Journal Of Babylon Center for Humanities Studies <p><strong> About the Journal </strong></p> <p> The Journal of the Babylon Center for Humanities Studies is an international, peer-reviewed, open-access scientific journal issued by the Babylon Center for Cultural and Historical Studies at the University of Babylon. The journal is concerned with studies, research, and research papers in the fields of studies in all the humanities and social sciences, as well as international and political relations, law, and media.</p> <p>The journal is published quarterly (every three months) and has an active, specialized international editorial board that supervises its work. It includes a large group of the best academics from several countries, which supervises the arbitration of research submitted to the journal.</p> <p>The journal is based on an ethical charter for its publishing rules and the relationship between it and researchers. It is also based on an internal bylaw that governs the work of arbitration, and an approved list of arbitrators in all specializations. In selecting the contents of its preparation, the he Journal of the Babylon Center also relies on the formal and objective specifications of international peer-reviewed journals.</p> <p><strong>Aims and Scopes</strong></p> <p>The Journal of Babylon Center for Humanities Studies provides an official academic publishing channel interested in publishing solid scientific research that has not previously been published in the field of various Humanities and linguistic studies. It works to increase publishing awareness among researchers in various specializations in the humanities, especially research in history, the Arabic language, Islamic sciences, educational and psychological sciences, and special education. And geography and the English language, as well as the other fields of human studies, law and political science. This is in order to highlight the efforts of researchers and the product of their intellectual work in a way that meets with the approval of the interested reader and reflects the university’s academic orientations.</p> <p><strong>Publication ethics and research misconduct</strong></p> <p>1- The research should be in conformity with the UN human rights laws.</p> <p>2 - The research must be unpublished and not acceptable for publication anywhere else and is not subject to evaluation elsewhere.</p> <ol start="3"> <li>Scientific honesty in quoting from previous sources and research and attributing it to its original owners.</li> <li>The research provided shall be commensurate with the needs of society in the field of human knowledge.</li> </ol> <p>5 - not to prejudice the scientific or literary figures with an insulting and offensive criticism that there is a constructive criticism based on accurate scientific foundations and constants.</p> <p>6 - not to be exposed in the search for offensive ideas stemming from personal, religious, ethnic, sectarian or political motives.</p> <ol start="7"> <li>Confronting new views and ideas may be contrary to the ideas of the persons interviewed in a professional and scientific manner, away from ridicule or abuse.</li> </ol> <p>8 - The researcher must distance himself in writing his research of his personal relations and emotional tendencies and committed to work under the scientific profession.</p> <p>9 - The researcher must be not response to external pressures in writing research to achieve personal interests or benefits of those parties.</p> <p>10 - The researcher should be open out to the opinions of other colleagues and accept constructive criticism to improve the image of research and address the mistakes that may be contained in it.</p> <ol start="11"> <li>If a mistake is discovered in the research after publication, the researcher must cooperate with the editor of the journal to correct the error by the appropriate means (re-publication with correction, withdrawal of the search, apology) and as necessary.</li> <li>Any form of research misconduct as submitting a search that is being published or is being reviewed elsewhere, or already published elsewhere, with the same content or similar content or others' work rates without citing the source of the quotation, plagiarism, forgery or fabrication if discovered at any stage of the editing process, or during printing or even after publication will result in immediate rejection of the search, , And the fees will not be refunded.</li> </ol> <p>13<strong>- </strong>The journal monitors ethics by the editor-in-chief, assistant editors, members of the editorial board, reviewers, authors, and readers.</p> University Of Babylon en-US Journal Of Babylon Center for Humanities Studies 2227-2895 The difference in the image of the morphological structure of the Quranic vocabulary and its impact on semantic guidance <p>This research deals with the difference in the morphological structure of the Quranic vocabulary in the Quranic readings and the impact of this difference in the semantic guidance of each reading, and since the Arabic language relies on movements to indicate the semantics of its vocabulary and sentences heavily, this research will address the impact of the difference in movement within the morphological structure of the vocabulary in:&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>The first</strong>: deals with the difference of the image of the single in its first letter.</p> <p><strong>Second:</strong> the difference in the image of the single in its second letter, and due to the multiplicity of the movement of the second letter between easing and tightening, this section will be divided into two parts as well, namely:( stirring or soothing, easing or tightening).&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; I started this research with an introduction in which I explained the effect of the movement of the morphological structure in the singular on changing the connotation, and then dealt with some of the noble Quranic verses and their readings that include changing the morphological movement of the singular and the effect of this change on changing the meaning and connotation of the Quranic verse, even a little, taking into account the different position of the movement, whether in the first letter of the singular or in its second letter. After addressing these differences, the research ended with a conclusion that includes the most important findings of the research, followed by the research margins, then a list of&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; research sources.</p> Faryal modher radi Al-Badiri Ehsan Fouad Abas Al-fouadi Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 1 14 The Journey of Loss and Lost Identity in Ali Bader’s The Tobacco Keeper <div> <p>This paper delves into the theme of lost identity in Ali Bader’s novel, The Tobacco Keeper. The Iraqi author draws inspiration from a theoretical fusion of post-modern and post-colonial ideologies, using his works to give voice to the silenced and marginalized in society, culture, and politics. The narrative centers on Kamal Medhat, an Iraqi composer who meets a tragic end when he is abducted and killed near his home in Al-Mansour city by an armed group. Bader’s novel explores how the turbulent political landscape in Iraq compels Kamal to undergo a profound transformation, assuming three distinct identities that alter the course of his life and have ripple effects on those around him. This literary work vividly portrays the notion of transitioning from one identity to another, often necessitated by the fluctuating political tides, and demonstrates the complex interplay of borrowed and concealed identities, which can be likened to a perilous game of deadly identities. The Tobacco Keeper relentlessly emphasizes the significance of loss and lost identity, painting a poignant portrait of human existence caught in the turbulent maelstrom of history. It beckons readers to ponder the profound human experiences of individuals ensnared in the unpredictable tides of time. This narrative teaches us that, even amidst personal tragedies and the erasure of cultural and national identities, the human spirit finds ways to endure, redefine, and reflect upon the essence of self.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Falih Mahdi Jebur Alzamili Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 1 18 The sectarian religious image in the journey of Nasir Khusraw the Persian and Ibn Jubair the Arab <div> <p>This research addresses “the sectarian religious dimensions in the journey of Nasir Khusraw” and “Ibn Jubayr”, as it targeted travel literature as a stand-alone literary genre with its own artistic and intellectual features and characteristics, as it attempts to highlight the motives of the journeys, and focus on the manifestations of the religious dimensions in the journey, by examining Some religious landmarks and symbols and various customs and rituals that caught the attention of travelers in the various countries he visited, in addition to highlighting the sectarian dimension, and pointing out customs as a social manifestation that forms a special image for each society, especially on religious occasions. The manifestations of the sectarian image and its formations in the journey of Nasir Khusraw and Ibn Jubair are many. This research attempts to study these manifestations by identifying the features of the sectarian image of each traveler in his country and at the end of his journey, and its geographical, political and social signs and economic and cultural effects according to the writer’s observations during his journey. The journey of Nasir Khusraw and Ibn Jubayr was motivated by religious and ideological motives, and therefore the image that resulted from these two journeys was essentially a religious image, leading to other images. This enables us to form a comprehensive picture of the sectarian image of each traveler and the sectarian image of the other. The study combines the narrative layers with the artistic approach, and every other topic within it. It stops with the flight of his story, including its inclusion of events and observations, and the journey is a book that has a narrative sequence, especially the expansive place from the starting point to the end, as well as the artistic finishes and photographs of the self and the sectarian other. In two journeys there is a longitudinal religious description that starts from the starting point until it reaches the end point or final destination, which is the country of Hijaz, to perform the Hajj on the one hand, and then get to know the manifestations of the cities and cities on the other hand. The research uses historical and descriptive analytical approaches to clarify the various social, religious, and sectarian phenomena included in the trip</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Hussein Ali Hassoun Ali Saidawi Seyyed Mehdi Mabrouk Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 15 30 Evaluating EFL Learners’ Recognition of Near-Synonyms <div> <p>The current study revolves around evaluating the problematic degree of near-synonyms for EFL learners as a second language, which consequently results in misunderstandings or threats to others’ faces or can cause problems in the formulation of exam questions for English teachers. The researcher selected students from the "Open Educational Collage-Nineveh Study Center," Department of English who are originally certified by different outputs: English teachers who have no university certificates, teachers of other disciplines, and non-teachers. The sample number was 45 out of 70. The researcher prepared a test that included17 items divided into synonyms of denotational meaning and synonyms of connotative meaning (See Appendix). After the test was presented to a group of experts at the University of Mosul, Collage of Arts, Department of English, it was applied, after some of the modifications proposed by the experts. The results indicate that EFL learners showed an ability to distinguish the target synonyms, and there was a remarkable ability to distinguish synonyms of denotational meaning more than those of connotative meaning. For the variable of grade, students in the fourth grade showed the ability to distinguish the target synonyms compared to other grades. As for the specialty variable, EFL learners who work as EFL teachers, who have no university certificates, showed an ability to distinguish the target synonyms compared to other teachers of other specializations and non-teachers.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Hiba Mohammed Yaqoob Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 19 34 The educational implications derived from the punishments for border crimes <div> <p>The research aims to clarify and deduce the goals, values, and methods of punishments for border crimes, because the punishments for border crimes contain a set of educational goals and methods, and the researcher used the descriptive approach in its deductive approach. Introduction, Preface, Five Topics, and Conclusion: The introduction dealt with the research problem, its questions, importance, methodology, and previous studies The educational content derived from the definition of apostasy, while the third topic was devoted to discussing the educational contents derived from the definition of theft, the limit of mistress and the limit of prostitution. The most important results and recommendations, and the research reached a number of results Including: The application of hudud in Islamic law is severe and involves pain for the convict, but does not contradict human dignity. And that the application of Islamic limits, in fact, are prohibitions set by God Almighty for those who violate the orders of the street as a deterrent to him and others so that they do not fall into the same crime, and the research recommended conducting similar studies on other topics and verses that show other aspects of education in the Holy Quran</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Mozdalefa Elsier Muhammad Ali Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 31 74 The singularities of Al-Fadl ibn Musa Al-Sinani - collection and study <div> <p>This research aims to collect the narrations of Al-Fadl ibn Musa Al-Sinani that were described as unique or strange, and to study them, and to explain the extent to which these rulings apply to them.The research was divided into two parts:A theoretical section: in which the researcher dealt with defining Al-Fadl ibn Musa, and explaining the meaning of uniqueness and what is related to it,and the applied section:It dealt with the required narratives and the detailed study related to them in two sections. The researcher followed two approaches: inductive and critical analytical. Then the research concluded with the most important results:1-Al-Fadl ibn Musa Al-Sinani is one of the trustworthy and reliable narrators, whose authenticity is agreed upon, and the words of Imam Ahmed about him are taken to be absolutely unique.2-some scholars ruled that some of the narrations of Al-Fadl ibn Musa were strange according to the methods they found, and they missed other methods that they had not seen, or were not familiar with.3-Al-Fadl bin Musa was strange in some Hadiths, and the strangeness was not a reason for rejecting those Hadiths. Not every Hadith is strange and weak. Rather, the strangeness was celebrated by other reasons that came from its Sheikhs. Some of them are unknown, some of them are trustworthy and have delusions that cannot be considered unique, and some of them differ from it and are truthful and have delusions.4-Al-Fadl ibn Musa did not disagree with trustworthy people except in one Hadith, and hardly anyone from the reliable memorizers is exempt from it, let alone those below them. This does not lower him from the rank of reliable trustworthy narrators who can be used as evidence</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Abdul Salam Hizam Musaad Al-Lahabi Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 75 114 Reasons for the difference in hadith and its conditions And learning about ways to treat differences until the end of the fifth century AH <div> <p>One of the phenomena of the science of hadith that speaks of the hadith emanating from the infallible is the discrepancy between hadiths related to the content of one topic, and this matter has caused the scholars to have a problem of relying on the hadith and considering it an argument in that subject, and there has been a great need to study and address this phenomenon. From earlier times, for both groups, there appeared a science of different hadiths that deals with the study and analysis of this phenomenon, i.e. the difference in hadiths about a topic, their types, causes, methods of reporting them, presentation and topics, as well as the presence of intrigue, forgery and falsity in them, and the narration of some of them in meaning not verbally. Or the narration of the two hadiths and the three with one hadith and so on, in addition to the hadith included in the hadiths and the confusion between the words of the Prophet with the words of others, and the similarity of lines, editing, cutting, etc., and this requires expanding the search for it in a scientific research that presents and criticizes the factors and causes on the one hand, and methods of treatment on the one hand. Others among the two teams until the fifth century AH, and this is what our thesis undertook under the title “Different hadiths among the two teams until the end of the fifth century AH” as an applied critical study. The factors for choosing the subject of the research is the need to identify and identify the causes of intrigue, forgery and lying to the Messenger of God (pbuh). As well as identifying the differences between the scholars of the two teams, or the one team in considering some hadiths and not considering others. Among the questions of this research is: What are the reasons for the difference in the hadiths of the two groups? And what are the ways of dealing with the different hadiths of the two teams, and what are its differences and commonalities for them?One of the important hypotheses of the research is that there are reasons for the difference in the hadith and many reasons, some of which were mentioned and diagnosed by the two teams, and others were not revealed, but were revealed by some of them without the others, and some of them are due to delusion, error, or suspicion of conveying the meaning of the hadith. The methodology of the research was that it relied in the study and investigation of this title on the descriptive inductive approach on the one hand, and the critical approach on the other hand, for issues, topics and applications, by tracing their perspectives in books, studies, letters, dissertations and research. It is worth mentioning that some of these reasons and conditions have been mentioned in books The science of hadith difference until the end of the fifth century AH, that is, among the earlier ones, and some of them were not mentioned explicitly by them, so we used the later sources to mention them to complete the research</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Qassem Bustani Mina Shamkhi Nidal Hanash Al-Saadi Sattar Jabbar Yassi Al-Mousawi Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 115 152 Understanding the perceptions, a footnote to the perceptions of downloading and the realities of interpretation by Mulla Salih Al-Kouza panki – study and investigation <div> <p>Manuscripts are of great importance, as they are the legacy to us of scholars who exerted their best efforts in codifying them, and there is no doubt that Mulla Salih Al-Kouza panki is one of the scholars who were concerned with the interpretation of the Book of God Almighty, and he wrote this footnote at a time when writing and printing were difficult, and under difficult circumstances, In appreciation of this exerted effort, we had to pay attention to studying this footnote that is rich in science and knowledge. It was achieved by using the eloquent texts from the Holy Qur’an and the honorable Sunnah and the words of the eloquent Arabs in poetry and prose, and returning the texts and taking them from the mothers of the books investigated by the venerable scholars, and in order for the manuscript to reveal its contents, the investigator dealt with it vigorously and persistently, in order to facilitate its understanding and thus understanding the word of God Almighty and clarification and clarification Its purposes and objectives. And that manuscripts are part of the nation's heritage, and an important document of its civilized and national existence, so nations sought to preserve their manuscripts, and mastered the means of this maintenance. And based on the foregoing, the thesis included two parts, the first part is the translation of the author’s life and the study of his manuscript divided into investigations and demands, and the second part is the investigation of this manuscript from verse (36) of Surat Al-An’am to verse (110) of it, and the importance of the letter lies in seeing some The suffering of scholars in the past, and what they have achieved is the result of effort, toil and suffering. As for the problem of study, it lies in the importance of understanding the word of God Almighty and taking its interpretation from the mother books that have been thoroughly investigated and demonstrating the extent of the effectiveness of the efforts of scholars in explaining what God Almighty wants from His great signs. Contribute to the service of the Book of God, the Mighty, the Wise, and the clarification of its purposes and objectives, especially in this footnote marked by the comprehension of perceptions on the perceptions of revelation and the realities of interpretation by Abdullah bin Ahmed Al-Nasafi During my studies, I followed the descriptive and analytical approach in my investigation of this manuscript, as I referred to all the previous studies of my thesis specialized in the same subject of my research</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Maisaa Ali Khorsheed Jameel Ali Rasool Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 153 174 Ignorance and error affecting the law <div> <p>Ignorance and error in the law are considered among the most severe social diseases that afflict society and contradict all values, religions, and normal human behavior because they waste rights, strengthen falsehood, and spread all the corruptions that ravage the body of society. That is why the heavenly religions, including Islam, and man-made laws have imposed punishments on the perpetrator of this act. Therefore, laws must be put in place to regulate Behaviors of daily life. Hence, we chose the title of the research (Ignorance and Error Affecting the Law). We have tried to explain everything related to ignorance, error, and criminal responsibility as a legal obligation that bears punishment. Ignorance and error affecting the law and the provisions and points of participation and difference between the law, Sharia, the Iraqi Penal Code, and other laws. Where we clarified the meaning of ignorance and error and what is meant by it in the law, we pointed out that ignorance is a curse that destroys the bonds of society and has social and economic effects that are destructive to the structure of society. Ignorance harms the general interest of society and thus hinders any process of development and progress in society. The same applies to the Iraqi Penal Code, which He enacted all the penalties in his codification stages, and he detailed them in his legal articles. Therefore, ignorance and error in the law are considered a violation of the principles of social justice. In both sections, ignorance is a major problem facing society and leads to many social, economic, cultural, religious, and political problems as well, and perhaps One of the most important negatives of ignorance is the public’s ignorance of laws, regulations and instructions, and it constitutes a threat to the state and the law as it is one of the most dangerous scourges that afflict and hinder the process of societal construction and development in all its aspects</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Ahmed Mohamed Ksheish Ismail Kababy Bani Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 175 200 The effect of the art spiral strategy on the science achievement among sixth-grade primary school students <div> <p>The research aims to identify (the effect of the art spiral strategy on science achievement among sixth-grade primary school students). To achieve the research objective, the researcher formulated the null hypothesis, and used an experimental design with partial control, an experimental group and a control group for the post-test of academic achievement, and the researcher chose Al-Waeli Primary School for Boys affiliated with For the Babylon Education Directorate, which is located in the Nader neighborhood in the center of Babylon Governorate, intentionally, and through a random drawing method, Division (C) was chosen as the experimental group that will teach the science subject according to a snail strategy, with (32) students, while Division (A) represented the control group that will be taught. Science subject according to the normal method, with (36) students, and the results showed that the experimental group that studied according to the art snail strategy was superior to the control group that studied using the normal method. The art snail strategy contributed to raising the academic achievement level of sixth-grade primary school students in science. The art snail strategy is easy to apply for the teacher and enjoyable for the students, and male and female science teachers can apply it according to the capabilities available in primary schools in teaching science</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Bahaa Sinan Abbas Mashgal ALharbi Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 201 224 Movement according to the philosophers of the Arab East, Al-Farabi, is a model <div> <p>Nature is a first principle by itself, by the movement of what is in it by itself and by its rest by itself, and in general by every change and by itself, and the people who made this limit in it an addition when they said that it is a force valid in bodies, it is just such and such a principle, they overlooked and made a mistake because the limit of the force used in this situation is only a principle of change in The unchangeable, so it is as if they said that nature is a principle of change that is the principle of its change. This is nonsense. It may be said that nature refers to the element, to self-image, ownership, and to movement that is not nature. The name is similar. Doctors use the name nature to refer to mood, to instinctive temperature, to the forms of the organs, to movements, to the vegetative soul, and to movement, which is one of the suffixes. Natural science, the first perfection of what is with power, in terms of what is with power, and if you like, you can say that it is an exit from power to action, not at the same time. As for the movement of the whole, it is the movement of the maximum body on the middle, including all the movements that are on the middle and faster than them. We see that natural science and its implications occupy a major place in Al-Farabi’s doctrine, even if it comes in the lowest rank in his division of sciences, as he considered it a stage to reach the knowledge of first philosophy. For him, natural science has a subject that includes all natures, and its relation to what is beneath it is the relation of the universal sciences to the particular sciences, and that subject is the body as it is moving and at rest, and what is moved in it and from it are the subsequent symptoms insofar as it is as such, not insofar as it is a specific astronomical or elemental body. Thus, Al-Farabi’s study of the principles of natural beings, their causes, and their consequences was intended to apply those general principles that he had arrived at to all beings</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Hana Zayed Abbas Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 225 258 Requiring the wife to be pure for divorce <div> <p>The issue of a husband divorcing his wife falls between the Sharia and the law, and both parties, the husband and wife, are required to have some conditions for the divorce to be valid, which is that the wife at the time of the divorce must be in a state of purity without her husband having intercourse with her. This did not come as absolute, but exceptions were made for it, including those as young as nine years old and those who are desperate. The one who is absent from her is her husband and does not know about her condition and the person with whom he is consummated, since she is not considered to be in the waiting period, even if the jurists differed on this matter, and that the law was silent about this situation and left it to jurisprudence, considering that the issue is legal, so the legislator avoids disagreement with the jurisprudential trend. The issue was not covered from a legal standpoint and the detailed issues were left to jurisprudence, which in turn disagreed on the issue of divorce occurring in cases of purity and menstruation. Muslim jurists differed among themselves regarding the issue of divorce in the case of purity and menstruation. There is no criterion for knowing the wife’s condition other than her claim that she was pure or not at the time of divorce.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Walaa Adil Ajeel Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 259 274 The relative validity of judicial rulings and their impact on the rights of others (A comparative study) <div> <p>The judicial ruling is considered a title of the truth, and when it is issued, it has authority, unless it is challenged before the appellate body, and when it acquires the final degree for any reason whatsoever, then it becomes an argument against the parties to the dispute. It is not permissible to re-examine the dispute a second time, whether before the court that issued the ruling. Or other courts, out of respect for judicial rulings, even if evidence is available later, and this is what is known as the authority of judicial rulings, which is a conclusive legal presumption, and with conditions including the unity of the litigants, the subject and the reason. The legal objection to it is through the objection of others, or a third person enters the appeal, and the law considers it a public order. The right to appeal is guaranteed to whoever loses the case according to Article 169 of the Civil Procedure Code, and the objection of third parties is included among the methods of appealing the rulings stipulated in Article 168 of the same law. Article 186 of the Iraqi Civil Procedure Code is absolute, allowing third-party access to anyone who has the right to object to others</p> </div> <div> </div> Adel Ajeel Ashour Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 275 302 Ibn Tumart and employing the Mahdist idea in light of Machiavelli’s theory <div> <p>There is no doubt that philosophy is the best scientific tool There is no doubt that philosophy is the best scientific tool in historical research, as through it it is possible to delve deeply into the history of events and investigate them. Its depths are considered a more effective solution for tracking the movement of history, away from any influences not related to scientific research. This is because philosophy has its own rational approach that enables the researcher to think scientifically and critically, away from stereotypes, and helps him dust off many historical texts. Sometimes, in this way, the researcher comes as close as possible to the nature of historical events and distinguishes their truth from their context. In this topic, the researcher wants to take Machiavelli’s theory as a basis for building scientific research, so he reveals the methods and tricks that Ibn Tumart wanted to attach to his political steps. To give people the impression and perception that he is the Mahdi mentioned in the Prophetic hadiths, and to show the goal of those methods and the hidden deception woven by Ibn Tumart, in which he approaches Machiavelli’s imagination in his theory that the end justifies the means. In light of the above, the problem of the study emerges in the form of the following question: What is the impact of Ibn Tumart in employing the idea of the Mahdi in light of Machiavelli’s theory? The following hypothesis can be put forward for the purpose of testing it, as Ibn Tumart is considered the ideal model that used the idea of the Mahdi as a means to reach power according to Machiavelli’s theory, which indicates that the prince should be prepared to abandon morals if necessary, and adopt a policy of dirty hands, and that there is a real divorce that does not exist. There is a reversal between ethics and politics</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Mohammed Jassim Alwan Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 303 330 The role of procedures for the right to administrative litigation in confronting the defect of lack of jurisdiction and non-existent decision, and the position of Iraqi, French, and Egyptian law on them <div> <p>The topic of the role of procedures for the right to litigation in confronting the defect of lack of jurisdiction and non-existent decisions in administrative decisions is one of the important topics, as it sheds light on the characteristics of the rules of jurisdiction in administrative decisions, its elements, and its role in organizing job work and specialization in undertaking administrative work. Through it, responsibilities are determined and speed in completion is achieved. Administrative work. It also contributes to clarifying the degrees of lack of jurisdiction and the possibility of adopting it in the Iraqi legal system and the countries under comparison, as the simple defect of jurisdiction that affects the administrative decision is less serious than the serious defect.The first defect leads the administrative decision to be invalidated, while the second makes the decision afflicted with it devoid of its administrative character, as it is tantamount to non-existent behavior in the concept of the provisions of administrative law. Also, the absence of administrative decisions can be achieved in two cases, the first of which is the case of the real lack of reality, which is represented by the loss of the decision. The administrative decision is one of the elements of its existence or the conditions for its holding, and the absence of one of them removes the administrative decision from its legal existence. As for the second case, it is the case of the lack of judgment, in which the violation of the administrative decision reaches the point of seriousness in violating the laws and the state’s constitution.In it, the administrative decision is stripped of its administrative character and we consider it non-existent as a rule and not as a reality. This research also clarifies the oversight of the administrative judiciary in Iraq for defective administrative decisions due to lack of jurisdiction and the necessity of improving the rulings issued in this regard similar to what the administrative judiciary rulings in comparative countries have reached.Also, the administration’s authority to issue administrative decisions is restricted by the legal rules regulating jurisdiction, because the texts specifying it are command texts, and therefore jurisdiction is not presumed. Also, if it is proven by a specific text, it is not permissible to expand on what the text stated or to go beyond its scope. This Some of the judicial rulings issued by the Administrative Judicial Court were not at the level of ambition with regard to identifying the defect of jurisdiction in the administrative decision</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Alireza Dabirnia Moayad Jawdat Makki Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 331 366 The diplomatic role of the United States Ambassador Robert Strong In Iraq 1963-1967 <div> <p>The Research paper tackles the political activities of the U.S. Ambassador in Baghdad, Robert Strong, 1963-1967. The research traced the ambassador’s career progression before his appointment as ambassador in Iraq in 1963. Strong occupied several positions in the U.S. consulates and embassies worldwide, Besides, he occupied the position of the Director of the Near East Department at the U.S. State Department, therefore Strong clearly has a distinctive diplomatic and political experience. This embodied his role in strengthening the relationship between Iraq and the United States of America. Especially towards the Kurdish issue in Iraq.Strong started his political activities as soon as he reached Baghdad in 1963 by focusing on two fundamental axes, firstly, his endeavor to boost the relations and attitudes between Baghdad and Washington at a time he intensified his political efforts upon the second axis which includes the Kurdish issue in which he endeavored to find a peaceful solution for it and to end the war between the Iraqi forces and Kurdistan region in northern Iraq. Strong did that for fearing that The Soviet Union at that time may exploit that to harm American interests in Iraq. However, the U.S. administration ended the task of Strong in Baghdad in 1967 and appointed him in the position of U.S. Assistant Secretary of State</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Hussein Tuma Shether Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 367 390 The mental image of employees in media institutions regarding the performance of employees of the media and Communications Commission <div> <p>This study is descriptive in nature and aims to determine the mental image of the performance of the Media and Communications Commission employees among those working in media institutions. The researcher relied on the survey method to obtain the results required within the objectives of the research. The research reached a number of results, some of which were positive and some were negative. Among them is the agreement of the respondents that the Commission was firm in controlling the behavior of media institutions. The negative one is that the respondents do not have an objective perception that employees in the Commission have the competence and high ability to perform their job duties. The respondents also believe that bureaucracy and job routine It is the most prominent obstacle to the quick administrative procedures that media institutions expect from the authority that monitors and regulates media and communications affairs in Iraq. The highest percentage is (editor), with a percentage of (30.84%). The results showed that workers in Iraqi media institutions in Baghdad vary relatively in terms of the level of experience they possess in light of the number of years they have spent in their field of work, with the highest percentage of years of experience reaching (11-15) and a percentage of (31.02%). It is believed The respondents said that the workers in the Authority are not aware of their mastery of the communication skills related to their technical, communication, or communicative specializations, as their answers constituted ambiguity. The respondents do not have an objective perception that the employees of the Authority have the competence and high ability to perform their job duties, and this is what the researcher disagrees with, as The Authority’s employees are in the various professional specializations related to these works in order to accomplish these works with a high level of functional ability and professional competence that allows for the provision of high-quality work, and this is what the researcher sensed through his repeated visits to the Authority. The respondents believe that bureaucracy and job routine are the most prominent obstacles. The quick administrative procedures that media institutions expect from the authority that monitors and regulates media and communications affairs in Iraq</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Ahmed Sahi Hammad Ali Jabbar Al-Shammari Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 391 416 The cultural identity of Iraqi minorities among the audience of the city of Baghdad <div> <p>This study examines indicators of the cultural identity of Iraqi religious minorities among the public of the city of Baghdad. It has focused, through the axes of the scale tool, on presenting many of the contents that can express the cultural identity of these religious minorities, which were recognized by the Iraqi Constitution of 2005 through their communicative production, whether it is fashion or... Customs, traditions, rituals and religious practices, as well as the ancient historical presence that expresses their religious and cultural point of view, and through a specific sample of the population of the city of Baghdad, being the capital of Iraq and rich in religious and cultural diversity, in order to reach a vision through which it is possible to know those indicators of cultural identity through which the extent The Baghdad public’s knowledge of that cultural identity that expresses them through that sample; The results of the scale showed that Iraqi religious minorities are proud of their cultural identity, which calls them to take great pride in this cultural identity. Iraqi religious minorities are originally Iraqis, some of their origins are Arab, and they came to Iraq in ancient times. The results showed the demand of some members of religious minorities for increased political representation after the international interest in their issues that They have become more widespread and famous in the world after what they were exposed to after the events of the invasion of the city of Mosul in 2014. They contribute and participate in public life socially and politically. They made positive contributions in Iraq. They are distinguished by tolerance and polite behavior, and they help other Iraqi components. The ideas carried and inherited from them constitute a good, natural element for peaceful coexistence with the rest of Iraqis. International attention worked to define their cultural identity through media coverage of what they were exposed to. They have no loyalty to the forces occupying Iraq after 2003, even though they share the same religion with Christians</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Muhammad Sabah Ali Salem Jassim Mohammed Al-Azzawi Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 417 440 The stream of consciousness and its methods in the novel "Michaeli" by Amos Oz <div> <p>The (stream of consciousness) technique is one of the modern techniques that has succeeded in influencing the fictional art in its various aspects almost. This technique is considered one of the experimentation techniques through which the writer aspires to penetrate into the inner world of his characters and explore their depths, especially after the opening of the novelist text to the realms of consciousness and subconsciousness. This term indicates the continuity of flow and flow of ideas in the minds of the characters. This research deals with the novel "Michaeli" by the brilliant Israeli writer "Amos Oz". The methods of presenting the stream of consciousness in the novel "my Michael" varied, including the internal monologue, flashback, and free communication. Our choice of this novel came due to our knowledge of the writer's abilities, who draws for us situations, pictures, and places where lively characters move, attracting the reader with the sincerity of their behavior and through which he expresses an idea and an opinion. This is what we are always accustomed to, as he cannot write without in his imagination a certain idea that he wants to prove and prove its sincerity, so you find him turning as a talented writer to artistic sincerity and creativity.The novel "My mikhail" presents the heroine's constant anxiety and her need to reveal what's in her pocket as an outlet to get out of her constant struggles and organize her thoughts in an attempt to understand life anew. Therefore, the writer invested in the technology of “stream of consciousness” to reveal the same heroine by diving into the depths of her secrets through the flowing inner monologues that witnessed intense conflicts in herself and her awareness, through which the writer deliberately portrayed the state of instability, self-closing, introversion, drowning in meditations and constant rumination of past memories. It can be said that Amos Oz's use of many techniques such as inner monologue, dreams, logical sequence, soliloquy, delirium, free association .... is what makes us consider this novel within the literary genre called the novel of the stream of consciousness. Before approaching the novel, the methodological necessity allows us to stop at the term stream of consciousness and its emergence, even if quickly.</p> </div> <div> <div> <p>The (stream of consciousness) technique is one of the modern techniques that has succeeded in influencing the fictional art in its various aspects almost. This technique is considered one of the experimentation techniques through which the writer aspires to penetrate into the inner world of his characters and explore their depths, especially after the opening of the novelist text to the realms of consciousness and subconsciousness. This term indicates the continuity of flow and flow of ideas in the minds of the characters. This research deals with the novel "Michaeli" by the brilliant Israeli writer "Amos Oz". The methods of presenting the stream of consciousness in the novel "my Michael" varied, including the internal monologue, flashback, and free communication. Our choice of this novel came due to our knowledge of the writer's abilities, who draws for us situations, pictures, and places where lively characters move, attracting the reader with the sincerity of their behavior and through which he expresses an idea and an opinion. This is what we are always accustomed to, as he cannot write without in his imagination a certain idea that he wants to prove and prove its sincerity, so you find him turning as a talented writer to artistic sincerity and creativity.The novel "My mikhail" presents the heroine's constant anxiety and her need to reveal what's in her pocket as an outlet to get out of her constant struggles and organize her thoughts in an attempt to understand life anew. Therefore, the writer invested in the technology of “stream of consciousness” to reveal the same heroine by diving into the depths of her secrets through the flowing inner monologues that witnessed intense conflicts in herself and her awareness, through which the writer deliberately portrayed the state of instability, self-closing, introversion, drowning in meditations and constant rumination of past memories. It can be said that Amos Oz's use of many techniques such as inner monologue, dreams, logical sequence, soliloquy, delirium, free association .... is what makes us consider this novel within the literary genre called the novel of the stream of consciousness. Before approaching the novel, the methodological necessity allows us to stop at the term stream of consciousness and its emergence, even if quickly.</p> </div> <div> <div> <p>The (stream of consciousness) technique is one of the modern techniques that has succeeded in influencing the fictional art in its various aspects almost. This technique is considered one of the experimentation techniques through which the writer aspires to penetrate into the inner world of his characters and explore their depths, especially after the opening of the novelist text to the realms of consciousness and subconsciousness. This term indicates the continuity of flow and flow of ideas in the minds of the characters. This research deals with the novel "Michaeli" by the brilliant Israeli writer "Amos Oz". The methods of presenting the stream of consciousness in the novel "my Michael" varied, including the internal monologue, flashback, and free communication. Our choice of this novel came due to our knowledge of the writer's abilities, who draws for us situations, pictures, and places where lively characters move, attracting the reader with the sincerity of their behavior and through which he expresses an idea and an opinion. This is what we are always accustomed to, as he cannot write without in his imagination a certain idea that he wants to prove and prove its sincerity, so you find him turning as a talented writer to artistic sincerity and creativity.The novel "My mikhail" presents the heroine's constant anxiety and her need to reveal what's in her pocket as an outlet to get out of her constant struggles and organize her thoughts in an attempt to understand life anew. Therefore, the writer invested in the technology of “stream of consciousness” to reveal the same heroine by diving into the depths of her secrets through the flowing inner monologues that witnessed intense conflicts in herself and her awareness, through which the writer deliberately portrayed the state of instability, self-closing, introversion, drowning in meditations and constant rumination of past memories. It can be said that Amos Oz's use of many techniques such as inner monologue, dreams, logical sequence, soliloquy, delirium, free association .... is what makes us consider this novel within the literary genre called the novel of the stream of consciousness. Before approaching the novel, the methodological necessity allows us to stop at the term stream of consciousness and its emergence, even if quickly.</p> </div> <div> <div> <p>The (stream of consciousness) technique is one of the modern techniques that has succeeded in influencing the fictional art in its various aspects almost. This technique is considered one of the experimentation techniques through which the writer aspires to penetrate into the inner world of his characters and explore their depths, especially after the opening of the novelist text to the realms of consciousness and subconsciousness. This term indicates the continuity of flow and flow of ideas in the minds of the characters. This research deals with the novel "Michaeli" by the brilliant Israeli writer "Amos Oz". The methods of presenting the stream of consciousness in the novel "my Michael" varied, including the internal monologue, flashback, and free communication. Our choice of this novel came due to our knowledge of the writer's abilities, who draws for us situations, pictures, and places where lively characters move, attracting the reader with the sincerity of their behavior and through which he expresses an idea and an opinion. This is what we are always accustomed to, as he cannot write without in his imagination a certain idea that he wants to prove and prove its sincerity, so you find him turning as a talented writer to artistic sincerity and creativity.The novel "My mikhail" presents the heroine's constant anxiety and her need to reveal what's in her pocket as an outlet to get out of her constant struggles and organize her thoughts in an attempt to understand life anew. Therefore, the writer invested in the technology of “stream of consciousness” to reveal the same heroine by diving into the depths of her secrets through the flowing inner monologues that witnessed intense conflicts in herself and her awareness, through which the writer deliberately portrayed the state of instability, self-closing, introversion, drowning in meditations and constant rumination of past memories. It can be said that Amos Oz's use of many techniques such as inner monologue, dreams, logical sequence, soliloquy, delirium, free association .... is what makes us consider this novel within the literary genre called the novel of the stream of consciousness. Before approaching the novel, the methodological necessity allows us to stop at the term stream of consciousness and its emergence, even if quickly.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> </div> </div> </div> Ali mohamed rasheed Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 441 462 The image of the city (Baghdad) in the novel Red Pub by Hamid Al-Rubaie <div> <p>The novel is considered one of the literary arts that is narrated in long prose, intertwining events, because it is of great importance to readers, and is famous for introducing the reader to different native cultures and civilizations, and sheds light on different social and historical issues, so I chose to study one of the novels of Iraqi writers who enriched libraries. Arabic and Iraqi in particular with their literary works, and one of those products is the novel Red Pub by the Iraqi novelist Al-Rubaie, and after that, he narrates the story by depicting the picture of the city (Baghdad) between the past and the present by describing history as a human act that is subject to change and not an ending record of the past only, as the novelist exposes in this The novel is about different cultural and political figures that are in Iraq and nine in the city (Baghdad), such as violence, extremism, fanaticism and sectarianism, by looking at their personalities and locations, and linking events and characters to the place, and the human relationship with the environment with its presence there, his life and his actions. Therefore, highlighting the contradictions the tensions between the place, the characters, the job, and the locations give the novel a genetic dimension in determining the atmosphere of events and characters, reflects the feeling of familiarity and belonging, and is a stage for these characters’ misfortunes. The most important outcome of this study is the importance of the literary novel in contemporary times and represents the narrative form of the novel, through a review of the most prominent narrative connections. By Hamid Al-Rubaie, which is characterized by a multiplicity of styles, techniques and modern stories. The writer also showed his love and loyalty to the city of Baghdad through its detail that is beloved to the reader. This adds a unique atmosphere and permanence to the flow of events in the novel, and clarification to basic elements of the location of the narrative and the way they are interconnected, especially Fernand Al-Sardi, which came as an element. Main in the ancient novel Al-Hamra, where it was used effectively in describing the city (Baghdad), remembering the feelings and events that occur in it, and highlighting the social and political circumstances in daily life. The description of the place constitutes an important point in this translation of feelings, and it begins and defines the nature of the characters and narrative relationships. Inside the novel</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Israa Jalal Hama Murad Hussein Kadmi Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 463 478 United states American during world war first 1914- 1918 <div> <p>The importance of studying the topic "the United States of America during the first World War 1914-1918" comes from the need to identify the reality of American neutrality before entering the war between the years 1914-1916, the repercussions of that war on the internal conditions of the United States and its impact on the development of the position of the American administration of the conflict then between the Entente and the center blocs, ending with its entry into the war and the reasons that prompted it to side with the Entente bloc, and the importance and value of American intervention in defeating the center bloc. The United States declared its neutrality at the beginning of the war, in line with its interests and waiting for the clashes between the two camps to benefit from trade exchange with both sides, and wishing to weaken the parties to the conflict so that it could rise to the refineries of the great countries, and with the continuation of the war and the developments that took place in it (submarine war), the United States found itself greatly biased towards the Entente bloc, especially from the economic and Social points of view, which forced the country's political decision-maker to enter the war on the side of the Entente bloc, in line with its interests and the desire of public opinion the American. Which helped to resolve the battle in favor of the Entente bloc</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Wesaam Hameed Mahmood Bariq Abbas obaid Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 479 496 The phenomena of verbal commonality and spatial inversion in Semitic languages (a comparative study) <div> <p>The research is, an attempt to shed light, on the phonetic phenomena that Semitic languages share, which are the phenomena of verbal commonality and spatial reversal in Semitic languages. We began our research with an introduction and definition of this phenomenon, the nature of the verbal common in the Semitic languages, and the definitions of the linguists, both ancient and modern. The phenomenon of the verbal common was highlighted, and the research included examples of the verbal common in the Semitic languages. The verbal common was also studied with definition and examples, language and terminology, and the phenomenon of the spatial heart was addressed in Semitic languages. The research is a contribution ,to the field ,of comparative linguistic study in the Semitic language group, which requires us to study more than one language in the field of Semitic languages. There are many studies that the researcher used in writing this research, which is a serious attempt in the process of studying these languages. Since any language is subject to development according to the factors of time, place, environmental interference of different linguistic environments, and external and internal influences, these linguistic phenomena will continue with them and studies in the fields of linguistic knowledge will continue with them by specialists, and that a large group such as the group of Semitic languages with their branches and ramifications will continue. We find many linguistic phenomena due to linguistic closeness, whether in the root or other reasons that this linguistic group shares. A table was also drawn up for a group of common words in the Semitic languages that are the subject of the research, in order to inform the reader of the nature of the common words in these languages, whether they share a root or a meaning. The words were chosen randomly because we are not preparing a dictionary for them in this research, but rather to introduce the nature of these words to the reader. We relied on the available dictionaries and sources to introduce them and their meanings, perhaps as a contribution to the field of comparative linguistic study of the Semitic language group</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Mazin Muhammed Husain Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 497 518 The Incident of Al- Imam Al- Hassan’s poisoning, peace be upon him, an analytical study <div> <p>The aim of takling the incident of Imam Hassan’s poisoning ( peace be upon him and his household) is attracting the attention to what is behind this plot which is Al-Imam Al-Hassan's symbolism that represents the depth of Islam in its principles , and intellect in the depth of human existence. Islam began since human existence , so it wasn't a result of blessed Muhammadia message.Yet , the prophet came to fill up promoting the true religion which the preceding prophets' religion.That is why ,the prophet (PBUH) says " I was sent to perfect the good ethics". Hence, Al-Hassan (PBUH) is a divine symbolism for the moral dimension and human values represented by the Islamic religion. Viz, killing Al-Imam Al-Hassan(PBUH) means vanishing those principles and creating an Islamic political intellect fits Bani Umayya ambition and the Islamic phase that is chosen by this rulling class and its supporters to found Islam according to their desires.For this purpose , it is necessary to eliminate the idea of a single human being for every role in the existence -the role of perfect human-this symbolism is necessary to persist the desire of heaven Accordingly, Muawiyah began to make plans to get rid of Imam Hassan and his brother Hussein, peace be upon them, because the matter would not last for him or his son with the presence of the two Imams, peace be upon them, alive, because they represent the essence of the religion and the greatness of Doha Muhammad, which no Muslim can turn away from. The truth is with them wherever they are, so the matter is. It was inevitable for Muawiyah that it was necessary to get rid of Al-Hassan, peace be upon him, first by weaving the fabric of his death, so he initiated attempts to assassinate him. He poisoned Al-Hassan, peace be upon him, three times, and it was mentioned in the last one that he sought the help of the Roman king to kill him, and in which he testified</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Iman Obaid Wannas Zaman Obaid Wannas Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 519 530 Types of identity in Ali Badr’s novels and their problems <div> <p>The novel is one of the modern literary genres that most depicts human life and reality. It has attained a prominent position in literature as the most appropriate means of expressing social problems. This is by presenting a deep picture of reality, as it delves into the depths of societies, and monitors the happy and painful aspects of life. Anyone who follows Ali Badr’s novels will notice that they address the issues of the reality of society and paint a clear picture of the suffering of the Iraqi individual. It can be said that the novel, with its texts, contributed to highlighting the reality of the Iraqi individual. Identities in Ali Badr’s novels suffered from exclusion, exclusion, and marginalization, especially after the occupation of Iraq by the Americans after 2003 and the subsequent sectarian and ethnic conflicts that led to the tearing apart of Iraqi unity. The study was divided into: three sections, the first studied the authoritarian identity, the second section dealt with the heterosexual dual identity, while the third and final section studied the problems of identity and its cultural transformations. The study of identity and its impact on society is one of the important modern critical studies in understanding social and political conditions. From this standpoint, I decided to study identity and its problem in the novel first, and in Iraqi society second</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Muhammad Nabi Muhammadi Jahangir Amiri Torg Zainivand Qabas Hassan Hamid Hussein Al-Karawi Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 531 558 The Qur’anic rooting of the Book of Repentance in the Al- Mahajja Al- Bezaa <div> <p>Repentance is a door that God Almighty has opened, through His mercy, to His servants so that they may return from the state of heedlessness, committing sins, and slipping off the straight path. They may enter it and be purified through repentance from sins and their burden, then they may resume their work again. This can only be as a matter of God Almighty’s mercy, forgiveness, and comprehensive pardon for His faithful servants, because they are not infallible. It is natural. Mistakes may occur on their part as a result of the whisperings of devils and psychological desires. Then, out of the importance of repentance, many religious and moral scholars were interested in explaining it, so they devoted books to it or opened chapters on it in their works and books. Among those scholars was Al-Fayd Al-Kashani in his book Al-Muhajjat Al-Bayda, which he wrote on the basis of Al-Ghazali’s book Ihya’ Ulum Al-Din, where he devoted nearly a hundred books to repentance. A page in which he talked about all aspects of repentance, and this is what we want to study by referring to the Qur’anic rooting in repentance using an analytical and descriptive approach. It is clear from the research that one of the clear Qur’anic principles of the Book of Repentance is an explanation of the reality of repentance, its limits and loopholes, how to achieve it, then its obligation, necessity and virtue, and after that an explanation of repentance in relation to minor and major sins. As for the undeclared principles, it appears that one of the undeclared Qur’anic principles of the Book of Repentance is a statement of the conditions of repentance and the divisions of the servants in relation to the continuity of repentance, and finally a statement of the treatment for repeated repentance and failure to adhere to it. According to Fayd al-Kashani, repentance is knowledge, remorse, and intention related to abandonment. That is, a good deed that does not lead to a return to sin or committing a bad deed, and it has great merit, as the Qur’an and Sunnah recommend it, and it is fulfilled with regard to minor and major sins, but each has its own conditions. Then repentance is achieved under certain conditions, through determination, remorse, and persistence in abandoning the act, then by returning every right that the servant has lost to its owner. Likewise, with regard to repentance, the servants are divided into four classes. As for the cure for persisting in sins and the way to make a person successful by committing to his repentance and staying away from transgressions and sins, it is faith in God and the Day of Judgment and then in the Prophet, may God’s prayers and peace be upon him and his family. Then it is necessary for the person to be armed with knowledge and patience</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Rusul Ahmed Ketan Almamori Saeid Omidian Dehno Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 559 574 The origins and planning of the ancient city of Sanaa through sources and inscriptions from the first century AD until the sixth century AD (Historical archaeological study) <div> <p>This research includes an introduction, then the emergence and planning of the ancient city of Sana’a, from the first century AD until the sixth century AD, and this will be done as stated in the inscriptions of ancient Yemen, and what was mentioned in historical sources. The research also includes basic axes that had great importance and an important aspect in the emergence and planning of the city. Its casket, in addition to its palace, which is considered the first nucleus of its establishment and planning, its temple and its market, residential buildings, military facilities, and facilities allocated to the king and the army... Then the conclusion, an appendix of inscriptions and figures, a home page, and research references. . The ancient Yemeni man settled the old city of Sanaa in the beginning of its first development and planning it after that with the first nucleus in which the building of the palace was built. He set criteria for him to choose the site for his settlement through two important factors: the first is the climatic factor and the second is the geographical factor. We find his choice of the location of the old city in the center and on a spacious plain. Khasab was an important trading station in the ancient world, both externally and inside Yemen. The first trade route was the frankincense road, which made frankincense the most important commodity in ancient Yemen. The road turns into the Asaad Al-Kamil trail, and the workers were among the most important factors for the fame and wealth of the ancient Yemenis. When we trace the facilities and planning of Sana’a in ancient times, we find it folded under the sand. A new city was built over it in the Islamic era, and nothing remains of it for the researcher except stones transferred from the stones of Ghamdan Palace, which was demolished by order of the Messenger, may God bless him and grant him peace. They were used in building the mosques of the old city, most of which were in the Grand Mosque in Sana’a. They were also used in the facades of houses, and all of these stones date back to the buildings of the pre-era era. Islam</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Nawal Ahmed Al-Arshi Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 575 598 Economic conditions in the New Fathers - New and Eastern Rome in the period of the Severian Dynasty (193-235 AD( <div> <p>Antiquity witnessed the emergence of major empires (such as Babylonian, Assyrian, Persian, Greek, Egyptian, and Roman). The Roman civilization is considered one of the greatest civilizations of the ancient world, which witnessed a great expansion beyond Italy to several regions of the world. It relied on cruelty and violence to subject the peoples of the conquered regions to its authority. Military bands are also considered a The striking and dominant force over the peoples. It was also considered a great cultural and political unit, as it reached a great degree of strength and breadth, as it included within its borders a number of centers of ancient civilization and controlled peoples and nations of different origins. Many laws and legislations were issued by those peoples who were different from each other in their historical heritage, languages, and religions. It extended along the shores of the Mediterranean Sea, which was considered a major artery connecting its various parts. Internal rivers also helped connect the outskirts of the states, in addition to the paved roads for which civilization was famous. The Romans, from whom they established a wide network, were credited with the activity of the commercial movement, as was the political factor, especially the policy of expansion, which led to the suppression of the nationalist spirit and an increase in racist movements, and thus hastened the collapse of the empire. The government tried to follow this policy of expansionist concentration in the late era of the Roman Empire. As a result of corruption that was rampant in the states This is because the governors of the states became insufficiently capable in the year 117 AD. This led to the government’s lack of confidence in the rulers of the states, especially after the weakness and dissolution of the local councils. Therefore, the central governments in the Roman Empire resorted to intervention to try to reform the administrative conditions in the empire, which led to the division of some The states were divided into other sub-states for the sake of reform and increasing taxes. Thus, the number of states in the Roman Empire increased from (46) states to (119) states until the year (327) AD. Those working in the administrative system of the cities subject to Roman political authority paid attention to providing public facilities and facilities from Playgrounds, theaters and bathrooms This was reflected in the request to increase practical taxes, which prompted some emperors to appoint auditors and accountants to examine the books of city municipalities. It also sometimes prompted them to deprive some municipalities of their freedom and autonomy, and make them subordinate to the state government. The research was divided into three axes. The first axis devoted to economic problems in The Roman Empire. The second axis is the political and economic conditions in the Islamic Levant. The third axis talks about the political and economic conditions in the Arab Maghreb</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Ahmed Hussein Ahmed Al-Jamili Najat mazhar abdel sakkar al-kubaisi Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 599 618 The level of mental wandering and its relationship to future thinking skills among students of the College of Basic Education - Sumer University <div> <p>The aim of the current research is to identify the level of mental wandering and its relationship to future thinking skills among students of the College of Basic Education - Sumer University. The researcher followed the descriptive correlational research methodology, and the research sample consisted of (100) male and female students in the first grades teacher department / College of Basic Education - Sumer University. They were selected by random stratified method with equal distribution. For the purposes of the study, the researcher built a mental wandering scale consisting of (24) items, and adopted the future thinking skills scale of (Abboud, 2021), which consists of (23) items. The validity and reliability of both scales were verified. With the two methods, the retest and the Cronbach method, the reliability of the mental wandering test was (0.83), while the reliability coefficient of the future thinking test was (0.79). The researcher used the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) to process the data and extract the results. At the end of the research, the researcher came to a number of recommendations and proposals. The results showed: 1- The average of the sample members is higher than the hypothesized average, and this means that the level of mental wandering was at a high level.2-The sample members have future thinking and the highest skill they possess (problem solving skill).3- There is a positive correlation between mental wandering and future thinking skills, if the calculated value reaches (3.22), which is greater than the tabulated value (1.96 (</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Karim Taher Al-Aboudi zaman Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 619 652 US Navy bases in Alaska and Aleutian during World War II 1939-1945 <div> <p>The US naval bases are one of the most important military institutions of the US Armed Forces, as these bases contributed to maintaining the influence of the United States in the areas where these bases were located, as well as these bases contained many facilities and buildings for fleet training, warehouses for storing weapons and equipment, and military airfields to protect the security and safety of the borders and vital interests of the United States, and these bases played a prominent role during World War II by supplying the fleet operating in the Pacific with fuel, building its own warehouses, ammunition and torpedoes, and necessary supplies of food, alarm stations These bases also contained advanced hospitals to care for the sick and wounded, provide the necessary medical support and health care to soldiers and sailors and maintain their safety in order to continue their presence in the battles, and these bases played a strategic role through the maintenance of Fleet parts that were damaged during the various Pacific battles, as these bases contained workshops and laboratories for the maintenance of battleships and submarines and providing them with repairs and necessary parts for their durability in battle, and these bases also included large berths for docking ships battleships, destroyers and submarines returning from battles in order to conduct The necessary repair operations and the provision of weapons and ammunition, as well as the presence of places dedicated to resting soldiers and sailors returning from battles, observation towers and airfields for ground aircraft, berths for launching Seaplanes, hangars for aircraft and workshops for their maintenance, with the presence of buildings dedicated to the administration of the base, which included many administrative officers, Non-Commissioned Officers and sailors whose main function was to secure all the necessary supplies for the base from food and supply fresh water to these bases in cooperation with the Naval Construction Battalion known as Seabees.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Omar Nafie Nouri Mohamed Yahya Ahmed Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 653 668 “The Impact of Intentional Interpretation on individual Conduct” <div> <p>According to our belief in the Qur'an, there are purposes for this book that it wants to achieve through its knowledge and rulings. Paying attention to this matter guides us to the duty of the interpreter, which is to interpret the verses in the light of the objectives and in the way of obtaining them. Some of exegetes and commentators have enumerated several general purposes, including the reform of belief, the refinement of morals Legislation of rulings, the policy of the nation, urging to follow the example of the good conditions of previous nations and considering the consequences of their corruption, teaching, exhortation, warning, glad tidings, and warning of the miraculousness of the Qur’an; And they prepared objectives related to special topics. intentional interpretation is a type of interpretation of the Qur’an among Muslims, revealing the meanings and purposes for which the Qur’an was revealed, and looking at the meanings of the words of the Holy Qur’an and expanding their linguistic connotations, with a statement of the ruling and the objectives for which the Qur’an was revealed. and this type of interpretation is of great importance In knowing and highlighting the purposes of the Qur’an, which helps to understand and reflect well on it. The current study under the title “The Impact of Intentional Interpretation on Human Conduct” is concerned with this task through its search for the nature of intentional interpretation and then examining the verses to reveal the influencing intentions on human conduct. It follows from the research that the purposes of the Qur’an in the aspect of individual conduct may be in the relationship between the servant and the Lord, which is repentance and seeking forgiveness in all its aspects and aspects, faith in meeting God and knowing the difficulty of man’s path to Him, and conduct between fear and hope, and awareness of the remembrance of God and contact and permanence. And it may be in reforming, patience as etiquette of conduct and as a key to chastity</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Zahra Akhavan Sarraf Suhad Mohmmed Kadhim Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 669 702 Power and society in the novels of the Iraqi writer Ali Badr <div> <p>Political tyranny, and what it entailed of depriving and marginalizing groups of society, contributed to the formation of a reaction. Because within each individual there are forces and struggles that push him to rebel against what he is familiar with and accustomed to, and other forces push him to adhere to the familiar and the usual, and because the dialectical relationship between individual awareness and social culture played an important role in controlling the process of social systems, especially since the process of change is mainly focused on advancing the same system of individual awareness and through it culture in general. The individual's consciousness is only an indirect product of the society's culture. The tyrannical culture of society negatively affects the individual, and the novelist Ali Badr confronted and tried to change it in various ways through criticism of the political, cultural and social class. As for the other part of the novelists, he preferred to stay away from power and its oppressive culture. And since the novels that Ali Badr talked about search for reality in their contents and intellectual, cultural and political dissertations. The novel worked to reveal the nature of the relationship between the individual and power, because the relationship of literature with social, political, cultural and philosophical reality is in constant controversy; Because of the disagreements and disagreements that all revolve around the important question of how the relationship takes place Authority and the individual are the ones that determine the nature of that relationship, and accordingly, in our research, we decided to choose the novels of the Iraqi writer Ali Badr, and through them the writer wanted to talk about the years of terror that Iraq and Iraqis lived through under authoritarian governments, and from this our starting point must be correct to stop at the most prominent reasons that prompted novelists to adhere to these ideologies and try to present them in their texts in multiple ways</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Bahar Siddiqi Saif Aldain Naser Khazaal Almenhalawi Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 703 720 Actual psychological punishments in the Holy Quran (Objective study) <div> <p>Punishment, in general, represents an appropriate penalty that is issued and implemented on a person in response to behavior that is considered unacceptable behavior by an individual, group, or other entity .Psychological punishment is considered a legitimate matter stipulated in the Holy Qur’an and the honorable Sunnah of the Prophet, which indicates that punishment is a system that has legal evidence and its rulings that regulate it within a limited framework in which there is no arbitrariness or unfairness and no favoritism for perpetrators over other perpetrators. It is not a purely educational matter as some believe, which makes A common link between jurisprudence and education and shows the importance of the study in making the penalties - which are applied to the human being as a guilty person - include judicial and educational penalties at the family and societal level, such as preaching, abandonment, defamation and deprivation, with an indication of the legality, judgment, method and duration of each of them. Keywords: punishment, punishment, the difference between them, impact, self-discipline, interpretation, the Holy Quran. The research reached a number of results, including:1- Actual psychological punishment is actions that do not touch the body of the guilty person in any way, but rather affect him through their psychological factor, such as abandonment and deprivation with which a person is punished if he commits the sin of that punishment 2- It appeared to us from the research that every actual punishment has a psychological impact. It may complement or prevent the actual punishment 3-There is a clear gradation in psychological punishments adopted by the Holy Qur’an. The more the sinner commits sin, the weaker the psychological punishment will be on him</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Ashraf Adnan Hassan Faris Barkaat Rjaa Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 721 744 The problem of science and religion in social theory (An analytical study of the views of Pareto - Weber - Durkheim) <div> <p>This research expresses an analytical view of a crucial stage in the history of European societies, namely the second half of the nineteenth century, in which the beginning of the transformations and the accompanying problems that put society on the brink of collapse appeared. The status of sociology extended in two directions:First: (partial) Micro, social research relies on finding solutions to those problems that some scientists see as a result of the problem of science and religion, after religion was subjected to violent tremors in front of scientific inventions.The second: (Expanded) Macro, concerned with the theoretical construction of sociology away from these transformational throes that society is going through.The French philosopher and sociologist Raymond Aron (1905-1983) tried to combine these two trends with the aim of identifying the ability of social scientists to employ the data of this science to rid European society of the state of contradiction and loss of stability and social cohesion. In confirmation of this, he chose three pioneers of sociology, in whose opinions he found the link between the research generation and the theoretical generation, in addition to that they lived through the events of that period and realized that the root of the problems was due to the negative attitude of the clergy towards the scientific achievements achieved; So their goal was to achieve the lost stability by finding solutions to this problem, and these scientists are F.Pareto (1923-1848), Max Weber (1864-1920) and Durkheim (1917-1920). 1858).</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Ghani Nasser Hussain Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 745 764 Linguistic correction for the Sheikh Salah Aldin Al safadi according to his book “Al-Gaith Al-musjam” <div> <p>This research aims to highlight the efforts of Sheikh Saladin Al-Safadi (d. 764 AH) and his contribution to the field of linguistic reform in light of his book: Al-Ghaith Al-Musjim fi Sharh Lamiya Al-Ajam. Al-Safadi was a lover of knowledge, fond of literature, and interested in it. He studied interpretation and hadith, read the principles of jurisprudence, and learned grammar. And language, and devoted himself to the books of history, literature, and collections of poets, memorizing, copying, and arranging them. He chose from their anecdotes and strays, in addition to his mastery of other sciences such as medicine, arithmetic, and geography, which indicates the broad and diverse culture that he enjoyed. For him, linguistic reform was represented in several aspects, such as controlling words and formulas. And a statement of corruption and distortion, linguistic criticism, and a warning about the common and the eloquent, the Arabized and the intrusive. Al-Safadi used various words to express linguistic reform. The nature of the research required that it be divided into an introduction in which we explained the concept of linguistic reform, an overview of the life of Sheikh Al-Safadi, and an overview of the book “ The rainy rain,” and a first section on the manifestations of his linguistic reform, and a second section that included the words he used to express the linguistic reform, and we appended the research with a conclusion that included the most prominent results during the research</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Isam Mahmood Kuraykish Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 765 782 The authority competent to impose and conduct disciplinary penalties against those with special grades <div> <p>The administration's activity witnessed a remarkable development and expansion, which made the state intervene to provide services directly in all social and economic fields, which led to the necessity of an increase in the number of employees working in the state's public facilities in order to achieve the administrative principle of "the regular and steady functioning of public facilities" and, in the end, to achieve the interest. the public . As a result of this increase in the number of employees working in public state facilities, it has become necessary and necessary for the state to establish laws, regulations, and instructions to regulate the public job and all employee affairs, by establishing systems for appointment, promotion, and promotion, in addition to determining the financial and non-financial rights of the employee, while specifying the employee’s duties and the prohibitions imposed on him. The disciplinary system is what determines the functional limits that the employee must observe and the prohibitions that he must avoid, which when he falls into them will be a reason for holding him accountable and imposing a disciplinary penalty against him. Accordingly, the disciplinary system in the field of public employment is a legal means in the hands of the administration to maintain job discipline and improve the workflow in public facilities of the state and to achieve the public interest. The purpose of the disciplinary system is not limited to disciplining the violating employee, but goes beyond that to find out what are the circumstances that led to the commission of the violation and the reasons for it. Which prompted the employee to commit the violation in order to address it and put in place all measures to prevent it from occurring in the future. From the above, we find that the disciplinary system takes into account the element of effectiveness in the work of the administration, as it grants it privileges and powers vis-à-vis the public employee. On the other hand, we find that it takes into account the requirements of the guarantees enjoyed by the employee subject to the disciplinary system, to achieve a balance between these two considerations, and this is what most employment laws attempt. Public provision. The endeavor of public employment laws is to provide a kind of balance between the rights and obligations of both the public administration and the public employee during the period of the employment relationship, starting from appointment until the dissolution of the job relationship through normal or special (exceptional) means. This appears clearly in disciplinary disputes, where the administration has the authority to hold the public employee accountable who violates the provisions of the public job. At the same time, the legislator has given the employee the guarantee of the right to defend himself, which he exercises during the course of the disciplinary case, so he presents evidence that would prove his innocence or reduce the punishment. It appears to us that the disciplinary system is one of the most important and prominent rules regulating the relationship between the public employee and the administration, including regulating the employee’s behavior and informing him of the tasks and duties assigned to him. Also clarifying the ethical framework that must determine his actions inside and outside the job, and even after the end of the employee relationship with management. Therefore, we find that, in exchange for the public administration’s attempt and endeavor to achieve the required administrative discipline, by imposing disciplinary penalties against the violating employee, it was necessary for it to provide effective guarantees to achieve the administration’s respect for the rights of employees. In addition, the administration is responsible for not exceeding the legal limits that have been set. Originally to respect and preserve functional rights and individual freedoms</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Hana Jabouri Muhammad Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 783 802 The dystopian view in the poetry of Forough Farrokhzad <div> <p>At the end of the eighteenth century and the beginning of the nineteenth century, a new term appeared within the literary field (dystopia), which is the opposite term for (utopia). Plato adopted it and looked at it. Dystopia is the opposite word for it in the sense that it leads to many meanings, including (the burned city, the ruined city, the demolished city, ... etc.) of the words that give rise to despair and pessimism in the future of this city. Dystopia was embodied in novels that appeared in Europe between the first and second world wars, and it is a product of the scene of devastation left by wars on the level of infrastructure and humanity. For independent cities that have been exposed to war. Forough's poetry is located in its own isthmus. It lies between the world of innocent, naive, simple, and luminous childhood, and the world of the conscious present, full of aches, evils, and disfigurement.. As long as childhood, with all its descriptions, is no longer empowered by present, mature behavior, what is possible for it is immersion in Remembering to face the present and specific cruelty. If this self-absorption did not last, the poet has the advantage of immersing himself in nature, passing through it the charges of her crisis soul, in search of the impossible balance.. The poet (Forough) found herself or discovered herself suddenly after her early marriage.. she found Her soul was besieged by pains, evils, and disfigurement, so her divorce was her frantic and dangerous journey on the isthmus of past innocence/present cruelty. The remembrance of childhood was not a sufficient solution to her permanent crisis, which was caused by the distorted present, so she resorted to a sublime other than the sublimity of childhood, so she had to wander in nature and penetrate its parts that are able to embrace and protect it from the cruelty of what has become of it and what life has devolved to in its individual and collective sense. The dystopia in her poetry started from religious rebellion, social rebellion, and self-rebellion, which was determined that its origin is the upbringing on which Forough Farrokhzad grew up due to her pessimism, so she produced texts that belong to the field of dystopia without realizing it</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Khaled Hadi Naji Al-Mousawi Bahar Siddiqui Ahmed Reda Heydarian Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 803 826 Mukhtasar Al-Tahtheeb in the interpretation, by Imam Al-Mu,ayyad Billah, Surat Aali 'Imran from verse (33) to verse (34) - Study and Investigation - <div> <p>The nature of the research necessitated to be divided into an introduction ,two sections, and indexing . In it, the researcher used the descriptive, historical, inductive method, and scientific method was used in the investigation of manuscript, The introduction included the research problem ,the reasons to choose the manuscript to investigate,the significance and objectives of the manuscript investigation, the previous studies,the methodology , limits and plans of research:(divisions), also included theoretical study with two requirements: The first section: author's translation of Al-Tahdeeb of Tafsir and definition his book, the second contains: author's translation of manuscript (Mokhtasar Al-ttahthib fi Al-Tafsir)and definition of his manuscript, the second section: investigation of the manuscript surat Al-Imran from verse(33) to verse(34), the research has been concluded with aset of results, the most important of which were as the following: 1- The author of the manuscript is Imam Al-Mu'ayyad Billah Muhammad bin Ismail bin Al-Imam Al-Qasim bin Muhammad, peace be upou them (died in the year: 1097AH) , and the book " Al-Tahtheeb fi Tafsir" was shortened by Imam Al-Hakim Al-Jushami; Limited in that to descent , and the meaning, and provisions.2- The sources and references that studied the life of the imam show that he was a great scholar, and an imam of the imams of Yemen, just, merciful to the people, pious and a lot of fear of God Almighty.3- Imam Al-Mu'ayyad Billah did not disclose the source he referred to in his manuscript, but with the study and tracing of the manuscript, the sources from which he was taken became clear. 4- The manuscript content a great deal of scholarly material not only exegesis; Rather, it is a large scientific encyclopedia in which there are many sciences and arts, such as: the science of readings, doctrine, and jurisprudence.Finally,the research ended with index of references with Alphabetical order,printed in Arabic and English language</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Saba'a Mohammed Hussein Ali Snhob Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 827 866 Site of labor laws in public employment in Iraqi law <div> <p>Iraq has a major role in employment laws. Iraq has five effective laws that govern public employment, which are the Civil Service Law No. 24 of 1960, the Staff Law No. 25 of 1960, the Discipline of State and Public Sector Employees Law No. 14 of 1991, the Unified Retirement Law No. 9 of 2014, and the State Employees’ Salaries Law. Public Sector No. 22 of 2008, in addition to many special legislation, decisions of the dissolved Revolutionary Command Council, and orders of the dissolved Coalition Provisional Authority in Iraq.But the public job still suffers from many problems, especially since many of these laws have passed for a long time and are no longer compatible with the current circumstance, the most important of which is the Civil Service Law, which was legislated in 1960 and the lack of a database for the real number of employees, which prevents job duplication and waste of money. General and the problem of temporary jobs, contracts and daily wages, which are raised in any discussion of the general budget law and determining the legal status of many categories of workers in state agencies, especially since the legal system for public employment in Iraq is considered one of the closed legal systems, meaning that the original job is the permanent job and the Iraqi legislator in Resolution 150 of 1987 stipulates that the laws that apply to employees shall be applied to temporary employees in appointment, rights and duties, as they are applied by virtue of the provisions of the State Employees Discipline Law. We find it necessary to work on legislating the Federal Civil Service Law and unifying the legal rules for the public job, especially the salary scale and job grades. Legislating the Federal Civil Service Law leads to unifying the public job legislation and expanding the work with the job number, which the Ministry of Planning has begun working on</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Murtada Al-Yasi Fouad Ghazi Kazem Al-Khafaji Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 867 894 Grammatical responses to grammarians of Zanjani (the appeal method as a model) <div> <p>The responses are among the important issues that the grammarians have addressed since the beginning of the grammatical composition and the rules of the Arabic language, and this phenomenon belongs to the grammatical dispute. The strength of the argument is in responding to the opponent by analysis, discussion, inference, and following the opinion of previous scholars, and we note that these responses have been characterized in various grammatical issues, and formed a clear feature in the methods of appeal, which he stood on and addressed many responses in different issues, his response was in the methods of appeal He was clear and followed the reasoning in responding to the opponent’s opinion, and he employed clear methods in responding to the opponent from these methods that he employed (weak, corrupt, or disordered). For this reason, the researcher followed the descriptive analytical approach in standing up to the issues of responses in the style of the appeal, and the researcher reached that Al-Zanjani’s method was characterized by clarity and accuracy at times, and at other times he used grammatical inference methods such as measurement and You will read, and he was not even ashamed of responding to the grammatical school to which he leaned a lot in his book, which is the visual school</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Nizar Abdel-Latif Sabr Barir Ali Mahdi Hassan Hassoun Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 895 914 Synonymy in the Hebrew language (selected models) <div> <p>synonymy is one of the semantic phenomena and one of the important topics that have been studied and researched in all international languages. Tandem is a treasure and an inexhaustible source in supplying languages with expressions and words that help society in dealing in daily life. And reduce the difficulties of understanding and perception, that our research is the application of the subject of synonymy in the Hebrew language, which falls within the group of Semitic languages, for this group we can say that the application of this topic in its expressions is very similar, especially in the Arabic and Hebrew languages, and the importance of the topic lies in the models chosen from those Pronunciations and their comparison with each other in dictionaries of the Hebrew language. And it was necessary to divide the research into arranged paragraphs, beginning with the introduction and the rest of the titles, which included the definition of synonymy between language and terminology, the reasons for the occurrence of synonymy, and some opinions in proving and denying the phenomenon of synonymy, the types of synonymy, and the most important reasons for the occurrence of the phenomenon of synonymy, whose occurrence was numerous in different opinions. The different, and the fact that one thing has one name and its multiple characteristics, as well as to the linguistic development of the single word, in addition to the process of borrowing or borrowing from the rest of the foreign languages that are close to each other and to other reasons, and we concluded our research with different models, including Biblical ones, and some of them from the modern Hebrew language and the conclusion research with the most important conclusions we have reached.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Ali Abdid al Hamza Lazem Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 915 934 Merchant Ships until of The end of The u mayyad era <div> <p>I wrote about merchant ships, until the end of the Umayyad era Reviewing, what was mentioned in the Holy Qur’an and the Prophet’s Hadith, some of what is related to the sea and its ships in the verses of the Holy Qur’an and the Noble Prophet’s Hadith.Then I quickly passed through the collection of Arab poetry, and I read some verses that talked about ships and their forms.Then I got into the heart of the topic, and wrote down about shipbuilding, their types, and parts, such as the hulls, their numbers in some ships, the sails and their sizes, and the names of the ships. I limited myself to a number of names, avoiding length, and their shapes. Some resemble some types of birds, and others resemble some fish. In terms of cargo, I touched on large ships carrying more than thousandstons, and carrying thousands of passengers, and with the services it provides to passengers, and in terms of speed, I tracked the time period that the ships traveled and divided it by the spatial distance, while not forgetting the importance of the wind, in the period of time, as well as the ships stopping for the purpose of shopping for passengers and merchants, and I completed the Some Roman ships; ship management; and the most prominent administrators such as the president, the captain, the oarsmen, and the transportation fees. It has become clear to me that ship wages, if calculated, according to the value of gold or the dollar, are sometimes in line with current prices; Although we tried to obtain more texts, we were fortunate enough to use birds and monkeys for some tasks. Which I mentioned in place, such as messages to trade for forests and for birds in special places, including information with low-income people, but for trained monkeys, it has been used in financial matters, especially in places of sailsI also referred to the state’s interest in maritime trade by strengthening its contribution and digging navigational channels, and mentioned the names of the most prominent employees who worked in maritime trade. And he made maritime trade free, as Omar bin Abdul Aziz attributed, and the role of Al-Muhtasib, In monitoring the shipbuilding industry, and what is related to maritime trade and ship employees, as well as the most important sea voyages, it devoted an entire paragraph to trade with China, and other topics, and I used many primary sources, such as Al-Baladhuri in the genealogies of the nobles in its many parts, as well as in the book “Lisan”. Al-Arab by Ibn Manzur, as well as travel books, geography books, and modern references related to the subject</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Salem Abed Ali Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 935 958 “The legitimacy of amassing wealth, its limits, restrictions, and disadvantages in the Qur’an and Sunnah” <div> <p>Money and wealth are important matters in human societies and are among the important goals of Islamic law. The Holy Qur’an is a heavenly revelation that explains to us the role of money in life, its benefits and its harms. Therefore, it has prescribed for us commands and prohibitions, as a warning against the harms of money and to achieve its benefits. The current study, under the title “The legitimacy of amassing wealth, its limits, restrictions, and disadvantages in the Qur’an and Sunnah” examines the extent of legitimacy of accumulating wealth and the permissible methods for accumulating wealth and money in accordance with divine law and Prophet's tradition, and through an analytical descriptive method in the texts, showing its money’s role and its great importance in the life from Holy Qur’an. The Qur’an described money as the sustenance of life, called it good, expressed it in the context of gratitude, commanded that money be preserved from spoilage, and made punishment for those who transgress the money, and likewise gave money to children in more than one of the verses. Money is considered one of the necessities in Islamic law, and it must be taken into account in the individual and social affairs of Muslims. Money is also considered a means of trial and temptation for people in terms of what God has obligated them to do with money and what has befallen them with it. This study also discusses the evils of gathering wealth, such as arrogance, avoiding the truth, being unmindful to Allah remembranc, corruption of the heart, and boasting</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Zahra Akhavan Sarraf Zahra Faleh Shenior AlSafi Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 959 986 Morphometric analysis of the Wadi Shahak Basin in Sana’a Governorate (Yemen) <div> <p>The study dealt with the analysis of the morphometric characteristics of the Wadi Shahak Basin, represented by the areal, formal, and topographic characteristics, and the characteristics of the water drainage network. The study relied on Geographic information systems, topographic maps, and digital elevation models (DEM). The morphometric characteristics of the basin were determined, and a geographical database of the characteristics was built. Morphometric measurements of the Wadi Shahak basin through a set of geographic information systems programs based on digital elevation model data with a resolution of 30 meters. All values of the morphometric measurements of the basin were obtained, in addition to extracting the drainage networks. The work was also done very quickly, with less effort and with high accuracy compared to traditional methods. It was also shown through the study of the spatial and formal characteristics that the Wadi Shahak Basin tends to be more elongated than rounded. The width of the basin reached 6.7 km and its length was 35.2 km. The width represents less than a quarter of the length. The elongation ratio in the basin was 0.49 and the roundness ratio was 0.36. This means that Rainwater travels a long distance to reach the outlet of the basin and arrives weak and dispersed as a result of evaporation and seepage. It is also clear that the Wadi Shahak Basin is characterized by its severe eroding as a result of the nature of the geological structure, the beginning of the age stage, and a soft topographic texture rate due to the low density of vegetation cover and the intensity of eroding, which allows for the presence of surface runoff. And the rates of erosion increased, and it became clear that the Wadi Shahak Basin is ranked fifth according to the Strahler system, and that it has a large area of 236.9 km2, and consists of 27 sub-basins, and that the relationship between the number of waterways and rank is an inverse relationship, as the number of streams decreases with increasing rank until it reaches one stream in The last rank, and the relationship between the lengths of waterways and river ranks is also an inverse relationship. The average length of streams decreases with increasing rank. Likewise, the bifurcation rate in the Wadi Shahak basin reached 5.6, which is a high rate, and the drainage density reached 2.02 km/km2, which is a low rate due to the hardness of the rock formations and the fact that The fault zone is steep. The basin is in its early stages, the youth stage, that is, at the peak of its activity and is still affected by the process of weathering and erosion</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Zamzam Abdullah Muhammad Al-Ajmi Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 987 1026 Bab Mardûm Mosque in Toledo <div> <p>This mosque is considered one of the most important traces of religious architecture remaining in the city of Toledo, because the mosques that were present throughout the city have disappeared and only a few traces remain of them through which we cannot recognize the architectural style of the city of Toledo. Mosques, their roofing methods, and the types of decorations executed on them Bab Mardoum Mosque was given this name in reference to a door next to it that is still standing, known as Bab Mardoum, after the fall of the city in the year (478 AH / 1085 AD) and the mosque was converted into a church and was called Cristo de la Luz. Above the facade of the mosque is an inscriptional frieze that reads: In the name of God, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful. Ahmed bin Hadidi built this mosque with his money seeking God’s reward, and it was completed with God’s help at the hands of Musa bin Ali and the construction was completed happily. It was completed in Muharram in the year three hundred and ninety.) This inscription consists of pieces of brick protruding on the facade of the mosque in a cornice located between two rows of protruding serrated cornices. The mosque is small, the length of each side not exceeding eight meters. It was built of granite stone and brick. It was a secondary mosque in the city after the recovery of Toledo. Alfonso VIII gave it to a religious association, and later a head in the form of an apse in the Mudéjar style was added to it from its northeastern side. The mosque consists of nine columns divided by four columns, on which twelve arches rest. Three arches open in the north-east of the mosque, leading to the foyer. Above them are six arches, with white and red colors alternating in their arches, according to the same arch system as the Grand Mosque of Cordoba. This facade has been exposed. It underwent several repairs, but the southwestern façade is the main one, overlooking the road leading to Bab Mardoum, with three other arches, at the top of which is the inscription we referred to, whose style is consistent with the Iraqi Abbasid building traditions. The doming system in the mosque is based on the intersection of the ribs that cross in different forms. The arches and vaults in the Toledo Mosque display an evolution of the domes of the Mosque of Cordoba. The difference between them is that the domes of the Toledo Mosque depict a decorative and architectural trend, which are what the people of Andalusia were passionate about. They did not think about the tremendous revolution that these innovations could lead to in the art of architecture, as did the artists of Gothic architecture who benefited from the idea of intersecting arches and the decorations executed on them Therefore, the Bab Mardoum Mosque is an important ideal model that illustrates to students of Mudéjar architecture the harmony between Islamic and Christian architecture after the wars of reconquest by the Spanish Christians, and a religious model that religious buildings would later follow.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Wafaa kamil obid Rafah Jassim Al sammarrai Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 1027 1058 The impact of informal institutions on US foreign policy decision-making <div> <p>The foreign political decision-making process in the United States is one of the pillars of understanding the history of American foreign policy. The foreign political decision-making process can be analyzed from many angles and aspects, including: US foreign policy trends, patterns, and behaviors, or the set of actions adopted by the United States in the face of international crises in the century In the past, the political decision-making process in the external sphere is not limited to official bodies and institutions only, but also includes informal structures and institutions that enjoy political influence and participate in influencing the American political decision-making process. The political parties, pressure groups, public opinion, the media, research centers and American think tanks are among the most prominent of those institutions that have influenced the foreign political decision-making process in relation to contemporary American history:- The relationship of political decision-makers with unofficial American parties was not devoid of positive incentives that interacted with certain elements, such as sufficient awareness of the national strategy, skill, and personal experience, which subsequently produced specific results that contributed to the formulation of the American foreign decision regarding many of the events that occurred. The United States resolved them in its favor over the past century, such as issues in the Middle East and some crises in the continents of Asia and Latin America. Preparing studies, coordinating information, proposing action options for various issues, and the process of collecting information is carried out by what connects these informal institutions from official bodies such as the Ministry of Defense, Foreign Affairs, Finance, Trade, and the Central Intelligence Agency, analyzing it, coordinating it, and recommending that appropriate measures be taken regarding it. After submitting it to external decision makers, and this is what our historical study will examine</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Ahmed Abdel Wahed Abdel Nabi Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 1059 1082 Types of narration in the novels of Louay Hamza Abbas <div> <p>This research deals with the definition of narration linguistically and terminologically, and extracting the linguistic unification between the opinions of critics about the definition of narration and what is meant by it. Then the research deals with the following types of narration:First: Dialogue and stream of consciousness.Second: Internal model.Third: Direct narration.Fourth: Non-narrative. Direct. For each type of the above, I provide a definition for it, present some of the critics’ opinions on it, then mention several examples from Louay Hamza Abbas’s novels, analyze them, and comment on them. The use of stream-of-consciousness dialogue results from revealing what is going on in the writer’s mind and presenting it to dimensions and connotations, as the writer summons, with certain words, what is in the mental interior of the character, intended by the narrator, and thus enriches the speech with suggestions and connotations, and thus increases the recipient’s awareness of what the text carries. Feelings, thoughts, and site readings. The internal dialogue was also a technique that represented the character's other tongue, as it contributed to understanding and participating in the narration of events. It is a dialogue whose owner does not expect a response or clarification. Because it is a fascinating dialogue with oneself.Also, the narration was most present in the novels of Louay Hamza Abbas, in addition to the fact that the narration makes the recipient live with the character’s experience, and touches on her peculiarities of actions and feelings, in addition to the method of direct narration characterized by the writer narrating the events and analyzing the characters in depth, presenting their actions and accurately describing their feelings. And her emotions and penetrates into the depths of her thinking and reveals her struggle</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Abbas Yadollahi Farsani Hassan Dadkhwah Tehrani Firas Fakher Dhidan Al Karam Allah Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 1083 1102 Abdul Mohsen Al-Saadoun’s policy towards the British occupation in Iraq for the period 1922-1925. A historical study in light of Iraqi documents"" <div> <p>It can be said that the period extending between 1922 and 1925 is the real stage in building the Iraqi state during the era of Abdul Mohsen Al-Saadoun’s first government, through which he was able to draw up a policy of Iraq’s foreseeable future in accordance with the protocols and treaties concluded between Iraq and Britain at a time when the British authority saw in Al-Saadoun the political figure. Which understood the policy and objectives of (Great Britain) after it listened carefully to the reports and messages of the British Reliance House in Baghdad. However, the most important political activities that Al-Saadoun practiced in the face of British policy when he assumed the Ministries of Justice and Interior, that he was nominated as Prime Minister of the Iraqi government, which is the true stage of building the Iraqi state. The Al-Saadoun government is the first government to pay great attention to the project of general elections for the Iraqi Constituent Assembly, which is the backbone in developing and drawing up the basic law of the modern Iraqi state. This is what the previous governments that ruled Iraq during the reign of King Faisal I could not achieve. Al-Saadoun's government succeeded in getting the Turkish government to comply by approving the Iraqi identity of Mosul, following the Second Lausanne Conference in Switzerland on April 23, 1923. Al-Saadoun was able to preserve national wealth through his chairmanship of the oil negotiations committee between Iraq and monopolistic companies such as the Anglo-Persian Oil Company and the Turkish Company. Al-Saadoun strove hard to convince the British High Commissioner, Sir Percy Cox, to return the national Iraqi political figures from their exile on Hingham Island and Iran, and their arrival to their homeland, Iraq, and in the forefront of them: Jaafar Abu Al-Taman, Mr. Muhammad Al-Sadr, Amin Al-Jarjafji, Sami Khawanda, Ibrahim Saleh Al-Omar, and others. Iraqi politicians. Al-Saadoun worked with all his efforts to sign the protocol held on April 30, 1923, which included the termination of the Iraqi-British treaty when Iraq became a permanent member of the Council of the League of Nations. Al-Saadoun worked to conclude the Muhammara Agreement between Iraq and Saudi Arabia to secure Iraq’s borders from repeated Wahhabi attacks on the country. Among the decisions The mission for the Al-Saadoun government was to approve the administrative inspection system, which stipulated the withdrawal of English advisors from the districts (provinces) to Baghdad.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Salem Hashem Abbas Abu Dallah Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 1103 1130 Judicial texts ( ditilia ) ( Reading, translating and analyzing two judicial texts from the third dynasty of your) <div> <p>These cases are among the most important sources of our knowledge of the law in ancient Iraq . They are also called judgments issued, judicial precedents , or legal formulas. They are the merits of the cases that were presented to the courts and decisions were taken regarding them . Then they were written down on a clay number and kept with the person responsible for that in the court’s panel , so we find in each number A specific subject, the testimony of the witnesses and their names , the date of issuing the judgment , the names of the judges , in addition to the decision issued by the court on the case . The codified laws are an advanced case in the history of human thought and the most important historical facts that distinguished the ancient Iraqis are that they confirmed their adherence to the legal rules , whether they were in the form of the written law or in the form of the legal custom. The codified laws and laws came at a later time to confirm the importance of the agreement and its registration in the legal manner and before the emergence of laws Blog In ancient Iraq , kings played the role of judges in resolving disputes and identifying transgressions on traditions , whose impact on people was like the regimes . The codified laws, which over time have become judicial precedents , have the status of legal rulings and have become one of the foundations on which the codified laws were based .</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Duaa Hossam Abbas Hilal Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 1131 1148 Economic life in Andalusia through the book “Subh Al-Asha fi the Construction Industry” by Al-Qalqashandi (d. 821 AH / 1418 AD) <div> <p>The research deals with the economic life of Andalusia through the book “Subh Al-Asha fi the Construction Industry” by Al-Qalqashandi, which pointed out many of the resources that Andalusia is famous for and what it achieved in agriculture, which was very popular, and the industry in which Andalusia excelled over other countries, and the product Andalusian, which was produced in abundance and brought by merchants to many countries in the East and Morocco. The researcher in this research also touched on the economic life in Andalusia through the book “Subh al-A’sha in the Construction Industry” by Al-Qalqashdi, so that we can see what this writer presented to us about the economic life in Andalusia, especially since it came in a late period when the sun of Andalusia was approaching its decline, as it contained historical information. Valuable, especially the economic aspect. This research included the introduction, four sections and a conclusion, an introductory section in introducing the writer and the book, and three other sections on agriculture, industry and trade, during which we answer the most important questions raised in the subject, which are first: What is the economic aspect that characterizes Andalusia? What is its return to society? Second: Did Andalusia succeed in using its natural potential? What is its return on the economic field? Third: Did the Andalusian economy differ after the Islamic conquest from its previous era? And how did that happen? In it, we rely mainly on the book, along with advanced and late sources, with deduction and analysis of indirect information, and then finally the results reached by the researcher. This is what the research revolves around in a brief manner, and God is the Grantor of success.produced and reached many countries in East and West by traders.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Mohammad Nayef Mahmoud Fathi Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 1149 1176 Material sources and cuneiform texts bear witness to the cultural interaction between the Kingdom of Media and Mesopotamia during the first millennium BC <div> <p>The political events that took place during the first millennium BC had a major role in changing the political map in the ancient Near East region at that time. New peoples appeared that dominated the political scene, and other peoples who had a long history in leading the scene disappeared, and these new peoples, unfortunately, did not leave us any residue. Archaeological evidence indicates the level of civilization it reached at that time, and all the archaeological remains it left were not consistent with the fame that those peoples had acquired, and at the same time it did not provide sufficient evidence to confirm that level, and all that was provided by the results of archaeological excavations in archaeological sites located within the extensions of those It was not enough for political countries to know the facts of things. Mesopotamia has been linked since the earliest times civilizational links with neighboring countries and these links ranged between the tide and depending on the circumstances surrounding the country at the time, and these links reached their strength during the first millennium BC, and this is indicated by the effects discovered in the archaeological sites in Iraq and neighboring countries, as revealed These effects of the existence of a civilized interaction between Iraq and those countries has never been seen before, which spanned the bridges of communication to transfer the heritage of Mesopotamian civilization and at the highest levels, and the eastern side received a large share of that interaction Civilizational bonds emerged from which the newly formed material state was linked to the kingdoms of ancient Iraq during the first millennium BC. For the Assyrians and Mesopotamia remained in material civilization and this is what we will show during the research.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Kadhim .J. Salman Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 1177 1196 Metrical Variation and Its Impact on Rhythm and Signification in the Works of Al-Barae Al-Baghdadi ( A Critical Study) <div> <p>This phenomenon did not capture the attention of scholars in a way that draws attention to the old critical lesson, as critics and performers did not establish it in its poetic form, despite the receipt of some names indicating it, which will be talked about in its place, while it is a phenomenon prevalent in ancient Arabic poetry and has its impact on it at the level of form and content.Research Methodology: The study was conducted on a collection of poetry collected, presented, documented and achieved by Mr. Hilal Naji, as he showed that most of the sources referred to a diwan of poetry in the poet's handwriting, but he did not reach us, so he benefited from Dr. Younis Al-Samarrai, who counted (112) houses mentioned in his book: (Al Wahab from literary families in the Abbasid era) and then made an effort to collect them, reaching (434) houses, and included another poet with him, so the title became (Diwana Al-Qasim Al-Marimi, and Al-Hussein bin Muhammad Al-Baree Al-Baghdadi, their lives and poetry).The research mechanism: The study required the development of a mechanism that clarifies the general vision of the way the information is presented, how the studied sample is processed, and its statement in the preamble of the study. Objective: The research aims to clarify the phenomenon of rotation and its effectiveness in influencing the poetic text between the levels of rhythm and significance by benefiting from the axioms of the study, as well as the statistics necessary for the study.Conclusion: We are facing a critical symptomatic phenomenon that needs to be studied and examined for a research sample, through which the research revealed the nature of recycling, its degrees of presence in heritage, its ancient names, and the stability of naming, as well as its representations in Arabic poetry and the extent of its impact on it.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Nihad Fakhri Mahmood Raed Okla Kalf Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 1197 1216 The effectiveness of natural and cosmic symbols in the poetry of Muhammad Reda Al-Shabibi <div> <p>By numbering his thoughts in the context of different symbols, a person can find a way to record them, provide renewed reference to them, and enable others to understand the concepts and meanings. The era of the use of symbols dates back to the earliest stages of human history. One of the important functions of the symbol, as one of the most prominent poetic manifestations of contemporary poets, is to express the turbulent and deteriorating social and political conditions. The current research aims, through the use of the descriptive analytical method, to reveal the role of symbolic components in interpreting and clarifying the views of Muhammad Reda Al-Shabibi. One of the most important findings of the research is that the symbols of Al-Shabibi expressed the suffering of the oppressed Iraqi people during the period of tyranny of the Ottoman Turks and the influence of the colonialists who attacked this country. Natural symbols were the product of the poet's mental creativity and were characterized by semantic diversity, and it seems that he was influenced in this field by the Symbolist school. Among the most frequently used symbols in his poetry are the crow, the dove, the wolf, the lion, the star, the sun, the wind, and the stone, especially the night, which is considered the most prominent and important in it, as it reflects an image of darkness, chaos, and despair. The meanings of its symbols are characterized by simplicity and clarity and are not exaggerated at all, so that the speech does not become ambiguous and its understanding and deduction are difficult for the addressee. In addition to all this darkness, desolation, and pessimism, he is a poet full of hope for the future. He sings of the nation’s pride, independence, and elevation, and mobilizes all his determination to awaken the people.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Abdolvahid Navidi Dana Talibpour Mohammad Hammadi Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 1217 1238 Kitab Almuqadimat Aleishria Written By:Sheikh Imam The Scholar And Scholar Sheikh, Jamal Aldin Alqarafi (Study And Investigation ) <div> <p>This small treatise achieved great scholarly significance in a single manuscript copy, which – as far as I know – is not available elsewhere in manuscript libraries. I divided the work on it into three chapters:In the first chapter, I studied the life of the author, may God have mercy on him. It caught my attention that despite his fame and mastery in science, and the graduation of many under him, he did not receive a comprehensive translation like other scholars. In this chapter, I talked about his private and scientific life, and mentioned his sheikhs, students, and the works he wrote. He did not have He changed this message, then mentioned the date of his death, may God have mercy on him, and thus concluded the first chapter.As for the second chapter, I devoted it to studying the manuscript, and in it I mentioned a comprehensive description of the book in terms of the author’s approach to it, and the sources he relied on in conveying the issues, and I mentioned the evidence for the book’s attribution to its author, and I also summarized in it the investigation method that I followed in the thesis.As for the third chapter, it included the content of the thesis. After transcribing the text according to the rules of modern dictation, I clarified the strange terms and attributed the issues to famous grammar books, to make it easier for the researcher to access them. The text did not contain any verses, hadiths, or notable figures. Therefore, the work was in The investigation is limited to these two points.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Rebekah Mohammed Abdel Majeed Abdel Ilah Al-Nuaimi Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 1239 1266 Spatial analysis of population fertility levels in Muthanna Governorate for the period 2012-2022 <div> <p>The research aims to measure and analyze population fertility and its environmental distribution at the level of administrative units in Muthanna Governorate using some population fertility measures, based on official population estimates. When talking about the study area, we note that population fertility rates vary according to administrative units. The crude birth rate in Al-Muthanna Governorate (21.1) live births per thousand women in 2012. This rate decreased to (19) in 2022, and the general fertility rate in the study area reached (90) live births per thousand women in the age group (15). - 49 years in 2012, as it rose to (93) in urban areas, while it decreased to (81) in the countryside. It also decreased to (81) in the governorate in (2022), as well as in urban and rural areas to (84 and 79), respectively. As for the ratio of children to women in the study area in (2012), it reached (639.8) children in the age group ( 0 - 4) years for every (1000) women in the age group (15 - 49) years. The value of this rate decreased slightly in (2022) to reach (624.2) children for every (1000) womenAccordingly, the general fertility rate in the study area reached (90) live births per (1000) women in the age group (15-49) years in (2012), as it rose in urban areas to (93), while it decreased in the countryside to ( 81), in the year (2022) this rate decreased to (81) in the governorate and in urban and rural areas to (84, 79) for each, respectively. The ratio of children to women in the study area reached (639.8) children in the age group (0 - 4) One year for every (1000) women in the age group (15-49) years in (2012), decreased in urban areas to (594.9), while this percentage increased in rural areas to (673.5), in (2022) This percentage decreased to (624.2) children in the age group (0-4) years for every (1000) women in the age group (15-49) years, and it decreased in urban and rural areas from its counterparts in (2012) to ( 580 and 660.7) for both urban and rural areas, respectively.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Abdul Jaleel Abdul whab Athar Abbas Kareem Suhad Jamal Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 1267 1292 The political and military conflict of Gaza against the workforce from Mesopotamia (539-734 BC) <div> <p>The city of Gaza, located in southern Syria on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea, and on the border with Egypt, because of its important and prominent strategic position, was subjected to many military campaigns by the political forces of Mesopotamia, Assyria and Babylonia, from the seventh century, until the middle of the fifth century BC, when those The city is the gateway to entry for all foreign forces seeking to invade Egypt. . In addition, the political forces in Egypt also sought, for their part, to control that city to secure its political and geographical borders. Accordingly, the military forces from Mesopotamia sought to use that city after controlling it as a military base to invade Egypt, and this was confirmed by the cuneiform written sources that dated The conduct of the military campaigns on Gaza City by the kings of the Assyrian state and the Neo-Babylonian state. The motivation for the military campaigns against Gaza City during the first millennium BC was primarily economic, as the city enjoyed great commercial importance for the merchants of southern and northern Arabia. The military forces from Mesopotamia were able to control the city and subject it to their direct authority politically and militarily. The city was not subject to the military authority from Mesopotamia; Except by force, declaring it a emirate of rebellion and disobedience several times, and the king of the city allied with Egypt. All attempts to rebel against Assyrian control failed. The city of Gaza was taken as a base for launching military campaigns against Egypt, by the military forces from Mesopotamia, and it was also forced to pay a tax (tribute) by all the kings who controlled it.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Ziad awaid suwaidan Wissam al-din hamid muhaisen Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 1293 1306 Moral values and their impact in the book (The Jewels of Thought and the Jewels of Poverty) by Abu Al-Ala Ibn Al-Murabit (d. 663 AH), the value of loyalty and longing as an example. An analytical study <div> <p>God Almighty has imprinted on the human soul the values and principles, some of which came through common sense and sound behavior, and others were acquired by sitting with honorable people and taking the right lessons and values from this life, as loyalty and longing are among the moral values that express the characteristics of man and the knowledge of the moral and moral tendencies within him. She was endowed with delicate feelings and high morals. My research was entitled (Moral values and their impact in the book Plurals of Thought and Jewels of Poverty by Abu Al-Ala Ibn Al-Murabit (d. 663 AH) The value of loyalty and longing as an example. An analytical study), and this required several matters that I addressed in this research, They are presented by the introduction and then the definition of loyalty and longing linguistically and terminologically, and then a simple illumination on how the Andalusian poet addressed the value of loyalty and longing, and then an explanation of the importance of that value in the book The Jewels of Thought and the Jewels of Poverty, as the poets and writers of Al-Zawahir enjoyed a distinctive poetic language with an artistic and sensual character that mimics what surrounds it. Of the literary issues, including loyalty to the longing for the beloved, loyalty to the homeland and longing for it, as well as loyalty to the self-made ministry, which was the literary, cognitive, religious and moral starting point and the correct standard in which the poets of Al-Zawahir followed, as they derived from its upright approach lessons and lessons in various different literary values and trends, and the cultural blending was The Arabic and Levantine languages played a prominent role in refining the literary talents and abilities of the Zawahir poets. In addition, this value had a special value in Andalusian poetry in general and the Zawahir poets in particular, as a result of alienation, separation, and distance from the homeland due to the repressive policies that affected the country of Andalusia and had a negative impact on Its writers and poets, which led them to emigrate and move away from their homeland, and the obsession of loyalty and longing haunted their aching souls and healed their wounds. All of this was followed by a conclusion, then footnotes, and then the sources.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Hamed Razzaq Abbas Bashar Khalaf Abboud Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 1307 1322 Al-Alama Hassan bin Ibrahim Al-Khatib Al-Durayhimi and his book Fath Muqfflat Al-Afham Explanation of the Umdat Al-Ahkam Chapter on the Virtue and Obligation of Congregational Prayer from the Book of Prayer - Study and investigation- <div> <p>This research aims to introduce Al-Alama Hassan bin Ibrahim Al-Khatib, explain the virtue of congregational prayer, its ruling, and explain the Sunnahs and salaries related to the obligatory prayers. The method used in the research is the inductive method, the descriptive method, and the method Historical. The research concluded with results, most notably the correctness of the title of the book, the correctness of its attribution to the author, and that the author followed his method according to the easy and simple method, and that the book contained valuable scientific material, as its author collected in it many benefits, unique things, and linguistic, jurisprudential, and hadith narratives, which he embroidered in a way Brief. It is easy, has many pronunciations, is strong in expression, and has an abundance of knowledge, which makes it suitable for specialists and other common people. The author is an Ash’ari in the doctrine, the Shafi’i school of thought. The research came to shed light on Muslim scholars in general, and Yemeni scholars in particular, and to introduce them and their scientific efforts in serving the Sunnah of the Prophet. The research concluded with results, the most notable of which are: that Al Alama Hassan bin Ibrahim Al-Khatib is a jurist and hadith scholar. He presented his book in a concise and easy manner, due to the valuable scientific material it contains, in which he collected many benefits, insights, and various linguistic, jurisprudential, and hadith topics. Among them: his interest in various jurisprudential issues, restricting the opinions of jurists to the issues, mentioning the hadith followed by a translation of the narrators of the chain of transmission, attributing it to its context, mentioning the words included in the narration, explaining the degree of the hadith, mentioning the mentioned words from a linguistic standpoint, and explaining the meanings of strange words, so it is like a scientific encyclopedia. Alfqhia Alhaditheyh</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Khawla Hammoud Abdo Dhiab Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 1323 1352 The role of angels in the wars of the Prophet (PBUH) Between the Qur’anic text and history <div> <p>Belief in the unseen is considered part of faith in the religion Islam. God Almighty said (and those who believe in the unseen), The angels are among the manifestations of the unseen, and the Qur’an often refers to the names of some of them, their attributes, and their duties. Among the things mentioned in the Qur’an was the descent of the angels in the Battle of Badr, and on the Day of Battle, But there is a difference about the role of angels in these battles between the apparent meaning of the Qur’an and what was understood by the early narrators. The Arab imagination went on to present them as human bodies resembling the image of the Arab fighter. The angels wear turbans and ride horses, and the Arabic narrative went on to explain a greater role for the angels, represented by killing and capturing infidels. But these narrators are no more than those of the polytheists who participated in the day of Badr or of those who converted to Islam in the conquest of Mecca in the year 8 AH. Or from the unknown, or from the Tabi’een, who are the generation following the generation of the Companions. How can we trust what they brought, when perhaps they narrated it out of mockery, or as a literal interpretation of Qur’anic verses? This research came to compare what was stated in the Qur’anic text, and what was contained in the historical narrative, which may have been a reflection of the Arab imagination. Among the most important sources for the study were: biography books, such as the biography of Ibn Ishaq, d. 151 AH, the biography of Ibn Hisham, d. 218 AH, and the biography of Ibn Sayyid al-Nas, d. 734 AH. Among the books of the Maghazis: the book of Maghazi al-Waqidi, d. 209 AH. As for the history books, the book The History of the Messengers and Kings by al-Tabari, d. 310. Hijri, and the book The Beginning and the End by Ibn Kathir, d. 774 AH. In addition to the books of the Prophet’s hadith, such as Sahih al-Bukhari, d. 256 AH, Sahih Muslim, d. 261 AH, and others.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Intisar Adnan Abdel Wahed Al-Awwad’s Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 1353 1390 Source structures in the Diwan of Suleiman bin Dawood Al-Kabeer (d. 1211 AH) <div> <p>The infinitive refers to families of words that share common characteristics and features, and perhaps the most prominent of them is the abstract, as well as those that follow the path of nouns in nouns, abstractness, acceptance of (the) and attribution to it. In this research, we discussed the types of infinitives, which are: the original and explicit (standard and auditory), the memetic infinitive, and the infinitive. The time, the infinitive, the artificial infinitive, and the infinitives are two categories. The first is related to its verbs. Each verb has a special form for its infinitive that is not shared by other verbs. As for the second group, it indicates specific meanings expressed in known forms in which different verbs share, with several sections, and the meaning of this is that there is a connection. Between these meanings and their verbs, such as sound, disease, nafar, harfah, disturbance...etc., and between the infinitive forms that express them, such as the fa’al, the fa’il, the fa’al, the fa’ala, the fa’alan, and others. We will try to explain what each of these formulas and similar meanings, proven by Arab morphologists, indicate. Then we will present the linguistic reality of these formulas and the relationship between each formula and its meanings in the Diwan. All of this was dealt with by Suleiman bin Daoud in his Diwan in a practical manner. We took some practical examples from them to clarify his position on them in The folds of these papers, noting that the approach followed in this research is the descriptive statistical approach, as I traced the structures of the sources mentioned in the Diwan and described the morphologically, while making a census for each structure</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Asmaa Hussein jadou Al-Taie Mona Youssef Hussein Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 1391 1424 The impact of the Yemen war on the US-Soviet conflict 1962-1965 <div> <p>The Yemeni revolution that broke out on September 26, 1962 is considered one of the most important revolutions that the Arab region witnessed. The importance of that revolution stems from the fact that it posed a direct threat to American interests in the peninsula and the Arabian Gulf region, as the allies of the Yemeni revolutionaries from Egypt and the Soviet Union became close to American interests in the Kingdom of Arabia. Saudi Arabia. This revolution also witnessed direct Soviet intervention through support with weapons, equipment, and advisors, whether through Egypt or directly, as happened after Abdullah Al-Sallal’s visit to Moscow and receiving direct support, and it increased the Soviet presence in the region. In return, the United States increased its measures. To protect its interests, especially in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, after the agreement between the two parties, which restored the American presence to Saudi lands, the analytical method was used to study the impact of the Yemen war on the American-Saudi conflict. Some results were also reached, which showed that the war was an integral part of the transition of the Cold War. To the Arab region, the researcher reached some recommendations, including focusing on studying the history of the Arab region during the Cold War, as well as focusing on the fact that the Yemeni conflict, from which the people suffered the woes, was nothing but an episode of the Cold War and an international competition whose price was paid by the Yemeni people and supporting countries such as Egypt. And the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, as that conflict was one of the reasons for the setback that the Arabs suffered before the Zionist entity in the 1967 war, and it affected the nature of Arab-Arab relations due to the sharp divisions it witnessed between the leaderships, especially those that occurred between Egypt and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, which reached The Egyptian forces bombed Saudi territory. All of this was due to the intervention of the two major powers in the region, namely the United States of America and the Soviet Union.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Khairulla Kh. Silaiman Ahmed S. Khalifa Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 1425 1446 Semantic Diversity of the morphological form of “Fa'il” in the hadith of: “Ali Qasim of Hell and Paradise” Morphological-semantic study <div> <p>The research in your hands sheds light on one of the famous prophetic hadiths reported from the Great Prophet Muhammad, may God bless him and his family, regarding Imam Ali bin Abi Talib, peace be upon him. It is a hadith (Ali is the divider of Hell and Paradise). The research aims to analyze the hadith semantically by clarifying the meaning of the word (al-qaseem), and the meaning and purpose that this word leads to, in addition to the general meaning resulting from the composition of the words, with the help of morphological investigations in this section. The research reaches a conclusion from which, in light of this analysis, it becomes clear the merit of this great personality, and his great influence and clear role in defining the features of true faith, the foundations of which were laid by the Noble Prophet Muhammad, may God’s prayers and peace be upon him and his family, and even determining the fate of humanity, as is apparent. The results show the virtue of Ali’s personality, which requires commitment to loving it and working according to its behavior and approach, as it is the path to salvation. The approach followed in this research is the descriptive approach based on extrapolating, analyzing and interpreting the hadith. The reason that includes wisdom is evident from the use by the Greatest Prophet of the morphological form (fa'il) without other forms, despite the possibility of benefiting from other forms.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Aqeel Jawad Abdul-Aali Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 1447 1472 The Form Of Using Connectives In The Turkish Language And The Ottoman Language (A Comparative Study) <div> <p>In the Turkish language, many studies have been conducted on various topics of grammar to this day. However, no separate detailed study has been conducted on connectives, which have an important place in terms of linking words, word groups, and sentences. The study aims to discuss conjunctions, which have the task of linking different elements within the language, in a collective way, taking into account the semantic relationships within sentences. It included opinions on defining the concept of the linking letter in dictionaries and grammar books, with an emphasis on the methods and techniques used in research. Since most conjunctions have no meaning in and of themselves, it was considered appropriate to evaluate them in sentences. Conjunctions are considered one of the most important topics in teaching the Turkish language to foreigners. In order to understand a language as a whole, it is necessary first to consider and examine the parts that make up the structure of that language, and then to try to understand the whole in the relationship between the parts and the whole. Conjunctions, because of their function as word types, play an important role in moving from part to whole. Conjunctions have a very wide place in the Turkish language. The biggest problem the study faced was the lack of sufficient resources about conjunctions. In most grammar books, detailed information about conjunctions is not provided, and in addition, the fact that articles written on this topic revolve around some conjunctions has added to the lack of resources. In the first part, I talked about the concept of conjunctions, their classification, and their functions, and in the second part, I explained the characteristics of conjunctions in terms of their structure, use, roots, connections, and use in sentences.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Ghufran Muhammad Obaid Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 1473 1510 The Role Of Annah in the Ottoman Military campaigns 1639.1518 AD <div> <p>The Ottoman Empire conducted a comprehensive survey for all the lands in Annah and classified it in 1522 AD on the basis of Sanjak that swings in its administrative subordination between the states of Diyarbakir, Baghdad and Raqqa. It formed one of the Sanjaks which consists of the state of Diyarbakir until the year 1547 AD when Annah returned to the state of Baghdad which was under the Ottoman rule in 1534 AD. Annah remained so until the Ottoman Empire was established the state of Raqqa in 1586 AD, then it became one of the administrative formations of that state. After that, it became a sanjak followed to the state of Baghdad after the restoration from the Persian forces in1638 AD. Annah contributed to most of the Ottoman military campaigns, whether those campaigns are external to conquer the castles and forts in Europe, or those that assisted in providing security and stability in the states of the Ottoman Empire by eliminating the rebellions that were carried out by the tribes. The most notably one was their participation in the Ottoman military campaign which conquered many Hungarian cities between 1545-1547 AD. Moreover, the military garrison in the Sanjak of Ana has been assigned the task of protecting the fortress of Samawah from the attacks of the Arab tribes in the sanjak of Al Ramahyia under the leadership of Arar during the reign of Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent (1520-1566 AD). In addition to this, Annah participated in campaign to recover Baghdad in 1638 AD, by providing the campaign with ten thousands camels, in addition to the active participation of its garrison in that campaign. Thus Annah played a major role in military campaigns at the internaland external levels' which made it the focus of attention of the sentral government in istanbul' which began to tighten its grip on annah with the iam of preserving it. We found this clearly evident through the renovations it made to its military citadel and the work to increase the number of soldiers who worked to protect that castle.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Emad kareem abbas jawad AL-Rawi Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 1511 1524 Measuring the readability of the Arabic reading book for the fifth grade of primary school in light of a number of variables <div> <p>The Arabic language has been known since the formation of human society. It has allowed its members to communicate with each other. It carried their ideas and was passed down through the generations. It even became a vessel that contained those ideas that linked them between individuals and groups and thus linked peoples. And since the Arabic language has the honor of status and high status, it is not surprising that The ancient scholars of the Arabic language devoted themselves to it, collecting it, establishing its rules, and describing its sounds and system, to the point that modern linguists are still raising issues and addressing them after thousands of years have passed. The world today is witnessing wide and diverse changes in all areas of life, and among the largest of these changes is what we are witnessing today in the field of science. And technology, as these changes have had a clear impact on the various areas of life in general, and the field of education in particular. These rapid changes require human societies and their educational systems to prepare individuals to interact positively with the developments of the era in which they live, given the many challenges facing the educational reality today, in particular. Regarding the tremendous growth in knowledge in all fields of science and knowledge, this requires the use of wide types of educational strategies and methods, which help the learner to control the greatest amount of knowledge and science. This study aimed to measure the readability of the Arabic reading book for the fifth grade of primary school in light of a number of variables. To achieve this, the researcher chose the students of the fifth grade of primary school, and the researcher followed the descriptive analytical method by reviewing the reading skills in previous studies and research to determine the measure of the readability of the reading skills appropriate for the fifth grade students. Primary. The researcher prepared a questionnaire that included the most important reading skills, which are (comprehension, fluency, understanding word meanings, and building sentences), and other sub-skills were branched out from it. The validity and reliability of the questionnaire was verified. In light of the results of the study, a set of recommendations was reached and a number of research and studies were proposed</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Hossam Abd Al-Kazem Rabih Al-Jaraiwi Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 1525 1550 Semantic Development Of The Word "Al-'Afū" In The Sahifa Al-Sajjadiyya <div> <p>Semantic development and what is involved in the survival or demise of expressions are among the important and prominent linguistic issues in language that are studied in the linguistic sciences, especially in semantics. This research attempts to study the word amnesty from the perspective of its linguistic significance in the Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya, which aims to show the extent of the impact of Islam and religious texts on the transfer of the significance of the word amnesty and its derivatives from what they were in the history of the pre-Islamic era to the Islamic one, such as specification, generalization, sophistication, and semantic decline. Where the word amnesty emerged with its transfer of material semantics and tangible things such as ( dust, painting, poetry, abundance, and a type of plant) in the pre-Islamic era to a non-tangible, sentimental significance, we found that Islam did not come with mostly unfamiliar and new terms to its addressees, but rather the old word was fixed to a new meaning and used in its new form. Peace be upon him), when he made this word in his blessed supplications that carried a special meaning, including: (forgiveness, safety for the body and religion, the attribute of God Almighty, erasure, abandonment, favor, and reward) according to the context in which it was mentioned with the diversity of its connotations in order to release to the recipient the horizons of his imagination in its formation, creativity, and images that absorbed a special meaning that elevated it in complete intentionality.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Ibrahim Karim Kadhim Al-Bayati Morteza Ghaemi sayed Mahdi mousbaq Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 1551 1582 The eloquence of simile In the poetry of Muhammad bin Ahmed Al-Ghassani Known as (Al-Waa Al-Damashqi) )Spinning as an example) <div> <p>Simile is considered one of arts of statement science it is effective in rhetoric lesson literary text and spoken text. since the dawn of literature. simile contributed in it. thus it gained special importance among the rhetoric arts in general and in statement in special because it contains some elements of image which speaks to heart and the artistic management for the literary work for these reason I tackled simile in the poetry of Muhammed bin Ahmed Al Ghassani al Dimshki who died in ( 390 A.H ) I concentrate on courtly poetry where simile occupied a broad area.The important of the study:This study aims at showing images in the courtly poems and their types –it also aims at analyzing them rhetorically and discovering ellipsis and clarity which are essential in showing the important of simile. it also tries to enrich the rhetoric library with a study that tackles a subject which gather rhetoric and literate where a literary text is rhetorically analyze Work planThe study contains two sections which deal with the subject. the first section tackles simile as abstract and mental. it contains three demands the first is that the two sides are abstract the second likens the concert with the meatal. the third likens the abstract with the concert and the abstract with the abstract while the second section is devoted to other parts of simile. it contains two demands. the first the rhetoric simile and the implicit simile the second is the representative and the reversed simile. then comes the conclusion which sums up the results and the list of resources.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Abdul Qader Abdullah Fathi Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 1583 1610 The Rhetorical methods in Hebrew advertisements <div> <p>Advertisement is one of the Media most efficient persuasive communicative activities designed to marketing different ideas and products with the aim of influencing consumers' perception of goods and services.The present study sheds light on the most prominent rhetorical devices that constitute the persuasive structure of the Hebrew advertisements published in various media outlet. The study is conducted by means of analyzing the linguistic structure of the advertising texts and according to the analytic and descriptive approach to know the characteristics and the functions of the oratorical devices used in the advertising industry. The research elucidates that most of the advertisements are written in slang language, and this is due to the desire to address the audience in an appealed to emotions desirable language. Furthermore, the study illustrates that the phenomena of recurrence and metaphor are the most used rhetorical devices in Hebrew advertisements. 2. The language of the advertisement relies to a large extent on the spoken language in general and the slang language in particular in the formulation of advertising texts and in various fields, and this stems from the desire to address the public in a language that is pleasing to them and arouses their feelings.The language of the advertisement reflects cultural and social dimensions related to a particular company. The language of the advertisement combines all the layers of the Hebrew language, both standard and slang. Rhetorical devices are important because they can help make a message more powerful and memorable because they help make advertising texts more persuasive, concise and easier to understand. Most advertisements tend to use foreign words in advertising texts due to the prevalence of Western culture in Israeli society.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Zena Jaber Yass Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 1611 1638 The syntactic structure of the opinion articles headlines in the Hebrew press <div> <p>This research sheds light on the syntactic structure of opinion article headlines in Hebrew journalism, with the aim of revealing the most effective structures in forming these headlines. To achieve this goal, a sample of opinion article headlines from the newspapers "Maariv" and "Israel Hayom" published on their websites in 2023 was analyzed using the descriptive-analytical method.The headline is a main factor that attracts the reader's attention to the content of the article, prompting the writer to craft it very carefully. The research concludes that the structure of these articles is characterized by brevity and a focus on meaning. Additionally, it was found that the simple sentence is the most common type in the structure of these headlines, because. • The opinion piece occupies a significant and large place in the Hebrew press. These articles provide information on topics that provoke discussion among Israeli society.• A title is one of the most important elements of the journalistic article in general and the opinion article in particular. It is the opening to the article, and its main purpose is to attract the reader's attention and make him continue reading the article.• Titles of opinion articles in both newspapers tend to be short, clear and concise, they usually contain the main topic of the article.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Hamid Marhoon Hamad Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 1639 1660 The Popular culture and its formations in the Iraqi theatrical text <div> <p>Popular culture represents an important tributary of human knowledge. It is undoubtedly an element present in all the discourses produced by society in its various forms and diversities, but it is more and more present within the corridors of critical spaces and circles as an area of critical and intellectual tensions, overlaps, and conflicts, especially when it comes to talking about it. By observing its relationships with various fields such as: culture, politics, hegemony, ideology, the elite, the public, and high official literature (elite literature). This research came to study the systematic formations of this broad, extended, and ancient type of culture in the Iraqi theatrical text, by describing popular culture as a rich and rich material that had its pivotal and remarkable presence in the texts of our Iraqi playwrights. The research included four chapters, the first chapter included the methodological framework, beginning with a problem The research revolved around the question of the nature of the systematic formations of (popular culture in the Iraqi theatrical text. Pointing to the importance of the research that shed light on the concept of popular culture) and the controversy over its concept. It also becomes clear - in this chapter - the goal of the research, which is summarized in an attempt to reveal the systematic formations of popular culture in the Iraqi theatrical text. The temporal limit, the spatial limit, and the thematic limit were all identified during this chapter a well. The researcher was introduced to the chapter The first also gave the term “popular culture” and the term “formation” an operational definitioafter reviewing a set of definitions for each of them. The second chapter, which is the theoretical framework, included two sections in addition to mentioning the indicators that resulted from the theoretical framework. The first section was devoted to talking about popular culture (in terms of the concept) and the existing and ongoing debate around it. As for the second section, the researcher dealt with the culture of the popular theatrical text in general, and the third section was devoted to the research procedures, as the research sample that It was represented by the text of the play (The Bird’s Message) by Qasim (Muhammad). It was chosen intentionally, and the researcher took it as a model in the analysis. The researcher adopted the (descriptive) approach in analyzing the sample according to what was dictated by the nature of the research. Present . The research concluded during the fourth chapter with a list of the results of the sample analysis, including that there was a diversity that had been observed in the patterns of (popular culture, its formations, and its meanings in the Iraqi theatrical text, ranging between the apparent pattern and the implicit pattern. It also appeared through the analysis that the characters of the play had been colored There are two types of culture that seem to be in conflict, namely: the culture of belonging and the culture of feeling alienated. This chapter also contained conclusions, the most important of which were: that despite the pure contradiction that accompanied the introduction of stylistic dualities in the Iraqi theatrical text, popular culture was able to destroy The gap and differentiation between these opposing dualities, in the context of its attempt to achieve rapprochement, equality and decentralization .At the end of his current research, the researcher did not neglect the issue of providing a list of research sources and references.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Fukdan Tahir Abbas Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 1661 1702 Baha'i schools and their impact on the educational reality in Iran (1899 – 1934) <div> <p>This research, which studies the history of the Bahá'í schools in Iran over the course of thirty-three years, from the late Qajar era until the beginning of the Pahlavi dynasty, sheds light on the nature of contact between the Iranian and American Bahá'ís and some foreign missionaries, and the changing societal and organizational development of the Iranian and American Bahá'ís, and through the efforts American Persian Educational Society. American Baha'is funded some Baha'i schools and supervised their operations and teaching staff during the period in which these schools first appeared in Iran. With the growth of the number of schools in the country and the impact they left among Iranian society, they gained the approval of many Iranian classes. This caused many people to envy it, which led them to slander and fabricate it in order to close it. This coincided with the decline of American influence in Iran at a time when Iranian Baha’i institutions witnessed an unparalleled rise among ordinary Iranians. However, despite this, many the internal circumstances that contributed to the closure of these schools by the ruling authority in Iran in 1934. It seems that the opening of Baha'i schools coincided with a period in which the demand for modernizing education and keeping pace with its development in Europe increased. In addition, the period of Muzaffar al-Din Shah's rule was calmer for the Baha'is than the period of his father Nasir al-Din Shah, who fought them and eliminated many of them. Also, the Baha'i I became more understanding of the Iranian reality since the time of the Báb. Baha'i schools granted permission and licenses individually to some people without reference to their belief, and thus concealed the identity of those schools from Iranian society, and this explains the entry of the children of some Shiite religious families specifically into those schools.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Haider Ali Khalaf Al Ouqili Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 1703 1762 Hegel's philosophy of law (purpose and responsibility) Preparation <div> <p>We have carefully walked through the psychological, social and historical aspects of responsibility in Hegel's texts. We have seen that attention to the concept of responsibility reveals the true nature of Hegel's controversial claims about the inherent social nature of human action. Most discussions of Hegel's theory of action concern the interrelation of objects, objects, and objects with the entire external environment, to assign responsibility for it to changes that occur as a result of action - where My actions and responsibilities begin and end? Accordingly, Hegel believes that we are objectively responsible for complying with the standards set forth in these three areas of rights; We are responsible not only for moral violations but also for violations of abstract rights and for failure to live up to the duties of our moral station. The relevant sense of objective responsibility covers openness to evaluation in all three respects (responsibility is openness to normative—legitimate and moral—evaluation in light of ends Which the actor cannot reject. (The idea of responsibility is an idea expressing freedom as being with oneself. Responsibility does not depend on causal ability but on cognitive ability, that is, that one has a certain type of knowledge of one’s own activity, that the actor has a self-perception Defined as fundamentally free, its realization depends on the individual being considered a “responsible agent,” an absolute responsibility which requires that the individual be a member of an actually existing entity, a certain state. That achieving the self-conception of oneself as free—that is, possessing a rational will—is a condition Necessary for responsibility.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Mustafa Fadel Karim Al-Khafaji Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 1763 1784 Features of Economic and social Developments in Sudan 1983-1985 <div> <p>Sudan has experienced a state of political instability since its independence in 1956, as it witnessed two military coups during the first thirteen years of independence, which led to the arrival of Colonel Jaafar Muhammad Numeiri to the head of power in 1969 AD, to continue in power until the year 1985 AD, with the army coup against him and overthrowing his regime. The period of President Nimeiry’s rule in Sudan lasted approximately sixteen years, during which Sudan witnessed many events that had a clear impact on the situation of the street and the Sudanese citizen. Starting from the year 1983 AD until the fall of the Nimeiry regime in April 1985 AD, the subject of the study is that the country witnessed economic deterioration and contraction, and changes that affected the citizen. Sudanese as a result of what the country witnessed, from the re-eruption of the second civil war in southern Sudan, the changes in climate conditions that affected North Africa, including Sudan, and the government decisions that affected Sudanese public life, in addition to the economic contraction due to the war on the one hand, and the government’s policy and procedures on the other hand. The research was divided into an introduction and two sections, the first dealt with the economic situation in Sudan, and the second section dealt with the social aspect of Sudanese citizens.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Ahmed Irhail Abbas Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 1785 1804 Creation of Islamic Personality based on the life of the Prophet Muhammad <div> <p>The personality of Muslims has been influenced negatively by the current absence of values and the moral chaos that is spreading in the world. This leads to a clear lost of the values and the desirable features of the Islamic personality. Therefore, a proper definition of the Islamic personality is strongly needed in order to make it clear for Muslims that seek for the required values and/or features to follow the right way of Islam. This will also help to recover the destroyed manners and guide Muslims to have the right values. The rehabilitation should be divided into elements: the first one is related to the brain, the second one is related to the body and the last one is related to the soul. These elements are firmly connected to each other, and the prophet Muhammad is the best example of how to use these elements in the right way (based on Islamic guidance) to have the proper Islamic personality. The replacement of unawareness by the knowledge and the darkness by the illumination which resulted the best nation ever. Based on the guidance of Allah and the prophet Muhammed with the right use of brain, body and soul can result the proper/required Islamic personality which is far away from the current moral chaos</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Liqaa Abdullah Hussein Al-Mawla Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 1805 1826 Al-Ahd Al-Akeed Tafsir of the glorious Qur'an (from the beginning of Surah Al-Anfal to the end of Ay'a (6) – Study and Investigation) <div> <p>The research aims to introduce the author of the manuscript and his life, introduce the manuscript, contribute to making the manuscript a book accessible to the reader, and add a source of interpretation to the Islamic library.The method used in the research is: historical, descriptive, and comparative analytical method. It is divided into an introduction, two sections, a conclusion, and an index. The introduction included: the reasons for choosing the manuscript for investigation, the importance of the manuscript, the objectives of investigating the manuscript, previous studies, the research methodology, and the research divisions. The first section also included: the theoretical study, which contains two requirements: The first requirement: Translating the authors of my book (Albuan and Altajreed), and introducing their book, The second requirement: translation of a manuscript(AlAhd Al-Akeed Tafsir of the glorious Qur'an Grabbed from of Surah Al-Anfal to the end of Ay'a (6)) Introduction to his manuscript, and the second section includes: an investigation of interpretation, the most important of which were as the following: 1.Imam Al-Hasan Al-Muaydi was influential in the scientific, cultural and political life of his time through his advocacy and through the works he wrote.2.It turned out that the manuscript (The Certain Covenant, Interpretation of the Glorious Qur’an) is rich in scientific material, as its author collected many things in it, including what is related to the sciences of the Qur’an, Quranic readings, and language, citing prophetic hadiths, discussing jurisprudential issues, interested in the language and the derivations of its words, and other sciences. He collected many opinions and sayings in interpretation without prolonging his explanation or violating the brevity.3.Imam Al-Hasan Al-Muaydi was fair in his preference among the opinions, so he preferred the opinion according to the situation and the evidence, even if it was not the opinion of the Zaidi school of thought, and this indicates his fairness and lack of fanaticism</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Khadeega Abdullah Muhammad Al-Olofee Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 1827 1866 The life and era of Imam Musa al-Kadhim, peace be upon him, between the Eastern writings and the writings of the people of the Maghreb and Andalusia (acomparative study) <div> <p>The Eastern writings were full of talk about the Household of the Prophet, may God bless him and grant him peace, and these writings were specialized in talking about the Imams from the descendants of Imam Hussein, peace be upon him, including Imam al-Kadhim, peace be upon him, in contrast to the Moroccan and Andalusian writings, which did not abound in these writings, and the information in them about the Household was from The descendants of Imam Hussein are few, while there is an abundance of writing about Imam Hassan, peace be upon him, and his family, who spread throughout those lands. Therefore, the aim of the research is to shed light on those few writings written by the people of the Maghreb and Andalusia, and to compare them with the Eastern writings about Imam Al-Kadhim, peace be upon him, who is one of The descendants of Imam Hussein, peace be upon him, the God of purity, and what they wrote about him, his life, the era in which he lived, and his relationship with the ruling authority at that time from the rulers of the Bani Abbas Judge Al-Numan bin Hayun specialized and delved into the details of the life of Imam Jaafar Al-Sadiq, his imamate, and the knowledge of the Ahl al-Bayt that came from him. Despite the scarcity of Moroccan and Andalusian sources that spoke about the imams of the Ahl al-Bayt after Imam al-Sadiq, peace be upon him, we find among them those who talk at length about Imam Ali, peace be upon him, and his sons after him. They also believe in the idea of the existence of the Awaited One, but they do not specify who he is, except that he is a descendant of Imam Ali, peace be upon him, and his son.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Iman Abdel-Jabbar Mahmoud Al-Tamimi Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 1867 1896 Resources and methodology of al-Madaini in the news of the Prophet's biography <div> <p>Islamic history writers used to call a group of history writers “informants” or “reporters,” meaning that the historians of that class used to write down specific news on various topics in the history of early Islam and issue it in the form of pamphlets and letters, which often did not exceed ten parts. The importance of the informants lies in the fact that they They formed an intermediate stage between the storytellers and narrators of the days of the Arabs and genealogies on the one hand, and the great historians of the third and fourth centuries AH who transformed or developed the news into history on the other hand. This means that the historical material, and not the view that we read from historians of the third and fourth centuries in particular, is derived in a large proportion from the letters and blogs of the informants, but although everything was written down, as the hadith and contemporary scholars have proven, most of the origin of those blogs and letters has been lost and has not reached us. We only know their titles, so our appreciation of their work is restricted to the excerpts that have reached us through later historians. Al-Mada’ani, who wrote about three hundred works, among them were various works on the biography of the Prophet, but of all his titles we have reached only two titles, and they are small works, so There is no way for us to know the features of his narrations in the reports of the Prophet’s biography and the sources of his sayings except by referring to most of the writings of those who followed his era Hardly any book of Islamic heritage, regardless of its type, is devoid of narratives in this aspect, and historical sources come at the forefront of heritage sources that have helped us in identifying these narratives, including, but not limited to, the book The History of Khalifa Bin Khayyat, and other history books, including The books that were written on lineage news, and have greatly constituted a subject for research, are the book Ansab Al-Ashraf by Al-Baladhuri .</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Hassan Abdel-Zahra Al-IBrahimi Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 1897 1942 Deleting meaning letters in the Qur'an Analytical grammatical study <div> <p>The basic principle in an Arabic sentence is for the words to be clear so that the intended meaning reaches the mind of the listener in a clear and easy-to-receive manner. However, rhetorical goals require diversification in methods and methods to achieve those purposes. The most important of these methods is the method of deletion, which in many cases is more eloquent than mentioning. Deletion is a type of brevity and a part. It is not an integral part of the science of meanings in Arabic rhetoric, and it includes the deletion of the noun, the verb, the letter, and the sentence. The letters are divided into two types in the Arabic sentence, which are the letters of constructions and the letters of meanings. Our research includes deletion in the letters of meanings, which are deleted in speech just as other words are deleted. There is no deletion except with textual or rational evidence in order to reach the conclusion. A rhetorical purpose that is sought in order for speech to reach its level of verbal and moral sophistication and appear in its most beautiful forms. We sought in research to find out the facts of deletion and its linguistic and terminological concept, explain its reasons and purposes, and determine the levels of verbal and mental contexts, ending with the rhetorical purposes and general meanings of the Noble Qur’anic verses.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Ahmed kareem Al-Aid Abbas Arab Muhammad Nouri Al-Mousawi Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 1943 1968 Metaphorical displacement and its aesthetics in Surat Al-A'raf <div> <p>The Holy Qur’an, in every aspect of it, is evidence of a miracle, and displacement must be a part of this miracle, as the pictorial displacement in the Holy Qur’an contributed to drawing an impressive image in the mind of the recipient that prompted him to interact with the Qur’anic discourse, which made each verse a graphic image that is unique to it in terms of Elements of beauty, because the Holy Qur’an employed the image for religious, awareness-raising, and human purposes, so that it blended the beauty of the image with the desired goal of bringing the meaning closer and conveying the idea by bringing the abstract idea down to a tangible reality that the mind imagines and contemplates in order to have the strongest influence on souls. This research aims, based on the analytical descriptive approach, to study the metaphorical figurative displacement and its types in Surat Al-A’raf. The results of the research indicate that the metaphorical figurative displacement in all its manifestations is a prominent phenomenon in the Holy Qur’an. You will rarely find a verse devoid of types of displacement, because one of the most important goals of this displacement in the Holy Qur’an is to confirm the meaning and establish it in the mind, as the effect of displacement on the soul is not hidden, as well as to draw the attention of the recipient. To an important issue by linking this issue to one of its sources, as the function of displacement appears in psychological photography, which achieves the goal in revealing the impulses of the soul and embodying it. graphic.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Mehdi Shahrokh Behrouz Ghorbanzadeh Jassim Mohammad Jaber Ghalib Al-Najjar Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 1969 1998 The effect of the Shamashqi sermon on the formation of the thesaurus of the Arabic language, an aesthetic study <div> <p>The Shaqshaqiya sermon contains a wonderful aesthetic study, as it includes linguistic (vocal) values and a semantic dimension. It also contains syntactic values and a syntactic dimension, and includes interwoven relationships in the unity of the text and its dimensions in the context. With the unity of the texts and their dimensions, we arrive at the aesthetic values and their influential dimensions due to the style of The text and its beauty. The research includes an aesthetic study, adopting an artistic approach that involves extrapolating, analyzing and studying texts. It is the analytical method. The aesthetic study is diverse, including: the word and phrase at the semantic and phonetic levels; This is due to their importance in aesthetic study, as well as the aesthetics of the image in the text (simile, metonymy, and metaphor), as well as the aesthetics of style. The sermon captivates you with its style, makes you stop in every position, and attracts you to it, because it possesses linguistic values at their various levels (phonetic, morphological, and syntactic and semantic). The research reached a result : ahtmam alkhtbt balhrwf wdlalatiha, wkdhlk bwhdt alnnss almshtml elaa trakyb lghwyt emyqtin, waydan astemal alttalwyh wal'isharti, wajml ma wsl 'ilyh albahth hu alasalyb alddlalyt almlwwnt min tikrar wsje w'iyqae whusn abtda' wkhtam fi nsws lamthyl lha, wkdhlk jmalyt alsswr albyanyti.klmat mftahyatun: alshshqshqyt, alnnas aljmalyu, qym lghwytun, alddrast aljmalyatu. The research reached results, including: the sermon’s attention to letters and their connotations, as well as to the unity of the text that includes deep linguistic structures, as well as the use of allusion and pointing. The most beautiful thing the research has achieved is the colorful semantic methods of repetition, assonance, rhythm, and good beginning and ending in texts. It is unparalleled, as is the beauty of the images Graphic.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Ammar Adnan Manaf Al-Zuwaini Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 1999 2016 The effect of using the verbal map strategy on the achievement of first-year intermediate students in Arabic grammar <div> <p>This research aims to (the effect of using the verbal mapping strategy on the achievement of first-year intermediate students in Arabic grammar). To achieve this, the researcher adopted one of the experimental designs with partial control and a final test for the two research groups, one experimental and the other control. The verbal thinking mapping strategy has proven its effectiveness and impact in... First grade students’ achievement is average in Arabic grammar compared to the traditional method. This strategy is one of the strategies that works to summarize the scientific material, making it more focused and easier to understand. The verbal thinking map strategy is one of the strategies that works to summarize the scientific material, making it more focused and easier for students to understand, as it makes the students the focus of the educational process and the teacher directs them through the use of verbal thinking maps.Second: Recommendations:In light of the results of the current research, the researcher recommends the following:It is necessary for students to be aware of the verbal mapping strategy in terms of its importance and application, and for teachers of other academic subjects. The verbal map strategy can be relied upon when studying Arabic grammar for the first intermediate grade.Working to include in the curricula of teaching methods in educational colleges the strategic steps of the verbal thinking map as effective strategies in curricula that teach the Arabic language in colleges and institutes related to preparing teachers of the subject. Holding training courses for male and female teachers to train them on modern teaching strategies, such as the map strategyConclusions The verbal thinking maps strategy has proven its effectiveness and impact on the achievement of first-year intermediate students in Arabic grammar compared to the usual method. This strategy is one of the strategies that works to summarize the scientific material, making it more focused and easier to understand. Recommendations:In light of the results of the current research, the researcher recommends the following:1- The need for students’ awareness of the verbal mapping strategy in terms of its importance and application, and for teachers of other academic subjects.Suggestions:Based on this, the researcher suggests the following:1- Conduct an experimental study similar to the current study to determine the effect of the verbal map on other variables, such as retention, transfer of learning effects, and critical thinking.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Saqqar Mohammed Sheyaa Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 2017 2040 Digital integration and blending: awareness of distance teaching and learning weaves the overwhelming tangles around us <div> <p>Within the framework of the descriptive approach and based on a research interview applied to a sample of (31) university professors, from (06) universities in Algeria and Arab. The study aimed to identify whether the integration and digital mix in the university system is adopted. The findings highlighted that in order to safely approach a journey towards integrated teaching, it is necessary to involve all the specialized actors in the teaching systems, without exclusion, in an interactive and complementary formula with competences inside and outside the country, while supporting local innovation and creativity to achieve digital technologies that facilitate communicative creativity in the teaching and learning process. From such conclusions, it can be said that in the absence of a technological administration that wants to “technology” public structures, as well as formations, through material and theoretical means, such as adding automated media standards in the study paths for all specializations, as happened in the English language, that is, designing curricula to integrate post-education, with a focus on Equipping the teaching halls with technological and informational means, improving the Internet network service and making it accessible to the professor, student, and university administrator. The student needs education, knowledge and administrative documents. Also improving the level of online training. Here we also ask: Why does there not occur a marriage between automated media and communication networks with teaching and learning methods?</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> FATIMA BOUHANI Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 2041 2076 The legal regulation of the method of self-assessment of tax <div> <p>Abstract : The tax system regulates a set of laws applied to it and the regulations and instructions that facilitate the application of the application and often these laws are influenced by the economic thought that the state depends on, and that the tax system in Iraq has not accompanied the change that afflicted the Iraqi economy, which began to turn into the open economic system and turn the economy To the private sector, and that most of the texts of the Iraqi constitution are urgent, they have been in the presence of important legislative voids and also in tax financial laws, as finance affairs must remain in the hands of the center, and it must be said that the tax system affects tax revenues and affects the national economy by issuing tax legislation to protect The taxpayer is arbitrary, and the self -estimation of the tax was adopted in 2001, which is important throughout two aspects. Protection of the taxpayer is the arbitrariness of the tax administration and the expression of his actual ability to pay, and reduces the burden of compliance in terms of effort, time and cost, whether it is the taxpayer or the tax administration, and the axis The second is limited to the administration's role to protect the system and monitor it and ensure the validity of the data provided, and thus Thus, there is a method that calls for those charged with voluntary commitment, which improves tax revenues and reduces the rate of tax evasion.But the change that witnessed Iraq after 2003 has an impact on the tax system, and on this basis we call on the legislator to review the tax legislation in accordance with the current trend.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Rabab Naji Abd Rammah Uday Hassan Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 2077 2092 Frameworks for journalistic treatment of the Iraqi economic crises in specialized electronic journalism …. An analytical study on the economy news site <div> <p>The research aims to identify the most prominent journalistic frameworks used in the electronic press specialized in the topics of the Iraqi economic crises, and to know the extent of interest of the specialized electronic press in the topics of the Iraqi economic crises, as well as to identify the type of press treatment used by the specialized electronic press Regarding the topics of economic crises in Iraq and revealing the most used journalistic arts, and knowing the methods of presenting the contents of the Iraqi economic crises in journalistic treatment in the specialized electronic press, The research is also one of the descriptive research in which the researcher used the analytical survey method, relying on the method of content analysis, both quantitative and qualitative, to analyze the content of the Iraqi economic crises on the Al-Eqtesad News website for the period from 1/1/2020 to 31/5/2023, if the researcher used a comprehensive inventory of the topics of economic crises in the research period, which numbered (1626) topics, and reached multiple conclusions, most notably: 1. The site used different types of frameworks in addressing the topics of the Iraqi economic crises, and this indicates the site's serious interest in topics that affect the stability of Iraqi society. 2. The economic news site was interested in the framework of humanitarian concerns significantly, as it portrayed the effects of economic crises on Iraqi society, and the reason for this is due to the site's attempt to highlight solutions that contribute to alleviating the severity of economic crises.3.In its press treatment of the Iraqi economic crises, Al-Eqtesad News website confirms that the Iraqi crises can only be solved if there is international cooperation, highlighting the weakness of the Iraqi government in managing economic crises4. The reason for this is that the site focused on the work of decision-makers in the extent of their commitment to the rules and standards that contribute to mitigating the severity of economic crises, and the site also neglected the topics of social solidarity, support for unemployed youth, respect for the national currency and support for oil industries, because the nature of the publications on the economy news site is mostly news concerned with the financial and oil aspect, which the site considers the basis Economic crises.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Zahraa Hussein Jabbar Alhaddad Bassem Waheed Johnny Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 2093 2132 Fallacy in Argumentative Procedures (Interpretation of the Ocean Sea as a Model) <div> <p>This research deals with one of the images of pilgrims, which is the fallacy or sophistry in the practice of pilgrims in the interpretation of Al-Bahr Al-Muhit by Abi Hayyan Al-Andalusi. Authority or the fallacy of the straw man or the fallacy of contradiction or confiscation of what is required and others, the fallacy aims by means of it to entrap the opponent and undermine him by belittling his image or insulting him with the aim of degrading his value and his product, so that he is the focus of his disintegration and scarcity for the addressee, and often in personal disputes and dialectical dialogues. Misrepresentation is a form of al-Hajjaj’s form that is based on bad faith and aims to mislead, and is often present in personal disputes and dialectical dialogues, as each interlocutor seeks to undermine his interlocutor through illegal means. Abu Hayyan practiced this argumentative image in his response to his opponents, and he was in Some of the topics are deceptive, references. The dialogue was not always rational and logical. Rather, it took crooked and erroneous paths in an effort to achieve victory. Abu Hayyan used to slander in the harshest terms Al-Zamakhshari, Ibn Attiya, Al-Razi, and Abu Ali Al-Farsi, or against those who composed a reading, and he would defend with all evidence and arguments until the reading was proven, or He found an explanation for it, but he remained silent when Sibawayh and Abu Amr bin Al-Ala composed the reading of these reciters, which means that his interpretation was linked to personal and objective motives. These declared and explicit fallacies in his positions and responses were not in a vacuum, but rather sectarian, grammatical, and doctrinal motives lurk behind them. And a personality, seeking to establish belief and prove oneself. Abu Hayyan represented the head of the Zahiri school of thought. He was apparent in its practice and conduct. He dialogued with the schools of thought and argued with them, and made mistakes in some places in an effort to achieve victory and superiority, or to make the listener believe that he was victorious.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Atheer cream salho Souad Kreidi Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 2133 2150 Social Thinking System and its Relation to the Acceptance of the other- Social Analytical study <div> <p>Ideas in general do not arise from a vacuum, but rather they meet a social need, linked to the reality of society and the overall social circumstances and conditions in which it lives and the social problems it suffers from, the study of which requires a return to knowledge of its intellectual roots with the aim of identifying its causes and ways to evaluate it, and represents the relationship with the other and his acceptance or rejection. One of the phenomena that requires studying is a return to the historical depth and the specific motives for the nature of this relationship, whether it is based on the values of coexistence, tolerance and acceptance, or hatred and ostracism by rejecting the other as a social partner. According to the rules of rivalry, competition and cooperation on which the laws of human survival are based, which are not to compete until death with the other. Had it not been for that, this diversity and multiplicity of human races would not have existed until now, after human nature has proven the impossibility of living separately from the rest of the human race. In order for a person to achieve stability and social balance, he must live with members of his community and be associated with them in various types of social relationships that are Cooperation and positive interaction are a reason based on acceptance of the other. We cannot imagine a society that can develop and progress without there being solid and strong foundations based on a system of cultural, religious and cognitive ideas that enhance this acceptance. All societies that developed believed in the principle of preserving the rights of others, at least In the aspect of acceptance, which works to produce psychological and social aspects that work to enhance self-confidence and self-esteem. All social theories that studied societies of multiple nationalities and sects tried to emphasize the structure of commonalities and stayed away from everything that raises conflicts or works to exclude the other. Society is a unitary entity that cannot be divided. He lives his normal life without having a point of meeting and coexisting with others.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Shalal Hamid Suleiman Enas Muhammad Aziz Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 2151 2178 Time in the novel The Smell of Details by (Suleiman Al-Saddi) <div> <p>•Suliman AlSsadi (the Syrian Novelist) has been chosen as a research field, for the novel (the smell of the details) because of the coherent artistic technique to a large extent that his novel bears, as well as the overlap of time, which in turn led to the many chronological paradoxes, as the novel fulfills the writer’s vision.•Though, the research main objective is to study the element of time in terms of analyzing the texts of the novel, explaining its artistic and aesthetic dimensions, and revealing the indications that resulted from it.•The research was based on three topics, under the title (defining the concept of time in the novel), and the first topic objective is to study (types of time), in terms of natural time (historical and cosmic), and psychological time, while the second topic included a study about the (time technologies) In terms of retrieval and anticipation, the third topic came to study (acceleration of time) in terms of summary and deletion.•The research relied on an analytical study of texts that included the element of time, due to its importance in the narrative text, by revealing the aesthetic values and connotations it expresses.•Time played an important role in the development of events and their course from the beginning of the novel to its end, as its nature and techniques cannot be revealed except by dismantling the temporal structure of the novel in its entirety and in detail.•The deletion played an important role in accelerating the narration in the novel, as the narrator crossed periods of time to leave the reader the freedom to interpret the events. We also find that the declared deletion was more present in the novel than the implicit deletion</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Hala Adel Abdel Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 2179 2202 Patterns of rights and political conflict according to the writer Ali Hassan Al-Fawaz <div> <p>Ali Hassan Al-Fawaz is one of the most prominent Iraqi writers and writers. He created many valuable books in literature and culture. The writer was concerned with rights, civilizational conflict, and revolutions, and his thought mixed literature and political thought. Given the value of his books and the importance of their scientific material, we found that we should study the system of the right to freedom and equality and the system of conflict. Civilizations and revolution systems Illusionism in his literary work through the descriptive and analytical method. The research concluded that Al-Fawaz believes that implicit freedom and equality are necessary between individuals, the family and society, and that persistent and effective efforts to strengthen it, disseminate its values in the media, facilitate all ways and possibilities for the coexistence of cultures within its framework, teach people their rights and freedoms, and urge them to protect them with awareness, will and responsibility, and spreading the values of tolerance represent a moral duty. Politically and legally, on the basis that the essence of tolerance is not based on canceling the rights of others, transgressing their values, and ignoring social evils and political grievances, as much as it means promoting the values of openness, solidarity, virtue, exchange of cultural benefits, partnership in responsibilities and rights, and construction through belief in human dignity and equal rights without distinctions in Race, colour, gender, language, religion and political opinion. He also stressed in the theme of the civilizational conflict that it cannot enable us to cut our bridges with the world in the midst of civilizations and crises with poetic or prose writings, if we lay the foundations for a new world in which respect and appreciation for the preferences of all people prevail, and to develop dialogues within the framework of searching for horizons or opening... Channels that would support this, and without any imposition or coercive practice, as Al-Fawaz believes that the pattern of imaginary revolutions according to Al-Fawaz lies in what was done. He discovered too late that these imaginary and ideological revolutions that left scars, disabilities, beliefs and temptations that are difficult to erase, and learn habits in meetings and politics and instill Strange illusions and anomalies.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Hossein Takbar Firouzjai Mehdi Nasiri Hoda Abdullah Ali Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 2203 2224 Evaluating of the Iraqi Islamic Criminal policy in Precautionary the death Peualty <div> <p>As this topic is considered one of the topics of grea importance in penal jurisprudence, it is considered one of the maximum deterrent penalties in criminal legislation because of its rigor and the justice it contains. Although all of humanity is of sound nature, the defect that presents itself to the Islamic nation and others is the departure from its rulings and other legislation and its orientation to man-made legislation that proves its failure at all levels, as the Islamic system is considered one of the most successful systems without dispute, that is, the system is a protection for society. Whether on the individual or collective level, it is the only system that achieves justice, security, and reassurance, and postpones individual and collective happiness in this world and the next. The aim of this research is to study the provisions for studying the death penalty in Islamic and comparative criminal legislation as a detailed, in-depth study and to clarify its concept. And the provisions related to it, and an explanation of the characteristics of this punishment and its avoidance, as well as an explanation of its legitimacy, the extent of justice in this punishment, its goals and conditi</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Karrar Saadi Jabr Ali Mohammadi Jurkoye Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 2225 2248 Is The Units In The Two Correct <div> <p>Undoubtedly, the holy Qur’an is one of the holiest books that are known by humanity since its creation. The holy Qur’an has possessed the minds of interpreters and scientists because it is characterized by the high, dignified position, the perfect comprehensiveness, and the inclusion of all basic facts. It is the first source of legislation in the Islamic Nation. Almighty Allah orders us to reflect on its Ayahs (verses) and think about their meaning, for each Ayah is a mercy, a light, a boon, and a guidance. Everyone who resorts to the holy Qur’an and reflects on its Ayahs during times of the day and the night would win the immortal paradise and prosperous living and get success. From this point, the importance of the subject of this thesis appears. It is not possible to know the purpose of Almighty Allah in his Book and to get the knowledge of its Ayahs without knowing the meaning of its words, mediating it, and interpreting After him the honorable Sunnah of the prophet comes to be the second sourse of Islamic including the honorable hadiths of the Messenger of God Muhammed may Gods prayers and peace be upon him some of his companions trans mitted it from him so that it would be a light and a way for the Islamic nation to be guided after him may Gods prayers and peace be upon him.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Abdul Rahman shukr Mahmoud Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 2249 2264 Time Management in University Libraries <div> <p>The study aimed to identify time management through terms of concept, characteristics and strategy , The sample of the study was The staff of Ibn Khaldun’s Library / University of Mosul which consisting of (10) employees, where the study data was collected through the distribution of a questionnaire designed for this purpose and the use of statistics by calculating the percentage and the study reached a set of results, the most important of which are: -1- The preoccupation of workers with matters that are not related to their job increases the waste of time that allocated to work, such as answering phone calls, receiving guests, or having conversations with co-workers.2- The first step to the success of the time management process is the process of organizing work during a specific period of time, which in turn leads to achieving business objectives to meet the needs of the beneficiaries as soon as possible and with the least effort.The study concluded with a set of recommendations, the most important of which are:1- Spreading the culture of time management among library workers by holding workshops and training courses.2- Make sure to adhere to working hours and not waste time on phone calls and personal visits, which may negatively affect the workflow.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Sarmad Siddiq Ghazi Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 2265 2286 Salim Takla and his role in Lebanese political life 1895-1945 <div> <p>The French worked to inflame sectarian differences between the Lebanese, taking advantage of their knowledge of the peculiarities that characterize Lebanese society and the diversity of its sects. What is striking about Lebanon’s social nature is its religious diversity, as it was inhabited by Muslims and Christians, in addition to other sects. Therefore, some sects received external support from countries. Europeans, as they began to enjoy some privileges that favored them over Muslims.Although the events highlighted many political figures who contributed to the history of Lebanon, they colored the political phenomenon with the nature of internal conflict, as Lebanon witnessed, as a result, many internal conflicts that reflected the nature of the sectarian conflict there, which the West took advantage of. They interfered in the country's internal affairs, under the pretext of protecting Christians and providing them with moral support. In the midst of these events, important political figures appeared representing those sects. Among them was Salim Takla, who was nominated in the Parliament as a representative of the Roman Catholic sect, and received the most important position assigned to a sect, which is the Lebanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Salim Takla represented Lebanon best in all Arab and international forums. This study included the birth and upbringing of Salim Takla. He is from the Roman Catholic sect and completed his studies in law. He had a role in the Lebanese parliamentary sessions and ministerial positions. The study shed light on the role of Salim Takla in public political life, especially his role in the Parliament in the years 1937-1945, and the ministry he held. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs is one of the most important ministries it holds, in addition to its positions on the 1936 treaty, its position on the Lebanon crisis in 1943, and its position on Lebanon’s accession to the League of Arab States in 1945.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Saad Aziz Karim Al-Hamdawi Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 2287 2320 Habitual Criminality - A Comparative Study <div> <p>Due to the great development that the world is witnessing in various aspects of life، the criminal law reflects this development and follows it in parallel. It is noted that modern criminal law pays great attention to the issue of crime prevention in all its forms، whether in social، economic، cultural، political and other aspects. Among the phenomena that pose a serious challenge is habitual crime. At the present time، punitive and criminal efforts focus on preventing crime in all its forms، so we must search for methods and mechanisms to combat the phenomenon of habitual crime، and to enhance awareness of its dangers and negative effects on society. Through statutory law، the phenomenon of habituation to crime is dealt with in a multifaceted manner، as the focus is on holding individuals accountable for their criminal acts and applying appropriate penalties for those acts. The focus is also on crime prevention by enhancing collective awareness of the negative consequences of crime and providing social support and rehabilitation programs for criminals. On the other hand، Islamic jurisprudence is based on Islamic legal sources، including the Holy Qur’an، the Sunnah of the Prophet، the antiquities and sayings of scholars considered in Islamic jurisprudence. The phenomenon of habitual crime is considered a violation of Islamic teachings and Sharia laws، and we will discuss it in detail</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Sajjad Hussein Mohsen Muhammad Ali dah abadi Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 2321 2352 Power in the text of the play (The Bassous War) I Ahmed a lot <div> <p>The theater occupies great importance among the various creative arts, through which the creatives were able to embody life and its ideas and events. The creative (Ali Ahmed Bakathir) was one of the most sincere Arab writers to this human art, where his writings were characterized by sincere boldness, insightful vision and creative professionalism, the qualifications of creative leadership and positive giving were completed fruitful in it, and its historical and political products, including the script of the play (War of Basus) were a reap of rewards of whose creativity has its uniqueness of being able to keep up with events as well as the reduction and intensification required by the time factor and the limited textual space, and therefore this Arab theatrical text was conducted with careful and meditative scientific study. There are many studies that dealt with the theatrical texts (Bakathir), but with regard the topic of "power" and its manifestations we did not find as far as we know no one has ever brought up and therefore came to be the first study of power in this historical political text. That we hope that will open up a window to study the rest of the Arab drama scripts in their integration and the multiplicity of the vision angles and their love to raise questions in front of the scholars and those interested in the theatrical works (Bakathir). This study strives to achieve a fundamental goal focused on dealing with power in the text of the play "War of Basus" by (Akathir) which is based on textual analysis and friendly discussion of the passages of this text, to explore that power adopting the analytical descriptive approach to reach the most important stylistic and artistic results in this Arabic theatrical script.This study includes addressing the concept of power in the preface in four points: Power in linguistic and terminology and the relationship of power to the theater and deals with war during pre-Islam period and bibliography of (Bakathir) and through deep reading and review the play script (research sample). The study decided to study power topic three axes: self-power, social and political power.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Nadia Hazem Dahham Al - Hayali Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 2353 2388 The impact of geographical and human factors on economic activity In the Maghreb countries during Third - fourth centuries AH <div> <p>Economic activity is the basis by which the importance of cities is measured, and any country's strength is linked to the extent of its economic activity. There are several factors that influence and drive economic activity, and these factors are divided into two parts: natural factors, represented by the type and nature of the region, including ((coastal, mountainous, desert)) in addition to climate factors, represented by rain, rivers, or springs of wells. There are also human factors, which are meant to be the population structure, and those who were in the Maghreb of different races had practiced different economic activities, including ((Moroccan tribes, Arabs, the Jewish community, in addition to Sudan and Africans)). All of these factors play a major role in stimulating economic activity of all types and nature, whether some of them affect directly or indirectly, and economic activity in general affects the political life of the state. All countries’ stability is linked to their economic activity, and any imbalance in a state’s economy affects the course of its life. Politically, especially since the Maghreb at that time was in constant conflict with the Abbasid Caliphate, the Sultans of Morocco sought to provide appropriate conditions for the success of their economic activity. The Lower Maghreb entered into multiple trade relations with both the Far and Lower Maghreb.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Hendrine Hamed Shati Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 2389 2410 "Graphic images in the poetry of Osama bin Munqidh" <div> <p>The article discusses the study of visual imagery as a metaphor and simile, branches of rhetoric, in the poetry of Osama bin Munqidh, one of the poets of the sixth century Hijri. The research is important because poetry is a truthful mirror that reflects the image of people's lives from various angles: religious, social, political, cultural, and economic. It bears witness to their lives in its diverse aspects. Ghazal is an artistic form of poetry that revolves around describing and praising the beloved by highlighting their virtues, beauty, charms, expressing longing for them, and lamenting their separation. Ghazal employs numerous metaphors and similes to reflect the images that arise in the poet's heart and soul, affirming the truth of his conscience. Through these metaphors and similes, it expresses love and the feelings and emotions that lovers and beloveds harbor in their hearts for each other, as well as the impact of these emotions and their reflections on the soul through various sentiments.The article addresses the question of the types of visual imagery, metaphor, and simile used by Osama bin Munqidh in his ghazals, highlighting the beauty of expressions through the use of rhetorical devices. The research aims to explore the types of metaphor and simile found in Osama bin Munqidh's poetry, reflecting his poetic legacy through his sincere experiences and his emotional inclination, by examining the rhetorical aspects of figurative language and similes used. The research relied on the descriptive-analytical method to discover evidence of metaphor and simile types in the poet's ghazals</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Rawaa Ali Marzieh Abad Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 2411 2430 Mechanisms for implementing measures for juveniles in correctional institutions <div> <p>Juvenile crimes are among the crimes facing society, as they affect a very important and sensitive age group, which requires penal treatment for the delinquent juvenile, which consists in reforming, correcting, and integrating him into society in a sound manner, regardless of the gravity of his crime, through his rehabilitation and taking the necessary remedial measures in the correctional institution. Which are considered criminal procedures applied to the juvenile, and given the importance of this category, there must be a need for care and attention that makes them feel reassured, especially during the investigation and court phase, and the primary goal should be Finding out the reasons and factors that led him to commit the criminal act and assisting them for the purpose of getting rid of the influences that caused him to commit a crime. The law also obliges the judge to supervise the work of private correctional institutions and to visit periodically, which should be a visit at least a month, and its importance in the context of rehabilitating the juvenile and informing him of The implementation and commitment of the departments affiliated with the correctional institution to carry out their work in accordance with legal and humanitarian standards As for the role of the juvenile judge in Egypt, the process of supervising and monitoring the rulings and decisions issued against the juvenile is carried out by the president of the children’s court or whomever he delegates from the court judges, using several means to deter him for the purpose of preventing him from returning to committing the criminal act.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Mortada Fathi Mohammed Fawzi Jabbar Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 2431 2466 The Significance of Precedence and Non-precedence in Understanding Quranicl Sentence “Surat Al-Baqarah as a Case Stud" <div> <p>Praise be to Almighty Allah who taught us with the pen, and had it not been for him, we would not have known, and may blessings and peace be upon the greatest Prophet Muhammad and his good and pure household. The idea of this research and its writing began previously and matured, by the grace of Almighty Allah, in a short time to study the grammatical significance of the Qur’an. The idea was focused and specialized in studying the grammatical significance of the Glorious Qur’an. Then the opinion settled in studying the phenomenon of the significance of word order in terms of Precedence and Non-precedence in Surat Al-Baqarah. The researcher sought help in his research on the sources of grammar, rhetoric and interpretation because these sources have an obvious influence on clarifying the meaning of Precedence and Non-precedence. The research paper consists of two chapters, the first is on grammar and the second is on rhetoric, followed by the results and the references. In his research paper, the researcher relied on the descriptive analytical method in analyzing the Qur’anic verses of Surat Al-Baqarah. There were previous studies on the grammatical significance of the Glorious Qur’an, and these studies included much evidence from the Glorious Qur’an, such as The Development of Semantic Research, an applied study in the Glorious Qur’an by Dr Muhammad Hussein Ali Al-Saghir and Qur’anic grammar, rules and evidence by Dr. Jameel Ahmad Dhafar. However, This study is brief and specific in f Precedence and Non-precedence and only in Surat Al-Baqarah. Therefore, the researcher adheres to scientific material that fits within the limits set for the researcher to publish in a peer-reviewed journal. Precedence and Non-precedence are common denominators between the sciences of grammar and rhetoric, as there is a specific chapter on the subject and the predicate in the science of grammar, and there is a science of rhetoric that is concerned with Precedence and Non-precedence which is semantics. Therefore, it is found that the processes of Precedence and Non-precedence strengthen the relationship between grammar and rhetoric.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Ghaleb Yasser Al-Mazyoudawi Sayed Hussein Sidi Gholam Reza Raisian Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 2467 2488 The Cabinet Crisis and its repercussions on the political situation in Malawi 1964 -1975 <div> <p>After the emergence of Malawi as an independent state in 1964, on the political map of the African continent, it, like other newly independent countries, went through a very important stage of political travail due to Prime Minister Hastings Kamuza Banda’s monopolization of power, which resulted in a ministerial crisis twenty days after independence, known as the Cabinet Crisis between President Banda and a number of ministers because of their objection to many of his policies, especially the interior, and his preference to rely on Europeans for most work and grant them important positions, led to the dismissal of a number of ministers and their expulsion from the country, which Banda has complete control over the ministers in all ministries, However, this did not limit the opposition's continued confrontation with President Banda. Chipember led a rebellion against the president, which he carried out in February 1965, but it ended in failure because they were exposed to an unexpected ambush. In November of the same year, Medson Selo Mbela launched hostilities against the Banda government, but the government quickly took control of the situation by attacking... He was arrested, and as a result of these rebellions, the government issued.Malawi Preventive Detention Law - i.e. detention without trial, the goalIt silenced the mouths of the opposition, as the people were no long able to oppose him. Never, otherwise the same fate will befall them as the men of the National Movement. However, this did not stop the men of the National Movement abroad from their goals of overthrowing Banda’s government. Accordingly, a group of opposition parties was formed outside Malawi, but those parties quickly disintegrated due to...Division among its members, and their persecution by the Malawi security forces, such as the killing of Yatuta Chisiza, which rendered the People's Revolutionary Movement in Malawi leaderless, as well as betrayal by members within parties affiliated with the Malawi government. All of these reasons accelerated the disintegration of the parties and Banda's complete control over the people in general, and the ministers. Especiall.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Ali Hadi Abbas Al-Mahdawi Shaima Jaber Radi Al-Hilali Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 2489 2510 The impact of the Gerlak and Eli model on teaching third-year students at Sumer University and developing their imaginative thinking <div> <p>The current research aims to identify the impact of the Gerlak and Ely model on teaching among third-year students at Sumer University and to develop their imaginative thinking. The researcher clarified three hypotheses to test creative thinking in order to meet the research objectives. The researcher utilised the experimental design. A total of 44 third-year students from the department were included in the study. Scientists from the College of Basic Education randomly assigned twenty-two students from Section (A) to an experimental group that underwent research utilising the Gerlak and Ely model, while twenty-two students from Section (B) served as a control group that underwent standard research methods. A statistical incentive was given to each group by the researcher. The study's findings could be impacted by a few factors. The study instrument for the creative thinking scale was developed by the researcher. It included twenty items spread out among three creative thinking skills, with four items for each skill. The scale may have been one of the following variants.The student has imaginative thinking to a degree (very large, large, moderate, and small). The researcher used statistical methods such as the t-test for two independent samples, chi-square, and the (Spss) program. The researcher reached the following results:1- In the imaginative thinking test, there is a statistically significant difference favouring the experimental group between the average scores of the students in the experimental group and the students in the control group.2- When comparing the average scores of the experimental group students in the pre- and post-test of imaginative thinking, there is a statistically significant difference ( 0.05) favouring the post-test.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Hassan Abdullah Shaker Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 2511 2528 Demographic characteristics of the population infected with tuberculosis (TB) in Iraq in 2020 <div> <p>The research focuses on studying the demographic characteristics of the population infected with pulmonary tuberculosis in Iraq for the year 2020, in terms of studying the number of cases registered in Iraq and according to their age and gender composition, relying on data from the Iraqi Ministry of Health and the Tuberculosis Institute. Tuberculosis represents an endemic disease in Iraq at varying rates, as a successive increase has been recorded. The number of cases of infection with the disease throughout the country for the period (1990-1999) ranged between (75-140) cases per hundred thousand population due to the circumstances that the country went through during that period. Then, the cases recorded a gradual decrease during the year 2000 (41 cases per hundred). thousand of the population, in addition to studying the spatial variation in cases of infection with the disease at the level of the Iraqi governorates during the year 2020, with the capital, Baghdad, recording the highest infections with a prevalence rate of (19.1) per hundred thousand population, while Dohuk Governorate recorded the lowest infections with a prevalence rate that did not exceed (7) One infection per 100,000 population. The age groups (15-44) were the most vulnerable to the disease, being the young group working in society. The number of tuberculosis cases recorded throughout Iraq in 2020 reached (5016) cases, the infection rate in females was (51%) and the infection rate in males was (49%), meaning that the number of female cases is slightly more than males, so infection with the disease is possible for both sexes, in addition to the presence of social, behavioral, physiological and environmental factors. This explains the increase in these cases.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Samah Ibrahim Shamkhi Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 2529 2554 Deficient Verbal Performance In Autistic Children <div> <p>The current research aims to identify the following:1. Deficient verbal performance in autistic children.2. The statistically significant differences in the level of verbal performance deficiency among autistic children according to the gender variable (male - female).To achieve the objectives of the research, the researcher used the descriptive correlative approach as a methodology for procedures, and the researcher followed the scientific steps adopted in psychometrics to prepare verbal performance deficits based on the (Mohammed, 2006) scale (Al-Alawi, 2013) and the (Mukhtar, 2019) scale, which consisted of (34) items. In its final form, the researcher verified the psychometric characteristics of the scales of validity and reliability on a sample of (120) boys and girls in the Imam Hussein Institute (peace be upon him) for autistic children in Karbala governorate, distributed according to the gender variable (males - females), who were chosen by the intentional method of Twisted (extreme) distribution. After completing the preparation of the research scale, it was applied to the final research sample of (70) boys and girls in the centers of special education and autistic children in the province of Babylon (the Wissam al-Rahma Center for Children with Special Needs, the Husseiniya threshold center for autistic children, the Mazaya Center for Special Education) were chosen in the same way. The previous ones were distributed by gender (males - females) for the academic year (2021-2022), and the data were processed statistically using the statistical package (SPSS version (25), and the results of the research showed the following:1. There are statistically significant differences at the level (0.05) indicating that the research sample (autistic children) suffer from a high level of verbal performance deficiency.2. There are statistically significant differences at the level (0.05) in the level of verbal performance deficiency among autistic children, according to the gender variable (male - female) in favor of males.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Ali Kadhim Jawad Al-Khudair Hawraa Abbas Kurmash Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 2555 2582 The customs, traditions, and values that were mentioned in the hadiths of the Messenger Muhammad (Peace be upon him) and mentioned by the Companions in the book Sahih Al-Bukhari, a historical study <div> <p>The research aims to shed light on the customs, traditions, and values that came in the hadiths of the Messenger Muhammad () and in which the Companions were mentioned. Among these customs is generosity and giving, and the Messenger Muhammad () giving gifts and gifts to his companions out of his love for them or to warm the hearts of those who entered Islam, and they varied. These gifts include money, animals, clothes, and food. Also among the customs are gifts, and the Messenger Muhammad (peace be upon him) gave gifts to some of his companions, as well as some of the women of the companions giving gifts to the father of their daughters. The matter was not limited to the Messenger Muhammad (peace be upon him) giving gifts only, but he, peace and blessings be upon him, accepted gifts and did not accept charity, and many gifts were given to him. Among other customs are the holidays. Islam legislated the holidays for Muslims and made them two festivals, which are Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adha. Visiting and social gatherings were legalized in both of them. The Messenger Muhammad () did not denounce the Abyssinians for playing with spears in his mosque and said to Omar ibn al-Khattab () Leave them. Among the customs and traditions is emancipation from slavery and the rise of the Messenger Muhammad (peace be upon him) urging his family and companions to free slaves because of the great reward in that. The hadiths in which justice and equality were mentioned and the Messenger Muhammad (peace be upon him) urged his companions to do so, including equality between children and lack of… Differentiating between them, equality was not limited only to children, but equality included all Muslims, as well as equality between the slave and his master. The Messenger Muhammad (peace be upon him) called on his companions to achieve equality among all and that there should be no difference between a master and a slave, an Arab or a non-Arab, except through piety. The Messenger Muhammad () also urged social solidarity among Muslims, in order to face the dangers and challenges they face together, such as famine and other disasters, and they must be like one body in order to cross to safety. Another custom and tradition is hunting. The Arabs knew hunting before Islam, and Islam did not prohibit hunting and maintained it, but under conditions consistent with Islam, including that a Muslim name his prey. It is also forbidden for a Muslim to hunt if he is forbidden. Most of these customs and traditions were known to the Arabs before Islam, but they contain many impurities, and therefore the Prophet Muhammad () refined them and made them compatible with the noble Islamic law.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Nidhal Muauaid Malallah Hussein' Ahmed Hammad Hilal Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 2583 2616 Heart diseases and their treatment in the Holy Qur’an and the Sunnah of the Prophet (objective study) <div> <p>In this research, I shed light on heart diseases mentioned in the Holy Qur’an, and clarified the terms and concepts related to the subject. It talked about the diseases that afflict the heart and their causes. As for the causes of these diseases, they were two main reasons: the first: committing sins and committing transgressions, and the second reason: Turning away from the truth and denying it after knowledge, which resulted from disbelief, deviation, and abandoning the truth. This study included an introduction, four sections, and a conclusion. The introduction dealt with the importance of knowing heart diseases, and the division of the research was as follows: The first section dealt with the terminology of diseases. Hearts, signs of heart disease, treatment of heart disease The second section explained hatred, and the third section dealt with mistrust. The fourth section covered espionage, and the conclusion was to present the most important results and recommendations. The research reached a number of results, including: Heart diseases are among the most difficult diseases to treat, and their harm is not limited to the hateful person only, but extends beyond that to harm society as well, creating enmity and hatred among its members. Likewise, the Holy Qur’an paid attention to man, so it directed its speech to him, Sometimes to his mind and soul, and other times to his limbs and emotions, and perhaps the Qur’anic discourse directed to the human heart occupies the highest priority and attention because of its importance in determining the human path. The research recommended returning to the Book of God Almighty, which is the effective remedy for treating all diseases of the heart, and making sure to contemplate its verses. I also recommend conducting similar studies on other topics.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Sanaa Abdullah Muhammad Jaralnabi Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 2617 2654 The legal scope of the commercial mediation contract A comparative study between Iraqi law and Egyptian law <div> <p>The legal scope is intended to give an explicit legal description of a specific incident or term, and due to the absence of regulating the commercial mediation contract from some positive legislation, different jurisprudential opinions have emerged regarding determining the legal nature of the contract in question, as the issue of the legal nature of the commercial mediation contract raises theoretical and practical difficulties and that the legal nature for a commercial mediation contract. The legal conditioning of the relationship between the broker and the investor determines the nature of the provisions to which he is subject, and thus defines his rights and obligations. Determining the legal nature in this way is useful in determining the legal system to which the broker is subject. There is no dispute that the brokerage process in the trading of securities gives the broker a commercial character. Because the trader is every natural or legal person who carries out a commercial business in his name and for his account professionally. The importance and necessity of researching the issue of the legal nature of the commercial mediation contract lies in the Iraqi legislator’s regulation of the commercial mediation contract (indication) in the Indication Law No. 58 of the year 1987, which was accurate in some aspects and on the other hand was devoid of accuracy, so I chose this topic to show the points of accuracy and flaws in its subject. Commercial mediation in Iraqi legislationThe Iraqi legislation was devoid of regulating many matters in the law of significance, while other laws stipulated them, including the Egyptian one with which he compared them. We have explained that and the reasons that led us to the necessity of stipulating them in the Iraqi legislation.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Ammar Nahed Muhammad Al-Shammari Muhammad Salehi Mazandarani Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 2655 2678 The contextual mechanisms in the grammatical discourse in Al-Muqtaḍab book by Al-Mubarrad (A Analytical Study) <div> <p>The context is one of the most important tools that work on interpreting the linguistic and grammatical text, due to its role in expressing the meanings and purposes that the structures want to convey. In addition, the context constitutes a factor with different connotations, some of which are related to building the grammatical structures themselves, "and it is called the linguistic context," which specifies the grammatical relationships within the text and interprets them. And some of which surround the structures externally and are called "non-linguistic or contextual context," which are the external discourse circumstances surrounding the text and reflecting their influence on the linguistic structure of the structures. Al-Mubarrad noted in his concise book the importance of the context as having a direct impact on the processes of addressing and communication, as well as its direct impact on building the grammatical structures, and the associated differences in meanings and purposes. Therefore, we find Al-Mubarrad often relying on the discourse-context in his grammatical analyses and directions. The grammatical text and its structures in the concise book were not built in isolation from the context and the circumstances of speech that have an impact on determining the nature and structure of the language. The importance of this research - The contextual mechanisms in the grammatical discourse in Al-Muqtaḍab book by Al-Mubarrad: A Analytical Study, revealing an attempt to frame the discursive context in the Arab heritage as an applied field. This research addresses defining the relationship of the context to the analysis of grammatical discourse in Al-Mubarrad's work, highlighting its impact on the grammatical functions associated with structures and communicative relationships. The idea of context or circumstance or discourse circumstances was the central point around which the analysis of grammatical discourse in the concise book revolved, one of the results reached by the research is that our early scholars, led by Al-Mubarrad, based most of their grammatical principles on the influence of context on words, meanings, and objectives. In addition to that, context was used in dealing with many grammatical issues, especially interpretation, omission, preference, and directing the correct direction of linguistic structures. This took into consideration the functional aspect of language and the communicative role of discourse participants in the analysis of the grammatical text.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Hossein Takbar Firouzjai Mahdi Nasseri Ali Hussein Gharkan Al-Suwaiti Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 2679 2698 New Date Formulas from the Reign of Abi-sare in the Light of published Cuneiform Texts <div> <p>The study of Date formulas is one of the most important studies that shed light on the history of Mesopotamia, as it represents an authentic information source that deals with various aspects such as " political, religious, social, geographical, and even urban. Thus it represents a kind of archive that contains within it a large number of facts and implications, and through studying and analyzing these date formulas, we can arrange the events that the region witnessed in a correct and sequential manner. - It cannot be accepted that the cuneiform readings are fixed and cannot be change. This is also the case with the date formulas in ancient Iraq, as they are subject to change if new texts and new readings are revealed. The kings of ancient Iraq relied on certain date formulas and not others, and this explains the presence of many events that were not recorded within the years of their rule. The cuneiform sources have shown us that the dating formulas is usually central for all the cities subject to the king’s authority, but in some cases there is another type that is considered local dating formulas usually used in a specific city and not others.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Samra Hameed Nayef Al-Janabi Ahmed Naji Saba Al-Husseini Copyright (c) 2024 2024-05-05 2024-05-05 14 2 35 50 Printing and Craftsmanship from the Perspective of the Writers Article Al-Ehiaeen <div> <p>This study aims to clarify the concept of printing and craftsmanship among biographical essay writers. It is known that the discussion about these two terms was not a new matter, as critics have dealt with them since ancient times, starting with Al-Jahiz and ending with the last critic among them. Our modern era is filled with many critics who have addressed this issue. Moreover, these two pillars are not unique to one art or another; Poetry and prose alike participated in them. In their treatment of these two terms, the writers of the revival school agree with their early predecessors in prioritizing printing over craftsmanship. Most of them judged the presentation - I mean imprinting on the workmanship - and this does not mean that they belittle the importance of the workmanship or degrade its literary status, for it is inevitably praiseworthy if it comes to the freedom of the mind without the effort or effort, as evidenced by the fact that the ancient critics did not charge the poets of the annals with their revision and refinement. for their poetry; Rather, they were considered virile poets. What is notable about the essay writers in the Ihya school is that they were divided between a printed writer and a manufactured one. Some of them did not adhere to the industry; He was known to narrate his words as they came, without trimming or polishing, and the best representative of this class was the Manfaluti, while some of them aligned themselves with the trend of craftsmanship, so he began to engineer and embellish his phrases until they came out in the best way, as happened with the elegant writer Ahmed Hassan al-Zayat, who was fond of precision of pronunciation and music. The sentence, and he would resort to saj’ from time to time without getting tired. The most prominent writers of the Ihya School who dealt with the two important terms were Amir al-Bayan Shakib Arslan, Mustafa al-Manfaluti, Mustafa Sadiq al-Rafi’i, Abdul Aziz al-Bishri, Ahmed Amin, and Ahmed Hassan al-Zayat, as their articles were filled with many critical opinions that treated them and clarified their concept and status.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Ahmed Abdel Aziz Awad Khamis Mikhlif Abdullah Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 2699 2726 Jurisprudential rulings on gold jewellery An Empirical Study)) <div> <p>Gold is one of the currencies mentioned by God Almighty in His Mighty Book and in the Sunnah of the Prophet, may God bless him and grant him peace, and the consensus of the Islamic nation, and it has conditions for the sale contract. However, selling gold for the same price as two eighths has conditions, including the exchange in one sitting and the two exchanges being identical when the same kind is united, and if there is There is a difference in which exchange is required in the meeting, and differentiation is prohibited, and poor quality or quality does not matter. The reason for usury in it may be, as the scholars said, the absolute price tag, and the price tag does not depart from gold until the present time.One of the forms of buying and selling is selling gold in kind or selling women's jewelry in different kinds.This study dealt with the subject of (rulings on gold jewellery) and the legal problems regarding gold jewellery, as it is a usurious money for which God Almighty imposed rulings in the field of dealing in buying and selling. It collected the most prominent issues that concern us in our daily transactions and worked on studying them to put them in the hands of a clear vision for researchers. In the field of law. And solve legal problems in a specialized manner.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Dhafer Hashim Mahidi Muhammad Saleh Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 2727 2746 Emergency circumstances in Iraqi law <div> <p>The basis of the theory of emergency circumstances, according to jurists, is: (If during the implementation of the contract, incidents or circumstances arise, whether natural, economic, or the work of non-contracting parties, that were not taken into account or could not be predicted when concluding the contract and that would cause huge losses that would seriously disturb the financial balance. For the contract, the contracting parties are obligated to participate in bearing their share of the loss that befell one of them throughout the period of the emergency circumstance to ensure the implementation of the contract. The theory of emergency circumstances is based on two foundations: It is not fair, just, or good faith in transactions for one of the contracting parties to be left subject to bad conditions resulting from an external force without intervention. He has the right to do so simply for the sake of making a profit or executing the contract at the expense of the other contractor. The second basis is that failure to compensate the contractor in the event of emergency circumstances leads to his reluctance to participate in any contract for the benefit of the state in the future or his exit from the labor market permanently, and this leads to the replacement of incompetent contractors. In their place, which leads to endless disputes and problems and the disruption of the work of public facilities, or resorting to raising their bid prices as a precaution against changing circumstances after contracting, which may lead to inflicting heavy losses on them, which prevents the administration from obtaining the most appropriate bids at the lowest prices, which leads to harm to the public interest.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Ali Abdul Ghani Mahdi Jyad Ahmed Dilami Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 2747 2760 Normalization procedures between Jordan and the Zionist entity in light of the 1994 peace treaty (An analytical study) <div> <p>Jordan was not one of the first Arab countries to sign peace agreements with the Zionist entity. Egypt preceded it in signing two peace agreements, the first for peace in the Middle East and the second a peace treaty between them at Camp David in 1978. The Palestinians also concluded the Oslo Accords in 1993, and despite However, these peace treaties did not contribute to resolving the Palestinian issue, as this was preceded by secret relations with most Arab countries, as this normalization took an accelerated course in many aspects, including economic, commercial, security, military and cultural aspects. Jordanian-Israeli normalization began through the peace treaty in 1994, which was the agreement in which the war between the two countries ended since the Arab-Israeli war in 1948. This treaty resolved disputes over land and water as well as establishing mutual diplomatic relations between the two parties. Jordan was the second An Arab country after Egypt signs a peace treaty with “Israel” at the southern Araba border crossing on October 26, 1994. The agreement included many issues, including issues of borders, water, security, economy, tourism, and the environment. This treaty also led to an end to the state of hostility between Jordan and “Israel.” The signing of this peace agreement led to Jordan’s exit from this conflict, with some exceptions related to Jordan’s role in Jerusalem and the refugee issue remaining as a pending regional issue between the two parties. The importance of the Jordanian role has increased, especially after Jordan adopted a peaceful solution to the Arab-Israeli conflict as one of the strategic options through signing the aforementioned peace treaty . The goal of this treaty was to find a just and comprehensive peace in the Middle East, and to maintain and strengthen peace on the foundations of freedom, equality, and recognition of living in peace between them within internationally recognized security borders to ensure permanent security for the two states, avoid the threat of force, and develop friendly relations and cooperation between them in accordance with the principles oflawInternational.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Ghusun Karim Mijdhab Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 2761 2780 The effects of registering unregistered lands <div> <p>It is noted from the explanation of the provisions of renewed registration in the Real Estate Registration Law No. 43 of 1971 that the renewed registration for unregistered lands was done voluntarily and based on the review of the person requesting registration, and this matter, of course, cannot lead to ending the status of unregistered properties, which calls for To think about finding a final solution to this issue, and this solution is represented by the state’s intervention and its enactment of legislation obligating individuals who own unregistered properties to register them within a specific period, and the First Amendment Law to the Real Estate Registration Law was legislated by Law No. 181 of 1980. I have come up with this study of important conclusions and results, some of which are detailed and require the legislator to carefully consider the provisions of the law related to unsettled lands, and to provide the legislative protection that each legislator seeks in his legislative policy.Perhaps it was clear that the legislation under study in general did not provide legal rules and provisions through which to regulate this type of land to the extent that is commensurate with its importance and the special nature that distinguishes it from other types of various lands, which led to the emergence of many legal problems that had many opinions. Legal jurisprudence and comparative judiciary rulings have a prominent impact on appropriate solutions to these problems.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> hayder Saud Khudair Al Masoudi Muhammad Sadiqi Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 2781 2798 Virgins of Byzantium: Between domestic isolation and forced early marriage <div> <p>Some concepts prevailed in Byzantine society that contributed to its construction, including religious writings and ideas spread by the Church Fathers, stating that the female is considered a source of evil and sin. Byzantine society was known to be a religious society and committed to what was proposed by the Church Fathers and the opinions of the saints, so customs and traditions became obligatory for the family to deal with strictness and severity with Among the females, one of these customs is the issue of isolating virgin girls in their own room at home and keeping them away from the eyes of men for fear of violating their virginity, because the honor of the family depends on the good behavior of the female, and in order to preserve her chastity and dignity, the family took the initiative of isolating the girls, preventing them from mingling and leaving the house, and hastening their marriage at an early age before they get married. She brings shame to her family. Laws have set the age for engagement and marriage, so this has become a societal norm for all classes without exception. 3. The treatment of virgin girls was more harsh and severe as a result of the prevailing ideas that created in the parents an obsession with fear for the girls’ virginity for fear of violating the family’s honor and degrading their dignity in society.Domestic isolation of virgins became a feature of Byzantine society in all its classes and levels.Isolation and confinement caused psychological illnesses and depression among virgins, which sometimes made them run away or attempt suicide, and may result in hostile behavior among some girls.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Fadila Hassan Kalaf Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 2799 2818 Archaeological discoveries from The Jalairi era in the old city of Mosul <div> <p>The city of Mosul witnessed eras of backwardness and deprivation following the fall of the Abbasid Caliphate in the middle of the seventh century AH, the thirteenth century AD, and the resulting control of the invading foreign peoples represented by the Mongols, the Tatars, then the Ilkhanids, then the Jalayirids, then followed by the control of the Mongols of the Jalayirids, which led to eras of Underdevelopment and total destruction. For all types of life and its religious, civil, service, commercial, urban and architectural aspects of the city of Mosul, and hence the pioneering role of the residents of the city of Mosul, its scholars and its governors who embraced the Islamic religion in reviving this city despite the destruction it has witnessed for nearly a century, as its righteous scholars and sheikhs sought its men from The wealthy, the merchants, the people of goodness and righteousness, and those whose piety and loyalty to this city are proven. They built mosques and mosques, revived centers of knowledge, hadith and the Qur’an, and built shrines and shrines for the pure family of the Prophet and their shrines and shrines. They left behind rare buildings, monuments and finds that we do not find in other cities and capitals. Islamic Arabic was created by the artist Mosul with tireless efforts by the Sultans of the Jalayiriya family during the reign of Sultan Sheikh Hassan Buzurg, his son Sultan Uwais, and his sons Sultan Ahmed and Sultan Hussein, and its effects still remain until now. Clear to this day.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Akram Mohammed Yahya Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 2819 2870 A study of the characters in the novel " tassara'a Al - khuta by Ahmed khalaf <div> <p>character in narrative work is an important study, since the character is the one who carries out the process of creating the narrative event, and through it the narrative event takes place according to a special narrative pattern. Therefore, studying it was of special importance, and the narrative space cannot be studied in isolation from the study of character, and character in Ahmed’s novels. In general, behind various characters, representing the different classes of society, especially the novel (The Acceleration of Pace), which represents the different social classes, and the research revealed its political, social, and intellectual dimension, as well as the mental, and it weaves together the narrative event, characters capable of conveying the event realistically mixed with narrative imagination, The research was able to monitor the transformations of the characters within this novel, based on detection, monitoring and analysis. The texts of the novel revealed all of that.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Sayed Muhammad Reda Mustafa Nia Rasoul Dehghan Dhad Zeina Abdel Mohsen Al-Azzawi Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 2871 2892 Geopolitics of Cyber Threats of Cyberspace on the National Security of the Mashriq Countries <div> <p>The world today is still in the information technology revolution. The Internet, big data, artificial intelligence, cloud technology, and even many new improvements will continue to develop, and the meaning and extension of cyberspace will continue to develop. Many security conflicts facing cyberspace have emerged and are expanding at all levels of technology, politics, and prior education, which Odera geopolitically competes around the fabric of vital tissues such as energy, public transportation and manufacturing. The research aims to reveal the concept of cybersecurity in cyberspace as a field of political geography, and to identify the reality of the strength of cybersecurity in the region of the Arab Levant countries, and to deal effectively with the hidden dangers that threaten Internet security, and to ensure interconnection between networks. The problem revolves around the questions raised by the research, which are: What is the concept and risks of cybersecurity from a geopolitical perspective? What are the levels of cybersecurity in the Arab Levant countries? What is the geopolitical weight of the cybersecurity force of the Arab Levant countries? The research reached several results, the most important of which are: Digital geopolitics represents the mapping of traditional geostrategic thinking in the digital space, and then strengthening and expanding control in the physical space. Some countries of the Arab Levant (Saudi Arabia and the Emirates) were also able to achieve a safe and secure environment by obtaining a classification Very high on the overall cybersecurity strength scale. Most of the countries of the Arab Levant face geopolitical risks to their cybersecurity and therefore their economic, political and social security, such as Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, Yemen and Jordan from the perspective of cybersecurity standards</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Nabhan Zambour Al-Saadi Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 2893 2924 Women's empowerment and sustainable development (Analytical theoretical study) <div> <p>Women are an important and influential member of society, and the issue of their empowerment is one of the vital issues of importance at the present time. Empowerment is a modern concept that appeared at the end of the nineties of the twentieth century and has become the most widely used in development policies and programmes. It is the concept that most recognizes women as an active element in development and therefore seeks to eliminate Against all manifestations of discrimination against them through mechanisms that help them to become self-reliant, the literature on the concept reveals that despite the variation in expanding or narrowing the areas of its application, it converges at the concept of power, where the concept of women’s empowerment refers to strengthening women to possess the elements of economic and social power that It enables women to be self-reliant in improving their living and material conditions and to participate in making decisions that affect all aspects of life, which makes the development process a participation between men and women. Empowerment aims to create a development context conducive to participation and interaction based on the development of skills and capabilities. It also highlights the ways in which Through it, women can create for themselves a new space for work and movement. Empowering women, according to this study, is related to their integration into sustainable development by providing real opportunities for them to achieve the scientific and professional progress they aspire to that serves their family and social role in various economic, social, and political fields. Accordingly, the research included In the first section, the concept of women’s empowerment is explained by providing a reading of the connotations of the concept, the history of its emergence, and the need for it. The second section included the principles of women’s empowerment, its types, and the most important obstacles. As for the last (third) section, it included clarifying the concept of development and its most important elements, and then talking about the impact of women’s empowerment on Achieving sustainable development, including the dimensions and foundations that are considered necessary for the integration of women into the development process.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Sarah Ali Jaber Ahmed Jassim Matrood Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 2925 2946 The concept of (pilgrims) between the past and the present among the Arabs and the West <div> <p>The concept of Argumentation from the Arab and Western perspectives – ancient &amp; modern.The concept of argumentation has been used by Arab and Western scholars since the longstanding times and they have referred to its role in many places of their writings to expose their objectives and determinations.Due to its widespread utilization since the early times, its form and content has been changed in various ways. Accordingly, it has been used under diverse titles and contents by the academics.In this study, the researcher has attempted to focus on the most significant stages of the use of this concept by Arab and Western scholars and enlighten the variations of their opinions on its usage.For this purpose, the role and views of these scholars in the past and modern times are presented in two main chapters, in addition to the summary in Arabic and English, an introduction to the research and the bibliography. The research has been conducted according to historical descriptive analysis method  The study showed that pilgrimage has been of great importance since ancient times, as scholars paid attention to it, discussing its pillars and determining the framework of its concept and how to employ it in the desired field. The study confirmed the change in the concept of pilgrims and their laws. This depends on the requirements of the times, the context, and people’s need for this type of communication in various areas of life. The study proved that Al-Hajjaj was included in ancient and modern times in many fields of knowledge such as (language, philosophy, rhetoric, logic... etc.), starting from the writings of Greece to the most important Arabs in this regard. The study focused on the long historical path of pilgrims and its development, and found that this path shows, in general, that the concept of pilgrims is limited to three main concepts: 1- The Greek concept, which makes it a common denominator between controversy and rhetoric, and is prominent in the works of Plato, Aristotle, and the Sophists. 2-The Arab-Islamic concept, which is a concept that makes it synonymous with controversy. We find it among the ancients, including Al-Jahiz, Al-Jurjani, Al-Sakaki, and Hazem Al-Qartajani. 3-The contemporary concept, which is (dialogue), is more precise and deeper than the previous two concepts..</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Twana Kader Saber Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 2947 2990 Declarative proverbs and their effectiveness in the Andalusian poetic text... the Almohad and Bani Al-Ahmar eras as a model ( an analytical study) <div> <p>This study aims to study the formulas for including proverbs in the Andalusian poetry of the Almohad and Bani al-Ahmar eras, and then include their poems as declarative proverbs. Different classes and groups of society, including some eloquent Arabic proverbs in their poetic texts without introducing, delaying, deleting, adding, breaching the meaning or lacking in it. In this type of Inclusion, the poet focuses on the musical purpose first, and then the moral purpose. Because in this type of inclusion, the poet does not have enough space to manipulate the vocabulary and its meanings, unlike the transformative inclusion, in which the poet is able to introduce, delay, delete, and add, which increases the aesthetic value of the text. Sometimes the poet resorts to the use of the proverb without caring for its meaning, so he enters in an accidental way in order to fit with the meter and rhyme on which the poet built his poetic text. Therefore, our focus and attention focused on tracking the eloquent Arabic proverbs that came within the poetic texts of his poets of the two time periods, who did not lag behind in catching up with the boat of their peers who preceded them. This research concluded that the relationship of these modern poets with the heritage was a close relationship in terms of their communication with it in its various forms and types, taking from it what gives their poetic experience, inspiration, influence, and a manifestation of creativity that shows their ingenuity and intuitiveness in their dealings with this cultural heritage.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Bashar Khalaf Abboud Al-Hawija Omar Sattar Jabbar Al-Fahdawi Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 2991 3008 Dualities In the poetry of Talal Al-Junaibi <div> <p>Opposites are one of the most important critical issues in the modern era They have been given great importance by critics and theorists, so these studies have begun to expand despite the ancients’ disagreement on them and their disagreement between the occurrence of opposites and their absence in language. These dualities are an artistic technique that has long been used by the Emirati poet Talal. Al-Junaibi has formed a stylistic structure whose main theme is contrast, and its main function is to achieve amazement in the recipient by breaking his expectations. It reveals itself without explicitly mentioning it. Rather, the paradoxical statement resorts to hinting and pointing. This has been achieved To several results, perhaps the most important of which is: Opposite dualities constitute an important stylistic feature in Talal Al-Junaibi’s poetry, as the study revealed the aesthetics of the poet’s use of opposite dualities by tracing the subjective dualism (the self and the other), the spatial dualism (near and far), and the existential dualisms (presence and absence, life and death). The study also revealed the poet's ability to exploit various language mechanisms at the level of phonetic connotation, grammatical connotation, and lexical connotation. This employment endowed Al-Junaibi's texts with tremendous expressive energy that nourished his opposite dualities. The poet Talal Al-Junaibi also did well in employing language techniques that revealed the dualities of opposites, and this is what we found when he did well in employing symbolism, nature, embodiment, anthropomorphism, and the correspondence of the senses. In its plan, this study relied on the descriptive and analytical approach to reach its desired goals. Description takes it upon itself to present the artistic linguistic phenomenon based on verbal or moral paradox. Analysis is an attempt to trace the opposite dualities in the texts of the poet Al-Junaibi, and reveal the hidden meanings of their opposites, whether they are Verbal, such as day and night, or moral, which is related to social studies such as the self and the other, proximity and distance, death and life, and others</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Mortada Kazem Githum Mahmoud Muslimi Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 3009 3034 Evidence of considering custom in Islamic legislation and criminal legal systems on land and at sea <div> <p>Custom, or tradition, refers to the incorporation of individuals in a society into a specific rule and their continuous adherence to it, as well as their sense of obligation to respect it in their lives. It is a concept that denotes the traditions, values, and behaviors passed down through generations in specific communities. It forms an essential part of a society's culture and collective identity, as it defines acceptable and appropriate behavior and guides the actions and developments of community members In the maritime legal system, custom does not necessarily mean long-established practices; rather, it is associated with concepts and has an influence on the decisions and actions of the society. It may be applied openly or implicitly. Understanding custom in this system helps us comprehend the challenges facing the community. On the other hand, in the common law system (such as Rome), custom refers to the actions of individuals that have become a method not contrary to an individual's will and can potentially generate law or understanding of legal provisions through societal interaction. Custom plays a significant role in legislation and legal systems. It helps address legal gaps and contributes to how they are changed and individually applied. It guides legislation and influences the legislative process. Custom, traditions, and social values can influence the laws formulated by considering the presence of custom within legal frameworks. Different legal systems give varying priority to custom and legislation, and the extent of custom's influence varies. In Eastern legal systems like English law (common law), custom can be an important source of legislation, and it still has an impact on modern English law. In Roman law, which is considered a significant source for determining rules and legal provisions due to the prevalence of traditions and customs in Rome, and in French law (written law), custom can be applied in limited cases.Custom is the primary source of law in the Latin-Roman French legal system. Its importance is increasing in the Anglo-Saxon legal system. Eastern legal systems like Iraqi and Egyptian law adhere to the principle of "No crime or punishment except as provided by law," giving custom a crucial role in legal branches. Custom plays a vital role in determining and applying legal rules and principles. For instance, admiralty law highlights the role of custom in shaping and determining the practices and regulations governing maritime affairs. In criminal law, custom helps define crimes, guide punishments, and understand intent and circumstances.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Hussein Ali Dikman Shamran Al-Saadi Adel Sarikhani Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 3035 3060 Evaluation of the Arabic language book for the first grade intermediate from the point of view of supervisors and teachers <div> <p> The objective of the research was to evaluate the Arabic language book for the middle stage and to identify the strengths and weaknesses of its components: objectives, content, methods of teaching, educational activities, and evaluation. The researcher used the analytical descriptive method and prepared a list of the required standards in the Arabic language book. And after making the necessary modifications to it, it turned the list into a tool to search in the form of a questionnaire, and after the researcher confirmed the validity of the questionnaire and its persistence, it applied to the sample of the research consisting of (122) supervisors, teachers and schools. After collecting the questionnaire and emptying it, and obtaining the required data, the researcher processed it statistically. Based on the theoretical framework of the research and the results reached, the researcher recommends the following: You must take into account the standards that must be available in the Arabic language book for the first grade in order to achieve the desired educational goals of it efficiently and effectively, it is important that the content of the book is characterized by marketing and take into account the tendencies of the students and their needs and trends and previous experiences, The attention should be paid to the use of tests at the end of each topic, and to take into account the individual differences, the students' tendencies, their needs and their attitudes, And the evaluation of the calendar in a balanced way to give each side the same amount of attention, and the assessment of the evaluation of the subjectivity in the assessment of grades), in light of the results of the current research made a set of proposals for studies that could contribute to the development of the Arabic language book and upgradinge.</p> </div> <div> </div> Zeina Fadel Mahdi Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 3061 3088 " The temporal space of the night about the poets of Bani Asad " <div> <p>This study aims to explain the temporal space of the night and its impact on the poets of Bani Asad, and how its meanings varied and differed for them through the difference in its impact on them and the psychological impact it left on them, and how the night, despite being equal in length, was different for them, as some of them complained about its length and heaviness, and some of them cried because of Its shortness and quick salvation, for the night in which the poets sang and flirted with their beloved ones and depicted the gatherings of their loved ones, their pleasures and their wines, is the same night that another group of poets complained about, and in which they cried over the separation of their loved ones and their longing for them. Likewise, the night was a safety for the fearful through their concealment from the eyes of the enemy, and the irony is that in Time itself was a factor and a source of fear through its enveloping darkness things and prevents vision. Likewise, the night was a stage for displaying generosity and courage. Therefore, the research was divided into three axes. The first axis dealt with (the concept of the temporal space of the night), and the second axis shed light on (the psychological impact) of the Bani Asad poets. As for the third and final axis, we dealt with (the social impact). And from God, success.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Muhammad Kamel Hammad Jassim Mohammed Abbas Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 3089 3104 COMPANY STRUCTURING VERSUS LABOR RELATIONS IN TUNISIAN LAW: (COMPARATIVE STUDY) <div> <p>The term corporate restructuring emerged in the 1980s in response to the need to continuously adapt to fierce economic competition and adapt to these developments in order to survive. However, restructuring is often feared for its social consequences. Despite the positive role it plays in the development of a company's activity, it cannot be envisioned without taking into account the consequences that it may entail. The restructuring process is usually accompanied by the implementation of a plan to lay off large numbers of workers. Therefore, most legislations seek to take into account the social dimension of restructuring, and it is necessary to recognize the legal implications of such processes on the individual and collective rights of workers. Restructuring processes may cause radical changes in the structure of employment contracts, both in terms of conditions and benefits provided to workers, and in terms of the nature of the legal relationship itself, which may affect the stability of workers and the continuation of the employment relationship. Those in charge of the restructuring process must develop a culture of flexible work and develop a culture that encourages cooperation and communication within the company. The importance of taking into account employment contracts during restructuring processes is demonstrated by achieving a balance between the interests of the company and its workers. These processes must be based on justice and transparency, taking into account workers’ rights and preserving their stability. Restructuring processes may require changes in employment contracts, and this requires dealing with these processes with sensitivity and respect for workers’ rights. These processes should include mechanisms to provide support and guidance to employees affected by the changes, while maintaining their dignity. Adapting employment contracts as part of restructuring processes emerges as an essential tool for consolidating companies’ relationships with their employees and creating a positive work environment that enhances productivity, innovation, and interaction between all parties.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Racem GASSARA Murtadha Abdalla Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 14 2 3105 3128