punctuation marks in in writing literary or scientific texts and others. This research refers to one of the linguistic problems resulting from the wrong use of punctuation marks or resulting from not using them in writing, which is the problem of "Ambiguity". Sometimes the writer adds secondary parts in the sentence, eg, clauses etc., whose grammatical functions in the sentence may confuse the reader in the absence of punctuation. The research also shows the most important benefits that are reflected from the use of these signs, as the research focused - after dealing with the theoretical side - on an important course of semantics, which is the role and function of punctuation marks in clarifying the most correct meaning and directing the recipient to the true significance of sentences and texts away from the semantic ambiguity. Then comes the list of sources that were used in this research.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Ahmed Abbas Ali Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 13 4 1567 1582 The social dimension of dance scenes in the surrealist movement <div> <p>Dance occupies an important place in European art, so many modernist artists were interested in including it in their artwork and highlighting its social dimensions in their artistic productions. Therefore, dance is a reflection of artistic culture and a historical source of information about peoples, and it carries in its arms the spirit and pulse of the age in addition to the prevailing customs and traditions. Dance is the movement through which a person expresses his desire to be free from anxiety and fear of demise, and in it he feels that he is stronger, richer, and more beautiful. Therefore, man gave it all the care, and dance arises and changes with the change of peoples and the change of their culture, so it is considered a reflection of artistic culture and a statue of it and a historical source of information about peoples, and it carries in its embrace the spirit and pulse of the era and the collective ideas of those who created it in addition to the prevailing customs and traditions. The research tagged (the social dimension of dance scenes in the surrealist movement) consists of four chapters, as the first chapter dealt with the research problem that was determined by the following question: What is the social dimension of dance scenes in the surrealist movement? The importance of research, the need for it, its limits, and the definition of its terminology. As for the second chapter, it was divided into two sections. The first dealt with the social dimension of dance scenes, and the second section dealt with dance scenes in the surrealist movement. The third chapter is devoted to analyzing the research sample, while the fourth chapter deals with the presentation of the results and conclusions reached by the research.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Noor Moayad Abd ALKareem Ghasaq Hasan Muslim Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 13 4 1583 1612 Coordination thinking and its relationship to mental motivation among Diyala University stud <div> <p>The current search aims to learn about : 1- Coordination thinking skills of Diyala University students Faculty of Basic Education Department of History.2- Coordination thinking skills relate to mental motivation among students of Diyala University Faculty of Basic Education Department of History .The research community consists of ( 600 ) students from the Faculty of Basic Education of the Department of History, and since the research community is different, a sample of (400) Students from Diyala University Faculty of Basic Education/Morning Studies for the academic year (2022-2023), for the third and fourth occasions and selected in a randomized manner. In order to achieve the research objectives, the researcher Tini selected coordinating thinking skills for Rashid-2022 for his research . In the light of the research's current objectives, the researcher has reached the following findings :. 1- Diyala University students have coordination thinking skills2- A statistically significant relationship between coordinating thinking skills and mental motivation .In the light of the research findings, the researcher drew a number of conclusions, recommendations and proposals :Conclusions :1- The total self-reliance of the University's students at this stage is the acquisition of many skills, which has given rise to the ability to make decisions and thereby increase their level of thinking and mental motivation ..2- The students of the university at this stage have high confidence in their abilities and demonstrate a great desire to accomplish their tasks and duties as they persevere in accomplishing the tasks assigned to them to achieve educational objectives ..Recommendations :1- The adoption by university professors of modern teaching methods that will develop the skills of coordinating thinking and mental motivation .2- Curriculum makers in the Ministries of Education and Higher Education and Scientific Research take into account the inclusion in the curriculum of topics of developing students' coordination thinking skills .Proposals :1-In order to complement the relevant aspects of this research, the researcher proposes to conduct the following future research on coordination thinking skills and their relationship to achievement among students at other levels of education such as elementary, middle and preparatory .2- Coordination thinking skills relate to a number of cognitive variables such as attainment, cognitive autonomy and concepts .</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Maha Jassam Mohammed Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 13 4 1613 1638 Occupying Ideology In the Iraqi Novel After 2012 AD <div> <p>Ideology is linked to the interests of the groups that struggle to reach political power, in a way of thinking that works to preserve the present and denies any attempt at change. It finds in itself an absolute truth that cannot be contested. The intellectual system of the American occupier appeared in Iraq, coupled with the endeavor to pass its discourse opposed to other discourses, and the founder of goals closely related to expediency and self-interest alike. it in Iraq. Literature is not far from political transformations, so ideology breaks into the fictional text as a primary material, or an aesthetic component that is transformed in the hands of the writer who transcends the individual self, and expresses the group to which he belongs or expresses it, into a means of formulating his fictional world. Hence, we worked under the umbrella of formative structuralism, In an approach to the narrative narrative narratives in the achievement of a group of Iraqi novelists, each creative work represents a part of it, we can achieve a better understanding of it by putting it in the whole, after we approach its superficial structure in the stage of understanding up to interpretation to reveal the deep structure of significance, and then link it to what is Broader and more comprehensive, and we want the Iraqi social, cultural and economic reality in the stage in which the Iraqi novelist wrote for his novelist achievement. Thus, it departed from the formative structuralism whose mechanisms Lucian Goldman sat on - the formative structuralism, which was unable to transcend the closed world of the creative text, contenting itself with analyzing the structure in an inductive analysis, without going beyond that to deducing the far from the semantics, behind these patterns, as does the formative structuralism. This study revealed what was monitored by the Iraqi novel of a relationship based on symmetry between the structures of Iraqi novelist creativity, and the mental structures that prevail in the group in three axes.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Ahmed Rashid Alddah Zainab Mohammed Abboud Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 13 4 1639 1658 Types of Constitutional Conciliation Based on the Formal Criterion <div> <p>This study aims to examine the concept of constitutional reconciliation within the framework of the formal standard. Specifically، it focuses on reconciling conflicting constitutional rules that are limited to the confines of the constitutional document، without extending beyond its boundaries. Such conflicts necessitate the development of a novel judicial approach by the constitutional judge to establish a balance and reconciliation between these rules and constitutional principles. The ultimate objective is to safeguard the unity and fundamental essence of the constitution by mitigating fragmentation that may arise from contradictory provisions rooted in conflicting constitutional rules.The primary purpose of this research is to showcase the authority vested in the constitutional judge to reconcile these constitutional rules based on the formal standard. To accomplish this aim، the study explores various modes of reconciliation in accordance with the formal standard، encompassing reconciliation between constitutional texts and the constitutional preamble، reconciliation among conflicting constitutional texts، and reconciliation between the original constitutional texts and the subsequently amended ones. The research methodology employed herein relies on a comparative approach، which involves comprehensive analysis of the subject matter and the identification of both commonalities and divergences among converging legal systems.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Ahmed Oudah Mohammed Al – Dulaimi Mohammed Abd Abas Al-Esawy Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 13 4 1659 1688 The image of the mother and her representations in the Arab feminist painting <div> <p>The tagged study represents (the image of the mother and her representations in the Arab feminist painting) amodest scientific of(the image of the mother and her representations in the Arab feminist painting , through some artistic productions selected from the paintings. which resulted in the researcher collecting scientific materials to serve the subject of the research and the reality of three chapters. the first chapter included the methodological framework for the research problem its importance , objectives, limits, and the terminology contained there in. the second chapter is devoted to the theoretical framework , which includes some topics related to the subject of the research . the researcher dealt in the first axis with the image of women in Arab painting , and the second axis dealt with aesthetic the Arab feminist painting. the third chapter dealt with the research community , the selection of the sample forms. as for the fourth and final chapter of this research , the results of the research were reached by analyzing the sample models and in the light of the objectives that have been identified. While the fourth chapter included the results of the research, conclusions, recommendations and suggestions , Among the findings of the researcher: 1 –The cultural environment by raising the issue of cultural overlap and evoking heritage, folklore, stories and myths with their imaginary atmosphere 2 - The role of the mother in the artistic works of Arab female artists is highlighted through her relationship with her children, with love, tenderness and sacrifice for them Among the conclusions are: 1 - The aesthetic relationship between feminist Arab painting and the environment has emerged through the ideological connection to its works based on objective treatments of the issue of the inferior view of women and openness to meaning by linking the old and the new.2- The artistic works showed the mother's relationships with her children, which included social dimensions such as love, tenderness, follow-up, closeness to them, and caring for them</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Amal Hassan Ibrahim Amjad Abdel Kazem Hussein Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 13 4 1689 1710 The effectiveness of a proposed strategy according to Julian's theory in the achievement of general teaching methods and life skills among university students <div> <p>This research aims to identify the effectiveness of a proposed strategy according to Julian's theory in the collection of general teaching methods and life skills among university students.•There is no statistically significant difference at the level of significance (0.05) between the mean scores of the students of the experimental group who were subjected to the proposed strategy according to Julian's theory and the average scores of the students of the control group who were not subjected to the proposed strategy in the achievement test of the subject of general teaching methods.•There is no statistically significant difference at the level of significance (0.05) between the average scores of students in the experimental group who were subjected to the proposed strategy according to Julian's theory and the average scores of students in the control group who were not subjected to the proposed strategy according to the life skills scale prepared for this purpose. The researcher applied her experience in the first semester of the academic year (2021-2022 AD), and the research sample consisted of (127) male and female students from the third stage in the Department of Mathematics in the College of Basic Education, where they were randomly distributed into two experimental and control groups, with a total of (63) male and female students for the experimental group and (64) for the control group, then the two groups were rewarded in the variables (the chronological age of the students calculated in months, the level of intelligence, the previous knowledge test, the life skills scale), and based on the relative importance of the content of the scientific material and its behavioral goals, a test was built An achievement consisting of (34) multiple-choice test items. The researcher also prepared the life skills scale, which included (57) items on the scale, distributed among (problem-solving skill, emotion management skill, teamwork skill and full of team spirit, participation skill, the skill of following healthy healthy habits, communication skills, decision-making skill) and a three-dimensional gradation was used (applies to me to a large degree, applies to me to a moderate degree, does not apply to me) to answer each paragraph of Its paragraphs, and the validity and stability of the two tools were confirmed, and their psychometric characteristics were verified. At the end of the experiment, which continued to be applied for an entire semester, the two researchers applied the achievement test and the life skills scale to the students of the two groups. After obtaining and analyzing the results, it was found that there is a clear effect of the educational program in increasing achievement and skills life of the experimental group students.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Nisreen Hamza Abbas Al-Sultan Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 13 4 1711 1746 What was changed from the narratives of the call to prayer (( An analytical study )) <div> <p>The five prayers that were imposed on Muslims were temporary at specific times, and it was not permissible for a Muslim to perform them before their time began, so it was necessary to remind them of them. He was taken on a journey to the Mi’raj, so he heard the call to prayer from Gabriel (peace be upon him), and once again when Gabriel (peace be upon him) called the call to prayer on earth, the Prophet (may God bless him and his family) ordered Imam Ali bin Abi Talib (peace be upon him) to call Bilal to teach him the call to prayer, but these narrations It was replaced by other narrations mentioning that this legislation came It came through a vision that the companion Abdullah bin Zaid saw in a dream, as well as Umar bin Al-Khattab, but he did not inform the Prophet (may God bless him and his family) of his vision because according to what bin narrations stated that he was ashamed, or two or more companions, according to the difference in the narrations and the substitution that occurred in them, and from Then suggesting that vision to the Prophet (may God bless him and his family), and the Prophet (may God bless him and his family), in turn, approved that act and ordered that it be added to the call to prayer, but it is true that these narratives are fabricated and replaced by the evidence of what is prove by the sources of these narratives that were develop after the death of Abdullah bin Zaid, so it is invalid. Whereas it is correct that the call to prayer was legislated by the Prophet (may God bless him and his family) by order of God Almighty and at the latest on the night of Isra and Miraj, and that the difference that occurred is among Muslims, as some of them suggested using new means, but the Prophet (may God bless him and his family) decided The subject, when Bilal ordered the call to prayer, and the Prophet (may God bless him and his family) was not perplexed, and due to the importance of the subject, it was necessary for us to shed light on the altered narrations in the legislation of the call to prayer.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Hanan Said Hawi Al-Ghariti Iyad Abdul-Hussein Sihoud Al-Khafaji Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 13 4 1747 1766 The effect of the generative learning strategy on the expressive performance of fifth grade literary students <div> <p>In order to achieve the goal of the research, the researcher chose in an intentional way the preparatory project for boys, and randomly chose Division (A) to represent the experimental group that studied expression in the style of (generative learning strategy), and Division (B) to represent the control group that studied expression in the usual way, the research sample reached (73) students, with (37) students in the experimental group, and (36) students in the control group. The researcher conducted a statistical equivalence between the students of the two groups in a number of variables, and the researcher himself taught the two research groups, during the duration of the experiment, which lasted a full semester, and after the end of the experiment, the researcher applied a test to the students of the two groups. The researcher used (t-test for two independent samples, chi-squared (Ca2), and Pearson's correlation coefficient) and statistical methods, and after analyzing the results, the researcher concluded: The students of the experimental group outperformed the students of the control group in expressive performance. The researcher reached a set of recommendations, including:In light of the findings of this study, the researcher recommends the following:1- Emphasizing the importance of using the generative learning strategy when teaching expressive performance in the directives of supervisors for teachers of the Arabic language and its teachers, and the need to pay attention to dealing with it and presenting it to students in a way that helps them appreciate literature and not turn them away from it.2- Emphasizing the use of the generative learning strategy in teaching the subject of expression and directing the attention of male and female teachers to use it because of its impact on stimulating the mental processes of students and increasing focus as it constitutes renewal and suspense for students and a move away from the old traditional methods.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Bareq Abdul Hussein Ali Al-Jubouri Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 13 4 1767 1792 The effect of serious artistic works on developing the performing skills of students of the Department of Art Education in the subject of pictorial composition <div> <p>The current research adopted the theme (the impact of serious artistic works in developing the performing skill of students of the Department of Art Education in the subject of pictorial composition), and the four chapters of the research came as follows: Art Education Department of serious artwork in the pictorial creation? The chapter also included the objectives of the research, which focused on revealing the impact of serious artistic works in developing the performing skill of the students of the Department of Art Education in the subject of pictorial composition.1- The null hypothesis: There are no statistically significant differences at the level (0.05) between the students of the two groups (experimental - control) in their skill performance according to the performance observation form. The chapter also included the limits of the research that were spatially limited to Iraq _ University of Kufa _ College of Education _ Department of Art Education, for the period from 2021-2022. The second chapter contained the theoretical framework and previous studies and their discussion. This chapter included two sections, the first topic: (serious) artworks in plastic art, and the second topic: pictorial composition. The third chapter was devoted to research procedures, which included the research methodology, where the researcher adopted (the experimental approach), and the research community represented by the students of the third stage morning study/Department of Art Education/College of Education/University of Kufa, and the research sample was chosen randomly by dividing the community into two groups. The first experimental group was represented by the (A) division and the control group by the (B) division. It also included the search tool, the tests of the normal distribution, and the statistical means. As for the fourth chapter, it contains the results and conclusions of the research and their discussion, as well as recommendations and suggestions. Among the results are: There are statistically significant differences at level (0.05) between the students of the two groups (experimental - control) in their cognitive performance. There are statistically significant differences at level (0.05) between students of the two groups (experimental - control) in their skill performance.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Emad Hammoud Twij Farah Mohamed Abdel Baqi Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 13 4 1793 1818 Unpublished Cuneiform Prayer Text From NABÛ ṤA HARE Temple <p>The ancient Iraqi people practiced many religious rituals through which they tried to gain the affection and approval of the gods, and among these rituals : builds the temples, erection the statues for the gods, offering sacrifices, holding religious ceremonies , and many other actions. As well as the prayer was one of the most important worship ways in which the ancient Iraqi people sought to appease the gods , where it constituted the path between man and god , where they intent through it of avoiding the wrath of the gods and thier punishment. The prayer in ancient Iraq was not performed by supplication only, but rather it involved a number of actions and movements , where the Cuneiform prayer texts mentioned that the prayer in ancient Iraq was contenaind the process of bowing and prostration . There is also a reference to the process of raising the hand during the prayer process to supplicate to the gods, in addition for what we mentioned , the cuneiform sources mentioned that the worshipers in ancient Iraq, when they worshiping in front of the statue of the god, would hold the hem of the dress of the statue of the god, in reference to the seriousness of prayer and the trust of the worshipers in their gods.</p> Ahmed Naje Sabee Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 13 4 89 100 Al-Fadl bin Shazan’s Historical Narrations in the Prophet’s biography, An analytical Study <div> <p>tanawalat fi hadha albahth sirat alfadl bin shadhaan al'azdi alnaysaburi aladhi wulid nahw (muntasaf alqarn althaani alhijri- munsif alqarn althaamin alhijrii) fi madinat nisabur hayth nasha biha eind walidih alkhalil almulaqab bishadhan aladhi akhadh eanh aleilm thuma airtahala meaan alaa hawadir aldawlat alearabiat alaslamiati, (baghdad, alkufat, wastu, nisabur) litalab aleilmi, adh tatalmadh ealaa yad 'ayimat ahl albiti(elayhim alsalam),eali bin musaa alrida, wamuhamad bin eali aljawadi, waeali bin muhamad alhadi, fadlan ean mashayikh akhar minhum :muhamad bin abi eumayr wasafwan bin yahyaa, wabaed an alm bialmaearif waleulum qasadah tulaab aleilm lil'iifadat minhu, fasamat manzilatah bayn eulama' alamat alearabiat alaslamiat fi eulumi: alquran alkarim, waltaarikhi, walrajal, walkalami, fawasafuh bijalalat alqadr waeazim alshaana, wakan min almuthuq bihim, faisbah min 'ayimat madrasat alnaqd alrijali, adh la yakad yakhlu kitab rijali min ray lah fi altawthiq aw altadeif fdlaan ean altaerif walwasf lihal alruwati, min hayth alshakl aw almihnat walsakan watarikh alwafaat wamawdie aldafna, waqad aistamara alfadl bieatayih aleilmii aladhi banaa lah majdan fi alhayaat aldunya waeazan liaikhratihi, lakina dhalik sabab lah zlmaan kabir min qibal alsultat alhakimat alati aietaqalath wawadaeath fi alsajna, wamin thama aitlaq surahuh watama nafyuh fasabib lah marad tuafaa ealaa 'atharih sanatan (260h/783m), faturham ealayh alamam alhasan bin eali alhadi(ealayhima alsalam)wqal bihaqih "aghabat ahl kharsan bimakan alfadl" walah marqad yazar fi nawahi madinat nisabur, waqad tarak athar eilmiatan hamat balagh eadaduha (miatan wathamanin kitabi), mutanawieatan adh ealajat jawanib mutaeadidatan min hayaat almuslimina, waqad wasalat katabah alaa eulama' easr alghibat alshaykh alklini walsaduq waltuwsi adha nuqila eanh fi kutubihim ,aman alkitaab alwahid aladhi wasal alyna min mualafatih hu kitab al'iidah aladhi daeia fih alaa altamasuk bialdiyn alaslamii wakhudhih min manbaeih alasil muhamad walah (slawat allah wasalamuh ealayhim), kama khalaf lana alfadl athar riwayiy ham adh balagh eadad marwiaatih (sabeumiayat wakhamsat wasabein mirwiatan) kan laha 'athar fi bayan alhaqayiq altaarikhiat lieusur zamaniat la siama easr alrisalat aladhi bahath mudatah min khilal marwiaat alfadl baed dirasatiha linufid minha fi alhayaat aleamat la siama aljanib aleilmi, kulu dhalik akhidh bi'aydina likitabat hadha albahth .</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Abbas Nsaif Jasim Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 13 4 1819 1854 The role of local governments in protecting public funds in Iraq <div> <p>After Iraq became a federal state with the issuance of the permanent constitution of Iraq for the year and2005 obtaining approval by the Iraqi people in a public referendum, the application of the federal experience, which is considered one of the new systems on Iraqi society and needs to pass a long period of time for the purpose of consolidating its principles and new ideas on Iraqi society in all political, social and economic aspects, and we have tried in this study to highlight the role of local governments in Iraq and their role in protecting public money and competencies Which it exercises in this area and the most important tasks that it performs and the provinces that are not linked in a region working to protect public money in Iraq and clarify the role of regular local governments in a region in the northern part of Iraq and what the region has of an administrative structure provided by the federal system of the Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers in addition to the local governments represented in the provincial councils and their role and tasks in order to protect public money and strive to provide services and the role of District councils and districts and the impact they have of conducting work on the sustainability and continuity of public money in order to provide.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Jamil Tarbal Jassim Reda Mohammadi Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 13 4 1855 1880 The Effect of Hilda Tapas model on the Acquisition of historical Concepts for Sixth graders in the Subiect of Social Studies <div> <p>The current research aims to identify “the effect of the Hilda Tapa model on the acquisition of historical concepts among sixth-grade students in social studies.” To achieve the goal of the research, the researcher developed a null hypothesis that was subjected to experimentation. The research sample intentionally consisted of (80) female students distributed into two groups of (40) One student for each group. The researcher rewarded these two groups on a number of variables. The researcher prepared a test for the acquisition of historical concepts, consisting of (44) items. The test’s reliability coefficient was calculated using the Cronbach’s alpha method, and the test’s reliability coefficient reached (0.81), which indicates the excellence of the test. With a high degree of stability according to the values of the two stability coefficients, When processing the data statistically, the researcher used statistical methods, including the t-test for two independent samples, to establish equality between the study groups, including the Kuder-Richard-Sohn 20 equation and the Chi-square test. The result of the research showed the following (there is no statistically significant difference between the average grades of the students of the experimental group studying social studies. By using the Hilda Tapa model and the average grades of the students in the control group who study the same subject in the traditional way of acquiring historical concepts. In light of the results of the research and to complement it, the researcher proposed conducting an experimental study similar to the current study in other stages and grades. And training teachers to use these educational models in teaching students because they are important in achieving educational goals in particular and educational goals in general. Introducing educational models, including the Hilda Tapa model, into the vocabulary of the subject of teaching methods taught in the College of Basic Education and male and female teachers’ institutes. And the necessity of using the Hilda model. Tapa in teaching social studies at all academic levels. And the possibility of applying the Hilda Tapa model with sixth-grade female students in various academic subjects. Depending on the conclusions and findings of the present research, the researcher suggested the same research can be conducted at the other classes, levels and training teachers for use thes educational models it and how to teach pupils because of its importance in achieveing pedagogical goals especially and educational goals in general.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> WASAN Abdullah Ahmed Alshlmma Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 13 4 1881 1912 The Problem of Translating What is Specific to Arabic in the Translation Uri Rubin for the Meanings of the Holy Qur’an into Hebrew <div> <p>The religious translation is one of the most important types of translation, the most interesting and problematic, and it often raises controversy and questions among those interested. Therefore, in our research, we dealt with the problem of translating the Arabic words, expressions, vocabulary, and meanings unique to the rest of its Semitic languages in general, and the Hebrew language in particular, by studying examples of translating the meanings of the Holy Qur’an into Hebrew by the translator Uri Rubin. It resulted from a difference in understanding the Qur’anic text and confusion in some other concepts. This research focused on translating the meanings of rhetoric that is unique to the Arabic language, on the translator's use of the term appropriate to that rhetoric and on the difficulty, he faced in translating it, or he made a mistake in translating it by giving the inappropriate or accurate rhetorical meaning that was mentioned in the models chosen from the verses of the Holy Qur’an. The issue of the absence of accurate connotation in the translation of the Qur’anic word may be on purpose, or it may be unintentional. This is due to the negligence of consulting books of explanation and language books, which are the basis for understanding the style of the Holy Qur’an.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Ali Sudad Ja'far Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 13 4 1913 1928 'The Joker' vs. 'Tails': The Discourses and Counter Discourses of Tishreen Protest on Iraqi Social Media Platforms <div> <p>This research aims to investigate the discourses and counter-discourses surrounding the Iraqi protests on social media, shedding light on the main discourses and counter discourses recurring themes and topics that emerged during this period of intense public mobilization. By analyzing the content, language, and patterns of communication on various social media platforms, this study seeks to provide a comprehensive understanding of the discursive dynamics and the impact of digital spaces on the protest movement. To achieve this aim, Wodak and Meyer's (2016) Discourse Historical Approach (DHA) under the umbrella of Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) that examines the Self and Other (mis)representation of social groups has been adopted in this study. The findings show that the protesters are constructed by anti-protest social media users negatively as Joker's followers in reference to the psychopath movie character Joker who is involved in a downward spiral of bloody crimes. They are also, constructed of being agents to a foreign super power as well as constructing protesters as Saddamists or Saddam's orphans among many other constructions that are aimed to demonize them. On the other hand, the pro-protests social media users, as well as protesters, have constructed some Iraqi officials, militias and anti-protest users as being tails of Iran who are executing Iran's agenda in Iraq and being proxies to other countries.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Dhiaa Kareem Ali Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 13 4 101 116 Challenges of the Integrated Grammar and Linguistic Curriculum for the Sixth Grade (2023) <div> <p>Today we are witnessing nine distinct fields of knowledge, such that the elements of culture later overlap to the point that it is difficult for us to separate this knowledge, and to adopt an integrative inevitable result as a tool that is compatible with the requirements of the modern era on one hand, and we strive to reach the linguistic content in a way that leaves us with the basic student this. Content in our daily lives, and its integration with and interaction with society on the other hand. This makes the alternatives more realistic and increasingly relevant; It helps in developing the capabilities of both the teacher and the learner, and eliminates the repetition that occurs in the rest of the traditional curricula in teaching the Arabic language. A series of grammatical and linguistic challenges and errors have accompanied the current edition of the textbook, preventing the achievement of the intended goal according to the integrated approach in teaching the Arabic language. These errors could have been avoided if the book had undergone further refinement and careful review. On an applied level, the grammatical topics were excessively long to the point of causing boredom. Although they were included in a single book alongside other topics, they were practically divided. As a result, by the time the student finished the grammatical section, they had often forgotten the previously covered topics that formed the foundation of this integrated curriculum, both in relation to those topics and to the grammatical material itself. Additionally, some of the requirements were vague or presented difficulties in other aspects. All of these factors prompted me to investigate the reasons behind these challenges and attempt to address them in future editions</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Forat Sabbar Manthoor Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 13 4 1929 1946 Knowledge economy skills and their level of familiarity among social studies teachers for the primary stage <div> <p>The main research problem falls in the following question: What is the level of familiarity of Knowledge economy skills for male and female social studies teachers at the primary stage? The importance of the research focused on empowering knowledge economics skills that are important for teachers because it contributes to the development of the teacher in the teaching process, enabling him to think and read critically, solve problems creatively, create and manage knowledge, analyze data, and benefit from it, and keep pace with the development of the time and everything new around it. These skills also enable teachers to create visions for future learning and diverse educational experiences in multiple fields, which help learners practice future learning, acquire self-education skills, and appreciate lifelong learning. In order to achieve the importance of this research, (200) questionnaires were distributed to a random sample of social studies teachers in primary schools in The Hindiya district affiliated with the Karbala Education Directorate, Hindiya Education Department. The descriptive approach was relied upon in identifying and treating the research variables. For the purpose of achieving this matter, a main goal of the research was set, which is (knowing the degree of availability of cognitive economics skills among male and female teachers of social studies for the primary stage). To achieve this goal and other goals, the researcher built the knowledge economy skills scale after reviewing the literature and previous studies related to the topic of her research. This scale in its final form included (50) items, For the purpose of analyzing the scale’s responses, the researcher used a number of statistical methods, such as: percentage, the T-test for one sample, the T-test for two independent samples, the second analysis of variance test by interaction, and the Cronbach’s alpha equation to ensure the validity and stability of the scale. The statistical analysis was by computer using the statistical package. (Spss.28), and Excel programs. The most important results of this research were:1)That social studies teachers are familiar with Knowledge economy skills.2)The academic qualification at its various levels and the years of service at its various levels have no relationship to the Knowledge economy skills of male and female social studies teachers.This research has a set of recommendations, the most prominent of which were:1)Headmasters and supervisors must be trained in knowledge economy skills through courses and seminars to guide educational staff by the educational supervision department.2)Teachers of social studies and other teachers of other academic subjects must develop themselves and increase their knowledge through continuous reading of scientific and social books outside the educational curriculum to keep pace with scientific development and student education.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Bashair Hussein Youssef Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 13 4 1947 1986 The position of Al-Ahram newspaper regarding the discovery of the secret operations to deport Ethiopian Jews (the Falashas) to Israel in 1985 <div> <p>The research dealt with the position of Al-Ahram newspaper on the secret operations to deport Falasha Ethiopian Jews to Israel, as it touched on the importance of Al-Ahram newspaper at the Egyptian and Arab levels, how it was established and the extent of its influence on Arab public opinion, and presented the origin of the designation of Ethiopian Jews as Falasha, then how the Israeli government agreed to Transferring Jews to Israel, and giving the green light to carry out their transfers, which began in 1977 and continued in the form of operations from time to time until 1985. It was done and what are the ways and means by which the Jews were transferred except for what was revealed, which are six ways through which the Ethiopian Jews (the Falashas) were deported to (Israel). These operations, which were secret, were revealed in January 1985, and in the face of these operations, Al-Ahram newspaper had a position on these operations, especially after the unveiling of these secret operations was revealed to the Arab and international public opinion, so Al-Ahram's position was translated through a number of articles that dealt with these operations Confidentiality, and these press articles focused on accusing Ethiopia of agreeing to these operations. It also blamed some Arab leaders in South Yemen and Libya for not preventing these operations through their ideological relations that bind them to Ethiopia. Despite this, it is noted that the newspaper's position is an attempt to push the charge of Sudan's involvement. In operations and justification in the humanitarian and social aspects, and therefore the position of Al-Ahram newspaper coincided with the position of the Egyptian government</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Thamir Mohamed Hamid Hussein Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 13 4 1987 2006 Utilitarian thinking among special education teachers <div> <p>The current research aims to identify the following:1-Utilitarian thinking among special education teachers.2- Statistically significant differences in the level of utilitarian thinking among special education teachers according to the gender variable (males - females). Conduct a study similar to the current research to determine the relationship between employees and students’ utilitarian thinkingTo achieve the research objectives, a sample of male and female teachers of special education classes in government schools in Dhi Qar and Babil Governorate was selected on the basis of (district/district) for the academic year (2021-2022) shown in Table (1), and they numbered (195) male and female teachers, and the researcher followed the steps. The scientific method adopted in psychological measurement for preparing the utilitarian thinking scale is based on the theory of (Baron, 1991), which consists of (39) items in its final form. The researcher verified the psychometric properties of the scale, including validity and reliability on his sample that reached (195). The data was processed statistically using... The statistical package (spss) and the results showed the following1-Special education teachers have a high level of utilitarian thinking.2- There are no statistically significant differences at the level (0.05) in utilitarian thinking according to the gender variable (males - females).Through the researcher's knowledge of the theories of thinking and ego strength, he found that they can be invested and employed in all types of human activities, including the teaching profession. Also, there is a lack of research that dealt with utilitarian thinking, based on the reality of the studied segment and based on the above, can the researcher embody the problem of this research, which is to identify utilitarian thinking and the strength of the ego among special education teachers؟</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Laith Jabbar Muhammad Nawras Shakir Hadi Al-Abbas Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 13 4 2007 2034 Perceived psychological stress among special education teachers <div> <p>The aim of the current research is to identify:1.The level of perceived psychological stress among special education teachers.2.. The statistically significant differences in the level of perceived psychological stress among special education teachers according to the gender variable male-female. The researcher used the correlational descriptive approach, because it is the most appropriate in conducting the current research, as the research community consisted of special education teachers who are in primary schools with special grades in the directorates of education of Baghdad Governorate for the year (2021-2022), as their number reached (378) male and female teachers, by (106) teachers and (272) teachers, so a sample of (227) teachers was selected from the special education teachers, distributed by (64) teachers and (163) teachers, They were randomly selected by percentage and by (60%) of the total research population, In order to achieve the goals, it was necessary to have a tool for measuring perceived psychological stress, as the researcher built a building for perceived psychological stress based on the theory of Hans Selye, being the closest to the current research. The main research sample of (227) of special education teachers was chosen randomly, to truly represent the original research community, and after analyzing the data statistically using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS), the results yielded the following:1.Special education teachers have a level of perceived psychological stress.2.There are no statistically significant differences in the perceived psychological stress according to the gender variable.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Muthanna Jamal Abdullah Nagham Abdul Reda Abdul Hussein Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 13 4 2035 2058 Assessing EFL Learners Translation of Humorous Expressions in Political Texts <div> <p>Humour is a common phenomenon. It is one of the most attractive parts in human communication. It is a universal aspect of human experience that conveys various meanings and norms from one culture to another. According to the definition of political humour ,it is an effective tool for politicians to either make themselves more accessible to the public or their opponents less attractive. The key problem of this study is that, humour expressions are usually not easy to render from SL into TL, as they may lose their humorous sense when rendered from SL into TL. As such ,the rendering may not be appropriate.The main objective of this paper is to assess EFL learners’ translations of the humorous expressions in political text from English to Arabic . Also, it provides a workable solution to deal with the EFL learners renderings and fill the gaps in SL text in a way that ensures the continuation of the communicative process The data were collected from third years students of the English Department, College of Arts. They translated some of the selected sentences from Donald Trump's speech. The humorous expressions of these sentences are analysed semantically and evaluated in terms of the basic translation criteria: accuracy, economy and appropriateness of Larson's model. Practically, this study adopts the Larson model of translation assessment for the humorous expressions in the political text. Furthermore, it adoptsNewmark’s strategy of Semantic and Communicative to the whole renderings of the text.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Mafaz Khalil Hammadi Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 13 4 117 136 Features of assemblage art in ancient Egyptian art <div> <p>The current research is concerned with presenting and dealing with the concept of collage art and the features of its formation historically in Egyptian art, as it appears in the current research the diversity in the use of materials far from art and the adaptation of them within the artwork to form a work of art in a harmonious and harmonious manner. Where the materials varied and varied within the artwork in ancient Egyptian art, as the ancient Egyptian artist adapted and introduced diamonds, jewels and collectibles to his artwork with the intention of giving it an aesthetic aspect. The current research included four chapters. The first chapter was devoted to explaining the research problem, the importance of the research, the need for a mechanism, the aim of the research, and the limits of the research. The research problem focused on answering the following question:What are the features of assembly in ancient Egyptian art?As for the second chapter, it included the theoretical framework in two sections, the first topic talked about the concept of collage art and its types. The second chapter included compilation in ancient Egyptian art, and in the third chapter it included an analysis of samples of collage art in Egyptian art. The fourth chapter included results:1- The artworks are affected by the materials that make up the plastic artwork and the method of construction and composition of the artwork (collage, synthesis, deletion and addition, naturalization)2- The aesthetic of the art of assembly was achieved by introducing many forms far from art and thus reaching the unfamiliar in a beautiful and harmonious way Conclusions:1- The method of construction and composition of the artwork (collage, collection, deletion and addition) affects the formal formulations of the artwork.2- The art of assembly calls for raising the creative and imaginative level of the artist by introducing things far from art into the heart of the artwork proposals and recommendations.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Hussein Talib Jabbar Hamdiya Kazem Roudan Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 13 4 2059 2080 A message that Friday is a strict obligation Study and investigation By the scholar Muhammad bin Hamza Al-Aydini, known as (Al-Quzal Hisari) <div> <p>This research included an investigation of the manuscript of the eminent scholar Muhammad bin Pir Ali al-Hanafi, which is a treatise entitled (Friday is a strict obligation), where the scholar Muhammad bin Pir Ali stated in this treatise (Friday) is established by the Qur’an, the Sunnah, and consensus. The one who strives for it is an infidel and the one who abandons it is an adulterer, and the sheikh is considered one of the later ones. Hanafi scholars, so he transmitted the opinions of the early scholars and explained them or weighed between them. He wrote many treatises on Hanafi jurisprudence. He wrote many works on Hanafi jurisprudence, some of which are simple, some are brief, and some are moderate. As for the later Hanafi scholars, they transmitted the opinions of the early ones, explained them, or weighed between them. Among these scholars is the scholar Muhammad bin Hamza al-Aydini, who wrote many treatises on Hanafi jurisprudence that exceeded a hundred treatises. His approach to it was that he conveyed the opinions of the earlier Hanafi scholars, such as Al-Marginani, Al-Hakim, Al-Zayla’i, and others, and he mentioned the evidence and discussed it, and then after that he made it more likely. Among the important topics that the scholar Muhammad bin Hamza dealt with was Friday being a strict obligation. He conveyed the opinions of other schools of thought regarding it, then he conveyed the disagreement in the Hanafi school of thought and discussed the evidence. The statements are presented in an impartial manner, and the weight is based on the strength of the evidence. The research was divided into two sections and a conclusion. The first section: a study of the author, and the second section: the investigated text. Whatever we succeed in, that is God’s grace, which He bestows on whomever He wishes in terms of worship, and whatever we fall short in, it is from ourselves. May God’s blessings and peace be upon our master Muhammad and his family and companions</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Ali Khaled Hammoud Falah Abdul Rasoul Hamoudi Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 13 4 2081 2116 Features of the life of the nobles in Baghdad in the first Abbasid era )132- 232 AH 749-847 AD) <div> <p>Praise be to God, Lord of the worlds, and prayers and peace be upon the most honorable of the prophets and messengers, our Master Muhammad, and upon all his family and companions. The study of social life is of great importance among the historical studies, because it focuses on following up and studying human behavior and the development that occurs to man in the era in which he lives. There is no doubt that the society in the Abbasid era fluctuated between its members between one state and another. Some of them lived in wealth and prosperity, and some of them lived in hardship and destitution, and some of them lived a subsistence life, as the nature of the general conditions of the Abbasid caliphate and the crises it was going through, whether political or economic, were throwing With its effects on society, it caused the emergence or spread of various phenomena in society, some of which were reflecting the state of luxury experienced by a segment of society, and these represent what is known as the funny For the purpose of identifying the nature of these phenomena that appeared in Iraq in the Abbasid era, this study was tagged: (The general conditions of the noble people in Iraq in the Abbasid era 132-656 AH / 749-1258 AD). We have dealt with the study of this phenomenon in Iraq in the Abbasid era, because it appeared In this era in a clearer way than in other eras that preceded it, we have also made Baghdad the model from which we will present historical evidence about the most famous gentlemen and beggars in the Abbasid era, because it represented the metropolis of the Abbasid Caliphate and that social phenomena were more evident in its society than in others and represented Social phenomena are a reflection of the nature of society and its general lifestyle. The presence of the poor and beggars in the Abbasid era is one of those phenomena that emerged in that era. This study came to show the nature of these people and their conditions in society. It also reveals the nature of those who practiced these phenomena and how they practiced them. she has</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Badie Mohammad Ibrahim Al-Mamoun Abdul Sattar Mutlak Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 13 4 2117 2128 Exclamation Style in the Holy Quran: A Grammatical Study <div> <p>Arabic is replete with linguistic styles crafted by linguists to formulate texts. They established grammatical rules based on these styles, and among these styles was the exclamatory style. Linguists studied this style, elucidating the standard rules upon which it is based and the linguistic forms from which exclamatory sentences are constructed. Since the Quran is a miracle in its words and meanings, linguistic rules were constructed within its blessed verses, including the exclamatory style. This is a linguistic act created by the speaker to express admiration for things, events, or individuals. It employs two standard forms: the suspended ما أفعله and the attached أفعل به forms. Through an analysis of Arabic discourse, we observe that not all verbs are built in the exclamatory form unless specific conditions are met, which we will elucidate in our research. As exclamations are a psychological reaction when someone feels strongly about a particular matter, the Quran does not differ in its exclamatory styles from what the Arabic language prescribes. In this study, we will clarify the exclamatory style and its forms, and the practical application will be in the Quran, which is a precise text. We will then highlight the suggestive connotation of exclamations in the Quran.The aim of this study is to elucidate the variations in the forms used by the Quran, so the research is divided into an introduction and three sections. We conclude our research with the most significant findings we have arrived at.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Hawraa Mahdi Abdulsahib Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 13 4 2129 2154 Diagnosis of inanimate objects in the poetry of Walid Al-Qassab <div> <p>It came in the definition of the art of personification that it is an artistic method in which the writer revives tangible and intangible things, whether they are inanimate objects, animals, plants, and intangible things... and this art, due to the light of life in things that have no life, gives the text a great aesthetic energy that draws the attention of the recipient. The poet Walid Qasib was one of the most prominent poets of the Levant in the modern era, and he took care of the artistic image in his poetry, and based on this care, we find that he has the art of personalization prominent, even mesmerized in the formulation of diagnostic images of all kinds to raise the level of his poetry. Through the descriptive analytical method.After an extensive study of the poet's manifestations of personalization, the research concluded that the poet formulated a lot of figurative images, so that his figurative images appeared in several forms, but what emerged from them was the diagnosis of inanimate objects. This art represented the revival and diagnosis of natural phenomena and human phenomena. The waves, the beach, and the desert. As for the human phenomena, they are the idol, the tents, the peg, the fodder, the eyes, the sword, the hair, the palm, the wall, and the money.The aim of choosing the research is to reveal the aesthetic diagnosis in Walid Katsav's poetry In general, as for the specific form, it is to show the aesthetics of inanimate objects and to look at them The poet mastered this part and studied it in a simplified way, as well as explaining the manifestations of diagnosis In the poet's office.It will depend on the descriptive analytical approach in our current study. As for the descriptive approach, it is one of the very important approaches in research. This importance lies in its frequent use and reliance on it in many types of studies and research. It is an approach concerned with studying phenomena as they exist in reality, in addition to being concerned with describing the phenomenon. An accurate description, which is expressed by describing it and clarifying its characteristics, or by giving it a numerical description that shows the extent of this phenomenon described. The descriptive approach has a prominent importance in providing data on the reality of the phenomenon to be studied, in addition to Indicates that he interprets this data and information, and organizes them quantitatively or qualitatively</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Hosayn Qadami Hassan Rahim Noui Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 13 4 2155 2174 Restrictions of documentation by hearing and reading in the Arabic manuscript <div> <p>Scholars took great care of the restrictions, especially the listening and readings, by documenting the texts because they represent important documentary data, and these restrictions are often fixed on the title page and at the end of it, or within its pages, as it is a method of documentation. The Arab scholars used to take great care in producing the correct, reliable and established texts. It was the habit of some scribes or authors, due to the lack of paper or the inability to buy it, to write down what they considered important in their lives on what they could reach from the books they had such as the date of birth, death, or wedding, or a mention of an important matter such as a scholarly license for a sheikh or a translation for some scholars, and often the title page or the last page of the manuscript was used for that matter, and in many cases we may find that these restrictions are more important than the In many cases, we may find that these restrictions are more important than the text of the manuscript itself, especially if the manuscript is one of the manuscripts in circulation, printed, educational, or popular, which makes it a unique document, so these restrictions have raised its status and value.body of the manuscript itself</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> kasim Al-Aibi Musa Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 13 4 2175 2194 Hyperrealism in the novel of find did not find <div> <p>Khaled Al-Qashtini digs into his novel from a grandfather who did not find a realistic atmosphere in the narrative expression of a great life reality.. The limit of realism in many cases reaches the point of exaggeration. It is realism that exaggerates in its realism. The degree of strangeness in the names, which may be explained by the writer’s spatial distance from the event’s environment, although this explanation is not a sufficient justification, as we shall see… The realistic novel reflects the reality in its details, and it pays great attention to the place and its details, and to explaining the scene that is formed as a result of the details of this place. In addition, it operates according to the principle of honesty in transmission to a large extent, and seeks accuracy in conveying historical facts and turning them into a topic for the novel and a course of events. It can be said, then, that the realistic doctrine in the Arabic novel is the most complete and consciously used literary doctrine by Arab writers. The historical stage in which the realistic trend appeared was a stage in which trends prevailed that recommended complete communication between the writer and his reality.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Hadi Ali Hadi Hasanain Gazi Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 13 4 2195 2204 Arabic dialects In the gym book of Abi Amr Al-Shaibani The deceased in the year (213 AH) <div> <p>Book of the gym of the old linguistic dictionaries of the Arabs, which is written by Al-Shaibani and is an authentic reference from the references of the Arabic language and a dictionary in the oddities of vocabulary, and it has many uniqueness taken from Abu Amr Al-Shaibani, and transmitted dictionaries after him, and Al-Shaibani did not start his book with the letter Al-Jim as some of them imagined as Al-Khalil began his book, but began with a thousand and reported linguistic materials within each letter according to the order of the letters of the Arabic alphabet. The strange thing is that we did not find him stating the reason for naming him by this name, and this may be due to the lack of an introduction to the book, which prompted researchers to take the name. The Arabic dialects in this dictionary had a large and diverse presence was an important source of ancient Arabic dialect texts through which we can explore the dialects of the ancient Arabs and the most important characteristics, which Abu Amr selected from the words of the poetry of the Arab tribes, which he collected as evidence of the existence of the words that he mentioned in his book stating the name of the one who said in many places of it and sometimes refers to the tribe of the one who said that he lost his name</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Qassem Rahim Hassan Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 13 4 2205 2226