Journal Of Babylon Center for Humanities Studies 2022-11-30T09:36:23+03:00 Open Journal Systems <p style="direction: ltr;">The journal is devoted to the publication of subjects of various human and linguistic specialties for the purpose of scientific and cultural publication as well as for the purposes of scientific promotions for academic staff. The journal publishes researches or articles in both Arabic and English and the journal aims to publish in other languages.</p> <p style="direction: ltr;">Journal Of Babylon Center for Humanities Studies is a official Journal issued by the Babylon Center for cultural and historical studies at the University of Babylon, and specializes in the deployment of research and academic articles in the fields of humanities and historical and cultural, Journal is published Quarterly, four times each year which it been edited by a panel scientific works on research Assessment sent where each search is sent to the management of the Journal is working on at least two experts in the evaluation of every aspect of it, and according to form designed for this purpose and we do not publish any articles or research without authorize of the deployment by our experts. </p> <p> </p> The struggle for power in Sierra Leone 1961-1991 2022-11-09T20:13:51+03:00 Ahmed Mazhar Al-Hilali Karim Matar Hamza Al-Zubaidi <div> <p>Sierra Leone witnessed a successful and healthy transition of power, from British colonialism to the national elite in 1961, and Milton Margai proved remarkably adept at establishing himself in power, creating a new style of administration without disturbing the balance of political forces on which the Sierra Leonean government relied after independence, and continued to Power until his death in 1964, his brother Albert Margai succeeded him as head of government, to show the differences between the political elites more specifically between the Sierra Leone People's Party and the Congress Party, until it manifested itself in its clearest form on February 8, 1967, when Albert Margai announced the discovery of a plot to overthrow his government, and on March 21, 1967 happened The first coup against power, and two days later a counter-coup took place, shaking the democratic process in Sierra Leone, and ending with the declaration of one party by Sakaya Stevens in 1978, and by the end of 1990 Sierra Leone was prepared to fight a “dirty war” that lasted for more than a decade, in which thousands of civilians had been killed. The innocent were under the hammer and the anvil of the RUF, and the bleak political and economic conditions in Sierra Leone were favorable for the RUF to wage guerrilla warfare</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2022-10-27T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Turkey's Middle East policy and its regional role for the period 1991-2010 In light of contemporary regional and international changes 2022-11-09T20:19:41+03:00 Ahmed Jassim Ibrahim <div> <p>In addition, Turkey was able to play a distinguished role in the regional conflicts that erupted in the Middle East, using its ability to balance in order to achieve more gains on the subjective level, without this role affecting its external relations, especially on the parties to the conflict. And in the wake of the failure of the experiment. Socialism in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union, there were changes in the opportunities and movement of the “dynamism” of Turkish politics in the international and regional framework, especially the Middle East, and with the international situation that our contemporary world has become due to the failure of the socialist experiment in the former Soviet Union and in Eastern Europe, as we mentioned above. In light of the international and regional changes and their reflection on the Middle East, especially the subsequent developments and the outcome of the second Gulf War and the developments of the political settlement of the Arab-Israeli conflict at the beginning of the nineties of the last century and the war of occupation of Iraq in 2003, the Turkish policy found itself that it must adapt its foreign policy in a manner consistent with reality International and regional, with the aim of activating its regional role in the Middle East, and thus reshaping its policy towards a number of Regional problems</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2022-11-30T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 The Constitutional Revolution in Thailand June - December 1932 2022-11-09T20:25:10+03:00 Maher Chasib Hatem Al-Fahad <div> <p>This study deals with the subject of (the constitutional revolution in Thailand 1932), which occurred after the development of the political thought of the young civil and military elites in the country, which were influenced by the features of Western democratic change, after their study of Western regimes and their coexistence with them during their stay there, so they believed in the project of political change, and that crystallized After their return to the country, they began urging the people to advance their deteriorating political, economic and social reality. Several factors combined in the success of this project, the most important of which was the economic conditions left by the previous governments to the rule of King Pragadepok, which worsened after their interaction with the global economic crisis (1929-1933), And the accompanying strict austerity policy against the Thais by reducing salaries and cutting salaries, which motivated them more towards political change, ending the era of absolute monarchy and heading towards constitutional monarchy, especially after the military elite harmonized with the civilian (represented by students who studied abroad) in aspirations Change .Economic conditions were not the only ones that pushed the Thais towards change, but the political and social had a large share of it, so the political bodies were varied between legislative, executive and advisory without achieving the desired, and they became a burden on the country, and there was no political system that involved the elites in decision-making, but It was the preserve of princes and nobles, which excluded a large part of participation in the management of the affairs of their country, which strengthened class in society and made the gap widen between classes.Based on the foregoing, the military and students moved to lead the change project, and they began preaching their program secretly among the members of society, and after several years, their revolution matured, and they were able on June 24, 1932 to change the political system from an absolute monarchy to a constitutional monarchy, and they formed an interim government and a temporary constitution that connected The state for a transitional period that lasted for one year, until they enacted an election law in December 1932, and the map of change became clear to the people, and they could achieve what previous generations could not do in not attacking the regime.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2022-11-30T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 The Effectiveness of Teaching with Augmented Reality Technology on Developing Visual Intelligence Skills among College of Basic Education Students 2022-11-09T20:32:30+03:00 Ahmed Ali Alwan AL-Qaraghooli Muna Mohammed Abbas AL-Khateeb Ameer Kadhim Hadi <div> <p>This study aimed to find out the effectiveness of a proposed instructional program based on Augmented Reality Technology (ART) on developing visual intelligence skills of second stage students in the subject of reading comprehension. The study sample consisted of (75) male and female students, from College of Basic Education, Department of English Language, University of Babylon , Iraq for the second semester of the academic year 2020-2021. The study tool was a test of visual intelligence skills consisting of (41) items. The researchers prepared an ART environment according to the ADDIE Model for simplicity of design, ease of use and suitability for age stage of the students. In the current study, the researchers relied on the experimental method in order to find out the effect of the independent variable (the effectiveness of teaching with augmented reality technology) on the dependent variable (visual intelligence skills) on the study sample.The results of the study showed the superiority of the experimental group that was taught using the instructional program based on Augmented Reality Technology over the control group that was taught in the conventional way. In light of the results of the study, the researchers recommended the necessity of integrating and employing ART in the curricula of Ministry of Education and Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research, and designing textbooks and instructional curricula in accordance with ART. The study also suggested increasing interest in conducting more studies on ART in the different stages of education. The researchers also concluded that augmented reality technology is an effective tool in developing visual intelligence skills, as the study resulted in the superiority of the experimental group students who were taught using this technology over their colleagues in the control group in the visual intelligence skills post-test. Moreover, the use of ART contributes to providing students with greater amount of information compared to the traditional method.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2022-11-30T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Japanese military administration in Indonesia (1942-1945) 2022-11-09T20:28:51+03:00 Yarub Abdulrazzaq Abed Al-Darraji <div> <p>The period of the Japanese occupation of Indonesia (1942-1945) was one of the most important periods in the modern history of Indonesia, which ended a long period of Dutch rule in Indonesia. Until 1942, Indonesia was a colony of the Netherlands and was known as the Dutch East Indies. Japan was considered Indonesia as a very important country because of its strategic and political position in Southeast Asia, in addition to the high content of the raw materials, which were necessary to sustain the Japanese power during World War II. The Japanese occupation took place to ensure their economic and political predominance and govern Indonesia in a way that ensures their interests. Japan used its military administration to spread Japanese colonial policy and grant human and property resources to the Japanese colonizer in their war against the Pacific Ocean allies. The Japanese policies were oscillating according to the need of the war. In general, the main goal of the Japanese was to make Indonesia fulfill the Japanese war demands. The Japanese military administration was more sympathetic to the necessity of liberating Indonesia and other Asian countries from Dutch Western imperialism. The Japanese have succeeded in one way or another in creating confidence in the Asian countries, especially Indonesia, and showing that Japan has the power and ability to help liberating themself from colonial domination, Therefore, the Japanese used the military administration in spreading the Japanese colonial policy and granting anything from property and human resources to the Japanese colonizer, in the face of the war against the allied countries in the Pacific Ocean. The research aims to shed light on the Japanese military administration which was formed after their occupation of Indonesia, and the impact of this on the Indonesian administration in different fields. The research subdivided into many sections. The first section includes the importance of the strategic geographical location of Indonesia. The second section discusses the foundation of Indonesia until the Japanese occupation and the race of different countries to conquer Indonesia. The third section includes the Japanese military operation that led to the occupation of Indonesia. The fourth section explains the Japanese administration in Indonesia and its effect on the Indonesian Community Politically, Economically, and Socially</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2022-11-30T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 The role of the German Social Democratic Party in reunification Germans 1959–1961 2022-11-09T20:38:58+03:00 Munam Abdulwahad Ali Ali Hadi Abbas Al-Mahdawi <div> <p>The German Social Democratic Party realized that it is difficult to achieve unity between the two parts of Germany unless the political visions correspond to it and the rest of the German parties. Therefore, it had to achieve this goal, it had to adopt a balanced economic doctrine through which it can confront the economic crises that hit Germany after the Second Scientific War, which is the doctrine of the free market. Thus, Psychological and physical employees working in the industrial field, the establishment of hospitals in rural areas and remote areas, urban planning and urban construction, and stopping environmental destruction, including the newly emerging task of maintaining cleanliness and the ecosystem. Hence, the features began to recognize the need to apply the principles of a free market economy as an approach that West Germany must take to develop its economy. Therefore, the most important goal for the party leaders was to achieve the reunification of Germany. The research was based on an introduction, entrance and three detectives. The first topic was entitled The position of the Social Democratic Party on the signing of the peace treaty between the two Germans in June 1960, while the second topic discussed theGerman parliamentary elections in 1961 and the loss of the Social Democratic Party. The third topic came to highlight the impact of the Berlin crisis on the 1961 parliamentary elections in West Germany</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2022-11-30T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 The Influence of a Collaborative Writing- Based Instructional Program Delivered Through E-Learning Platforms on Improving Undergraduate EFL Learners' Creative Writing Skills 2022-11-09T20:56:59+03:00 Kadhim Muhammad Musa AlShammari Muna Mohammed Abbas AL-Khateeb Nadia Hameed Hassoon <div> <p>The present study aims at investigating The Effectiveness of an Instructional Program Based on Collaborative Writing Via E-learning Platforms on College EFL Learners' Creative Writing Skills Improvement''. To achieve this aim, the researchers proposed an instructional program based on Collaborative Writing to be followed. This study is limited to University of Babylon – College of Basic Education – Department of English for the academic year 2020-2021. The sample is represented by the Third year students at the department of English/ Morning studies which was 87 participants. Translation syllabus terms (for the second course) as recommended by the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research are taught. The sample members were divided into two groups. The first group is the experimental which consisted of (42) students who were taught by depending on Collaborative Writing via E-learning platforms (i.e., Google Classroom and Telegram). The second group is the control which consisted of (45) students who were taught by the traditional way. The Experimental design is adopted as it fits with the aim improvement. The researchers Conduct a final administration of the post-test of Creative Writing Skills, then, the collected data were analyzed to get results using suitable statistical tools. It is concluded that collaborative writing has certain advantages for students' creative writing. To begin with, it may assist a group of students in utilizing the combined strength of all of its members to complete their job. One member of the group, for example, excels in organizing thoughts while another excels at vocabulary. So, while working on a writing job, students may cooperate and profit from each other, the group members.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2022-11-30T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 British occupation of Northern Rhodesia and Southern Rhodesia 2022-11-10T06:48:56+03:00 Ahmed Abdulridha Rahman Saleh <div> <p>The research touched on the British occupation of Northern Rhodesia and Southern Rhodesia. In 1911, the Cecil Rhodes Company called the region Northern Rhodesia. The British government seized it because of the presence of copper, and mining became an important industry. Rhodes worked to annex the lands in Rhodesia to the British Kingdom, so the white settlers Less than the Africans, but they had their representatives in the Legislative Council of the country, while the Africans were not from having representatives in this Council. The company was forcing the farmers to work to serve its interests in extending a railway to the copper mines. There were many African workers, so the working class organized a union Social associations and the union evolved into the Union of Miners, and evolved into the North Rhodesian African National Council, but in return in 1953 Britain established a union between Northern Rhodesia, Southern Rhodesia and Nyasaland, Africans opposed the union because of the dominance of the European minority, and in 1936 Britain announced the dissolution of the union, and in 1964 Northern Rhodesia became the independent state of Zambia. Kenneth Kaunda was elected as its president and was re-elected in several electoral terms to The end of the last election cycle was 1988 and the United National Independence Party remained the political party during the period from 1972 to 1990. As for Southern Rhodesia, when the Mathbeli tribes arrived in the region led by the Musikatze coming from the south, they defeated the Kingdom of Oruzoi and established for themselves the existence of Western Rhodesia, and in 1870 the leader Lubengula managed after a long struggle The authority should succeed his father in the leadership, and in 1888 he signed with the British South African Company the Moffat Agreement, which gave the company the rights to exploit mineral mines in the area subject to the leader of Lubengula. The war against the colonialists, but was defeated in 1893, so Rhodes and the British South Africa Company managed to run Southern Rhodesia, but after the struggle of the Africans, they took control of the government in 1980 and the name of the country was changed to Zimbabwe, then relations between Zambia and Zimbabwe improved.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2022-11-30T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Philosophical Approach to Literary Criticism: A Philosophical Reading of Jean-Paul Sartre’s No Exit 2022-11-10T08:29:14+03:00 Azhar Suhail Atiyah <div> <p>The study concerns contemporary criticism. In criticism, four philosophical approaches have prevailed: existentialism, Marxism, psychology and structuralism which are divided into three major directions: realism, idealism, and existentialism. Many of Sartre's philosophical arguments are synthesized with fiction. Sartre No Exit (1989) is a portrayal of life after death, in which three dead people are punished by being trapped together. It is the source of Sartre's well-known and misperceived quote "Hell is other people."ٍ (P.45). In No Exit, one's freedom is limited by the gaze of others. As Sartre believes existence precedes essence. The play's main themes revolve around freedom. However, in addition to this freedom of choice, there is also an absolute responsibility for man’s actions. Accordingly, as a result of fear and anxiety related to this responsibility, people tend to disregard their freedom as well as their responsibility. The writer utilizes his play No Exit to discuss several of the existentialist themes explored in his philosophical study Being and Nothingness. No Exit focuses prominently on the ideas of the "look and others", "competitive subjectivity", "bad faith" (self-deception) and "objectification". Philosophies of criticism are methods for studying the philosophy of the critic's implicit and explicit impulses. Thus, existentialism is not a single philosophy but philosophies that make existence precede its essence. Man proves his existence when he could think, plan and be creative. The writer asserts his freedom through literature which is the realization of his own life plan. It is not only existentialism that presents the literary criticism in this way, but after World War II, other critics such as Gaetan Picon and Pierre-Henri Simon described and judged the ethics of the writer whom they were studying through various philosophies</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2022-11-30T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 The applications of allegiance and election, a comparative study 2022-11-10T08:33:39+03:00 AHMED QASIM HUSSEIN AL-BAWY <div> <p>The Islamic applications emphasized the importance of the prince or the sultan presence, who obey him by allegiance, which is the most important component of the Islamic state system.The study of the allegiance subject, taking into account the prevailing ideas and applications, in the twenty-first century, calls for comparison with the election means, which replaced it in the vast majority of Islamic countries, in the field of assigning public authorities. Hence, the issue of allegiance needs to be researched, analyzed and compared, in accordance with contemporary concepts.The research problem lies in that despite the decline in the applications of allegiance in the contemporary world, especially in Islamic countries, compared to the various applications of election, it has not lost its traditional importance in the lives of individuals and societies, and the danger lies in exploiting this importance by extremist And terrorist organizations.This research was divided into two sections, the first topic dealt with the concept of allegiance and election and their conditions, while the second topic dealt with the applications of allegiance and election.Among the most important results are: The pledge of allegiance, as a consensual contract between the ruler and the ruled, which is one of the most important components of the Islamic state system, and a criterion for distinguishing between it and other political systems. The pledge of allegiance entails material, moral and moral obligations of loyalty and obedience towards Islam as a system and method, and towards Muslims in terms of social solidarity.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2022-11-30T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Uplifting and Social Reconstruction: A Study of Looking Backward by Edward Bellamy 2022-11-10T20:34:42+03:00 Mohammed Ali Hussein <div> <p>There is no doubt that with the advancement in technological aspects, civilization and modern lifestyle, many crises and social contradictions come into being. The spread of poverty, inequality and the absence of social justice, all these reasons led the philosophers and thinkers to look for solutions to the crises that society suffers from. People by nature always try to forecast the future and anticipate how the future will be. This anticipation of the future is full of eagerness to have a perfect one. This paper studies the concept of social and educational reformation in (Looking Backward 2000-1887) by Edward Bellamy. The novel is an uplifting and positive fiction. The study also sheds light on Reconstructionism and Utopianism. It transacts with them according to the ideas and perspectives on education by Theodore Brameld who is an educational philosopher. The study also aims to investigate the importance of education in changing personal and social life. Technological and scientific progress can make lofty life or can destroy life; it depends on the way that people use it. The only way for the utopian life is the perfect and global educational philosophy</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2022-11-30T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Psychological security and national belonging 2022-11-10T20:42:03+03:00 Mohammad Jabbar Khazem <div> <p>Throughout its long history, Iraq has gone through many wars and conflicts, including the Iraqi-Iranian war, the first Gulf war, the second Gulf war, and the years of sectarianism, which were the worst days for the Iraqi people. There are many sources of fear, tension, anxiety and psychological disturbances, which have a negative impact on human growth in all its fields. In order for the individual to overcome these fears and disturbances, there must be a sufficient amount of psychological security so that the person can grow properly in all its different forms. The psychological insecurity of the individual leads to negative effects on him in particular, which in turn negatively affects the society in general, The lack of security makes the individual find it difficult to face life, including its problems and difficulties, as in his responses to the external situation his fears, anxiety and types of conflict overlap, He suffers from it, that the need for psychological security comes at the forefront of the psychological (inorganic) needs and is more important in general. The secure person then seeks to achieve higher needs at the hierarchical level of needs, as defined by Maslow in his famous hierarchy, and that the scourge that Iraq has gone through as a reason for the individual's lack of self-acceptance and as a threat to psychological security, and that the lack of a sense of security makes the individual find it difficult to face life, including it One of the problems and difficulties is that the need for group and belonging is one of the most important basic needs that urgently satisfy and push a person to associate with one or more groups he loves and loves, and finds security, appreciation, reassurance and social status, and satisfies his needs for companionship, and affects the building of his personality and the formation of value, trends and inclinations.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2022-11-30T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Diseases and pests affecting field crops in Al-Shahimiyah district For the agricultural season (2021-2022) 2022-11-10T20:46:21+03:00 Emad Jaber Aflouk Al-Quraishi <div> <p>The research deals with an important topic related to agricultural production and the negative influences that impede the progress of the agricultural process represented by pests and diseases , The first topic included the geographical distribution of field crops and the quantity of production of each crop, while the second topic included a study of one of the problems facing agricultural production for field crops in the Shehimiyah district during the season, Agricultural crops (2021-2022) as well as treatment methods for the purpose of achieving high levels of production for field crops, the research reveals diseases and pests that affect those crops within the study area and their role in the weak production quantities of those crops, The research also showed the reasons that bear the emergence of these life factors, whether natural or human, It reached (3093) dunums and a productivity of (1817) tons / year, The mung crop is also grown with a small area compared to the barbecued grains, which amounted to (4927) dunums and a production amount of (1552) tons / year, Also, the millet crop is grown with an area of (1090) dunums and a productivity of which reached (406) tons/year, while the areas allocated to grain cultivation vary within the agricultural provinces, The research also showed the areas affected by pests, as the study area recorded a number of them (spiders, sunnah, aphids) with an infected agricultural area amounting to (1398) dunums, as for diseases, the infection was recorded (rust, smut, and leaf streaks) with an infected agricultural area amounting to (924) dunums.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2022-11-30T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 The Philosophical Meaning in Sufi Experience AL- Niffari as a Model 2022-11-10T20:50:20+03:00 Ruaa Zubair Abduljabbar Muthana Yaseen Saleh <div> <p>Al-Niffari’s Sufi experience is a unique experience in the world of Sufism, as it is an intensely intense experience, permeated with feelings of pain, hope, patience and longing, expressed in a symbolic language of high level of great impact. This mystical experience is based in its deep essence on the event of the (waqf) as the complete annihilation in the absolute and the unity of the witnesses.The study aims to describe and analyze the meanings of this unique experience, a thinking analysis that transcends a premature logical analysis that is unable to comprehend the sublime existential meanings of the distinctive mystical experience of Al-Niffari.In the first topic (Phrase and Meaning) we tried to analyze the symbolic language of the nebulous text as a comprehensive symbolism of the essence of the existential truth, a symbolism whose captives are not revealed except by a retrospective reading of the escalating movement of thought. Then, in a subsequent paragraph, we shed light on the intended meanings of the patient indulgence of Al-Niffari in the experience of the pause, trying to define his mystical doctrine accurately.In the second topic (theoretical mysticism - mysticism and knowledge) we analyzed the relationship between the mystical experience and knowledge through a structural deconstruction of the nature of the event of the pause, then in a second paragraph we analyzed the hierarchy of concepts: science and knowledge in the light of the concept of spiritual advancement as the literature of thought and conscience. In the third paragraph, we analyzed the relationship of the pause to time or the pause between permanence and separation, leading to the discovery of the currentness of the event of the pause, that is, permanence as an unremitting resistance and an unfulfilled crossing...As for the third and final topic, we have devoted it to analyzing the basic distinction between a pause in terms of an event, and a pause in terms of a science. In the first paragraph, this distinction was confirmed and confirmed after establishing the original hierarchy between two different types of existence, leading to an understanding of the pause experience as the absolute void. In the second paragraph, we discussed the form of perception that is organically compatible with the essence of this creative experience. In the last paragraph, we analyzed the concept of a major pause as a transgression of all mediation</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2022-11-30T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 The manifestations of poetic discourse among pre-Islamic and early Islamic veterans 2022-11-10T20:54:33+03:00 Saddam Ali Saleh Al-Farraji <div> <p>The research aims to study the poetic text of veteran poets by showing the role of the poet in the environment in which he lived, and the research also tries to draw the features of poetic discourse through the data of the times and the events that took place in it, as the features of that discourse change to draw the structure of the poetic text expressive of events The times and the aspirations of poets in embodying their desires and defending their ideas and beliefs. Therefore, we find that poetic discourse differed between the two times, so it came to express the emerging thought adopted by the owners of each era. Moreover, we find poets, especially the poets of the era of Islam, have come out of the tribal nervous circle to replace it with the nervousness of religion. Here, the power of the will is manifested by those who believe in them in rejecting all that they lived for earlier to take a new behavior in which they discharge from all those who violated their approach and belief.In this, I have chosen to take the purposes of Arab poetry as a door to access poetic discourse through which the strength of the word on which the text is based, using the poetic production of the veterans of pre -Islamic and the Sadr of Islam. And how this withdrew from the poet’s speech, and I used to extrapolate the texts and analyze them to reach the power of the discourse of the veteran in both of the two times</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2022-11-30T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 The Concept of Sharing in ( Faail , Tafaul and Iftial) A Semantic and Morphological Study 2022-11-10T20:58:28+03:00 Rafid Hameed Swedan <div> <p>The idea of this research was established when I saw the multiplicity of formulas with one meaning, and I chose three formulas, which are combined with the meaning of participation, which are (doer, interaction and feat), but the difference between them is in terms of expressing that intended, as expressing one meaning with more than one phrase that contradicts the vocabulary One of the two vocabulary has a meaning in terms of the situation, in addition to the contrast of its expressions, used in the speech of the Arabs, and the expression of one intent, due to the difference in the multiplicity of formulas, is a prominent feature in our Arabic language, and since the meaning of participation fell from these three forms, I mean (active, interacting, and creating), I wanted to reveal how this expression is and what is related to it, and how the meaning of participation takes place in different forms and structures, and the meaning of all of them is one. And when the research contained three formulas, each of them was made into a special topic, preceded by an introduction and followed by a conclusion. And since the forms are three, each of them is made into a topic, so the form (subjective) was the first topic, and I indicated that it comes to several meanings, then I spoke about it in terms of it being intransitive and then becoming transitive with this thousand to something else. As for the second topic, it was for the form (interact), which differentiates from a subject from the faces I talked about, then I mentioned that there is a common denominator between the two forms, which is the side of the meaning, then I moved to talk about the construction of (interact) missing from the construction of (subject) an object, and I mentioned provisions consequent to this deficiency. As for the third topic, it was devoted to the formula (contend), which shares with the two forms in the general sense of participation, but this formula was developed for multiple participants in the origin of the verb. Then the research concluded with its findings.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2022-11-30T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Escape in Verbs (morphological study) 2022-11-10T21:03:18+03:00 Intisar Muhammad Bustan Al-Saidi Munther Ibrahim Hussein Al-Helli <div> <p>Among what we can deduce from the structure of the triple-abstract verb and more is that escape occurs in verbs as it occurs in nouns, and its purpose is to clarify the intended meaning in order to facilitate the attainment of the meaning and what the Arabs were accustomed to from escaping from the ambiguous form to the intelligible form. The situation once comes for reasons related to what the sentence leads to and according to the rules and regulations of the Arabic language through which escape occurs from one linguistic state to another based on what we mentioned of the reasons for escape, namely: fleeing from one movement to another movement as stated in the flee from the letter (waw to yaa) and from (waw to Alif) and the cause of fleeing from weight to lightness, fleeing from one structure to another, and the reason for fleeing is removing confusion, fleeing from one form to another with the intention of clarification, fleeing from one Bedouin to another. The first to notice the phenomenon of flight as a linguistic phenomenon (Sibawayh) in the book in different places and the reason for it and made it a linguistic phenomenon worthy of research and study in order to preserve the language of the Arabs and its value as the language of the Holy Qur’an, which is the clear challenge that came to the Arabic language and its arts.The researcher found that not all morphological weights have escape, but rather the weights that we mentioned in the body of the research</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2022-11-30T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Authority in the novel (A Bird from the East) by Tawfiq Al-Hakim 2022-11-10T21:08:45+03:00 Mousa Alqaisy Ahmed Aldadah <div> <p>The research deals with (Authority); as multiple humanitarian relationships of all kinds, methods of forming, work mechanisms, and the organizational principle directed to them. It thus constitutes a cultural system, which includes patterns of conflicting powers, between (the ego) and (the other) with its various manifestations, which rise on the basis of directing and control in exchange for wavering and submission. The search approached the novel (A Bird from the East) by the great writer ( Tawfiq al-Hakim ); it is considered as a text, or a space to occupy the topic (Authority), and the importance of this novel, which was written in 1938 AD, comes from the fact that it is the first Arab novel that was exposed to the civilizational relations between East and West, in addition to its hoarding of basic cultural contents. It tried to draw patterns of the antagonistic (cosmic) relationship between the West and The Islamic world, the (internal) relations between the members of their people and their authoritarian institutions, as well as the reality of the novel as it is classified as a narrative (autobiographical), its author is its hero who lived its facts and scenes in (Cairo / Egypt) and (Paris / France) to be these two capitals the two prominent representatives of East and West, and of the (authoritarian) relationship formulas between them. The study aims from its approach to the novelistic text, to reveal the structure of (the central western culture), and to observe the relations of domination and the types that it exercises towards the (other) and the consequences of that Following the path of the narrative events, and reading their (authoritarian) cultural context, necessitated that the research plan be based on three pivots: The first pivot: the authority of civilization, which is classified into: 1- Colonialism 2- Capitalism and Socialism 3- Time and place. The second pivot was entitled with: The Authority of Religion, as it is divided into: 1. The Church. 2. Lady Zainab (peace upon her). 3. Criticism of religious thought. Third pivot was formed by the authority of love, which was based on three moments: 1- The moment of purification. 2- The moment of sin. 3- The moment of shock Thus, the research plan created a coherent path stemming from the body of the study, and a true representative of it at the level of topics and their hierarchy. Pursuing the qualitative development of images of multiple authority in the novelistic achievement.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2022-11-30T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Multiple significance of the tool and its impact on Quranic expression A procedural study in the book of al-Amali by Ibn al-Shjari (d. 542 AH) 2022-11-10T21:13:38+03:00 Mohamed Ahmed Zaki Al-Marzouk <div> <p>Praise be to God. We praise Him, thank Him, seek His help, seek guidance, and seek His forgiveness, and may blessings and peace be upon our Master and our Master, the beloved Messenger Muhammad, may God’s prayers and peace be upon him, and upon his good and good family, and those who followed them with goodness until the Day of Judgment. Therefore, the numerous studies came to include the Noble Qur’an and the Prophet’s hadith, and many books were written in language and grammar. Grammarians divided speech into a noun, verb, and letter, and identified all its characteristics and features. It is the third part of the word, and by it the beauty of language is known and by it is the understanding of methods. It has many connotations and meanings. In fact, it has in the different linguistic structures of cults and secrets that do not appear except with it, so scholars turned to study it, and some of them specialized independent books for that, such as the one made by Abu Al-Hasan Al-Ramani in (The Meanings of the Letters), Abu Al-Qasim Al-Zajji in (The Letters of Meanings), and Abu Al-Hassan Al-Harawi in “Azha fi Al-Alam Al-Hroof” and Hassan Bin Qasim Al-Muradi in “Al-Jana Al-Dani fi Al-Hroof Al-Ma’ani” Rather, some of them singled out a single letter in a separate book, such as Al-Zajazi in (Al-Lamat) and Ibn Khalawayh in (Al-Alif). It is known that the grammarians studied (the letters) in their works that research the rules of Arabic, and they referred to them within the topics of which the letter is a part, and participated in the study of letters in their books, linguists, rhetoricians, interpreters, scholars of origins, and commentators of literary and religious texts. The grammatical and literary books of Al-Amali were not immune from this trend, as their compilers addressed the study of letters and clarifying their meanings, types and related matters, despite the difference between them in terms of brevity and length. My choice was signed on the book Al-Amali by Ibn Al-Shjari; Because this book can be considered one of the books of Quranic studies, where Ibn Al-Shjari simplified in it many issues from the interpretation of the Noble Qur’an, its parsing, its omission and its problem. In addition to that Ibn al-Shjari is considered one of the most important who dealt with the study of the meanings of letters, their meanings, their work and evidence, and the entry of some of them in the place of others. Ma), and then held a chapter in the seventieth council to enter the lowering letters, some of them in place of each other, and Ibn Al-Shjari came with many evidences from the Holy Qur’an that are useful in the field of Qur’anic studies. I ended it with a conclusion in which I explained the most important thing I wanted from writing this research</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2022-11-30T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 The village as a hero in the novel The Wedding of Zein - by Tayeb Salih 2022-11-10T21:17:12+03:00 Raed Kazem Sabr Al-Nafi'I <div> <p>The Sudanese novel deserves special attention, not only because of its objectively deep connection with the countryside to the point of historical unification, its origin and extension, but we find that it paints the Sudanese countryside a special and distinct picture. The Sudanese novel was able to transcend being a social issue, and no matter how bravely it is characterized by the courage of opinion and the boldness of criticism, it is a historical sign and a brave stance rather than a viable artistic achievement. Successive Tayeb Salih is the most famous in Sudan.As for the specificity and distinction in the Sudanese novel, it means another matter that we hardly find in other areas of Arab activity in the field of fiction, due to the wideness of the Sudanese geographical area and the diversity of nature between the valley, the desert and the forest, and the different origins and races and their mixing between Arab and Negro, as well as the independence stage and what followed it from Conflicts, especially those related to religious, clan, or racial roots. Perhaps these elements were a positive influence in emphasizing the specificity and distinction of the Sudanese novel through its journey between the village and the city. The idea of the research is based on elucidating the meanings of the heroism of the Sudanese village in the novel (The Wedding of Al-Zein). The village is present throughout the narration and the transmission of events with the finding of interdependence and the degree of similarity between the hero and the village, which was characterized by its realistic and sometimes miraculous character. It serves as an icon of the event and an incubator for the characters, and the narrator's strong attachment to the village made it a hidden jewel that needs accuracy tracking to discover it. The spatial distinction is not enough, but the narrator’s sensitivity and degree of sincerity in research or diving behind distinct elements, and he was not coordinated behind the prevailing ideas and patterns</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2022-11-30T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Towards Ibn Kharouf's (609 AH) grammar in the though of Abi Hayyan Al-Andalusi ( 745 AH) - an objection- 2022-11-10T21:21:12+03:00 Duaa Nafeh Badri Kadhum Saleh Kazem Al-Jubouri <div> <p>Ibn Kharouf is considered one of the most famous grammarians in Andalusia, especially in the seventh century AH. In Andalusia, this research included the views of Ibn Kharouf and the objections of Abu Hayyan to him, as well as presenting his views on the grammatical heritage, and clarifying the position of the grammarians on their views. In my research I dealt with this (Ibn Kharouf's Grammar in the thought of Abu Hayyan as an objection), dividing it into two sections.As for methodical in this research, he was descriptive-analytical approach. This research was not devoid of the researcher's opinion. In each issue, she presented her opinion by balancing the opinions of Ibn Kharouf and Abi Hayyan, and giving preference to one of the opinions they alsueubat alati wajahatni fi hadha albahth fahi sueubat haqiqiatun, waminha: - kathrat mualafat 'abi hyan wakathrat wurud asm abn kharuf fiha mimaa 'akhadh wqtan twylan fi jardiha wastiqsayiha.- wamin alsueubat aydan ann 'aba hyan fi baed mualafatih yastaemil rmwzan lil'aelam mithl (fa) yarmiz biha liabn kharuf, wa(s) lisibuihi, wa(fa) lilfarsi, wa(fi) lilsiyrafi, wa(s) liabn eusfurin, wa(ta) liabn altarawati, waghayriha min alrumuza, bihayth yajeal albahith fi hyrat min 'amrihi, wahi sueubat haqiqiatun. In conclusion, the researcher concluded in this research a set of results, the most important of which are:• That in this research there are interruptions to Abu Hayyan on what Ibn Kharouf went to in the issues that we discussed in this study, and his evidence in his objection is listening and analogy; Because they are the two strongest grammatical assets.• That Abu Hayyan has used a stylistic diversity in many terms, namely: (this is what he went to is false), or (contrary to hearing), or (corrupt), or (what he went to is wrong). And other results reached by the researcher.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2022-11-30T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 The wines of the minister Muhammad bin Abdul Malik Al-Zayat 2022-11-10T21:27:23+03:00 Elaf Adnan Haidar Hana Jawad Abdel Sada <div> <p>The Arabs have known wine since ancient times, and drinking wine became widespread among the classes of society in the Arabian Peninsula, because it was in particular one of the pride of the Arab masters and its scarcity and exorbitant prices. As for the Abbasid era, the changes reached a great extent in terms of life and society, and the spirit of the new era was reflected in the poetry of the winery. Then, the development of life has allowed the existence of suitable places for fun and conviviality, and the wine has become one of the advanced poetic arts, as it began to be simple in the life of the ignorant. It resonated widely and did not develop until the Abbasid era, and with the beginning of the second century AH, the talk about drinking wine among poets of this century became an art, as he left the image of Bedouin and simplicity to other forms of ancient To complicate it to arrive in its optimal form of craftsmanship and complexity from Muslim bin Al-Walid, then it reaches its peak in the beauty of the formulation and the novelty of the subject according to Abu Nawas. The field is balanced and free from immorality and immorality, and it may be immersed in blatant promiscuity. Before assuming the ministry, al-Zayyat lived a lame life. Zayat described these councils accompanied by his owner and the chief of the council named (Yahya). The truth is that al-Zayyat clearly reflected the prevailing ideas and behaviors in the councils of the upper classes. In society, he depicted scenes of decadence, luxury, and elegant immorality that angered the majority of Muslim scholars. Al-Zayat referred to the reasons for drinking wine, which represented him the refuge and the home to which he would flee. The liquor was made with it, its aging and its drinkers, and then it came to the zayat to separate what was going on in those councils in a language filled with passion, degrading, pornography and incitement to commit sins. The door of his divine life through it, for this became for the wine poets a new civilized and life value that has its components, customs and fees that they are keen on. In Al-Zayyat's poetry, it appeared in an image similar to the image of wine in his time, which was close to the stereotype.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2022-11-30T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 The impact of the Russian Formalists on structuralism 2022-11-10T21:57:26+03:00 Saad Ali Jaafar Almorebb <div> <p>It was the emergence of the school of Russian Formalists as a reaction to subjectivism and symbolism, which itself confronted the realist and ideological criticism of liberal thinkers in the nineteenth century, one of its most important members was Roman Jacobson.The research of this school in Russia at the beginning of the twentieth century, and the effect of the formalists on structuralism was represented by some principles and concepts such as the concept of form, the study of the literary work in itself, the recognition of the principle of intertextuality, the interest in poetic rhythm, the direction of the literary text, the concept of hegemony, the linguistic analysis of literature, the morphological approach in dealing with the story, and others, As for the most important criticisms directed at formal structuralism, because of the use of scientific language, they eliminated from the analysis the psychological and aesthetic aspects and the detachment of the literary work from its artistic and emotional contents with the poverty of the literary image and its interest in the particulars without the totality of literary work and the use of the concept of structure, which reaches the philosophy of human death, as well as their belief that formalism is a synchronic moment Neglect the circumstances accompanying the structure of the text as well as completely ignoring history, as well as isolating literary works from their authors</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2022-11-30T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 The structure of the function in the poetry of Al-Maarri 2022-11-12T12:50:07+03:00 Roaa Hameed Mandeel Hajim Mohammed Shakir Al-Rubaiee <div> <p>This critical study aims to stand on (the signifying structure in Al-Maarry’s poetry). So we searched through this mechanism in the poetic text in order to discover the inner world of that poetry, through the mechanism of comprehension set by Goldman, the researcher in the literary text in order to extract the thematic unity on which the text was built and thus traced the urgent structures within the text whose appearance formed a prominent pattern that was built She has his speech. The first section was under the title of the central structures, which depended on the linguistic base, and on the basis of their frequent occurrence and the frequency of their data and connotations, while the second section of it was the marginal structures and marked them with marginality because they are less frequent than the previous one, and their arrival forms a pattern and aesthetic emotions added to the structure of the text.The research revealed to us that the indicative structure in Al-Ma’arri’s poetry is characterized by the characteristic of comprehensiveness, as the overall context is the main tool for understanding the study of Al-Ma’arri’s poetry in the light of a conscious reading of his poetic text.The signifying structure in Al-Ma'arri's poetry was characterized by a supreme poetic language, which expressed a conscious understanding of the nature of the poetic text and the apparent and hidden connotations it carries.The emergence of semantic diversity of systemic structures in Al-Maarri’s poetry and its content of alienation structure, mental and logical structure, and religious structure is the best evidence of the merging of his personal vision with the societal vision, and we transform it into a comprehensive vision that is more in harmony with the data of the general vision. This is consistent with the (Goldmani) subtraction of the concept of function structure.The importance of urgent structures is evident in Al-Maarri's poetry as an important semantic system that dominated most of his poetic production, because of its serious importance and ideological, religious and political dimensions at that stage.Despite the dominance of the central structures in the poetic content of Al-Ma’arri, we find, on the other hand, other marginal structures that differ in poetic content from one text to another, expressing the experiences and moods of individuals, but in fact they are structures that are no less important than the central structures because they have an aesthetic dimension, and gave literary criticism a criterion Differentiate between the two structures and identify the differences and similarities between them.The research revealed to us the importance of the opposite structures in the poetic texts of Al-Ma’ari, and the role they play in moving the perceptual level of the recipient, and working to capture the difference, synonymy and contradiction in the one semantic level.Contrasting formed a semantic theme with a purposeful poetic pattern in Al-Ma’arri’s poetic texts, which made him work to employ opposing dualities in its various contents, for purposes and goals that are more than aesthetic and expressive.Employing the property of semantic antagonism has goals and objectives greater than what is shown by the single meaning, and this is what is diagnosed by formative structuralism through class awareness and understanding of social reality and its loads in perceiving, understanding and interpreting the text. The importance of the semantic structure in Al-Maarri’s poetry is reflected in the satirical monetary structure that is able to influence the facts of reality. The interior of that poetry, through textual structures and in a central and marginal state represented in his poetry</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2022-11-30T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Conditional sentence Its composition and classification between the ancients and the moderns 2022-11-12T12:56:08+03:00 Majid Mohammadi Hamza Salman Obais Al-Khafaji <div> <p>The subject of the condition is one of the most controversial grammatical issues among grammarians, and their controversy is limited to two issues: 1- The conditional sentence is classified, in that it is classified as one of the categories of the Arabic sentence, that is, it solves a separate space by itself, and can it be counted as one sentence, or it consists of two sentences. 2- Terminology of the condition and its multiple concepts. Before classifying the conditional sentence, we must know the difference between speech and sentence. Where a group of grammarians went to the fact that speech and sentence are terms with one meaning, there is no difference between them, and among these grammarians (Ibn Jinni - d. 392 AH) by saying ((As for speech, every word is independent of itself useful for its meaning, and it is what grammarians call the sentences, towards ((Zayd your brother and Muhammad stood)). And in another place ((speech is sentences that are independent of their mortal selves from others)). This research includes the subject of the conditional sentence, its structure and elements, to extract grammatical connotations and anticipate its multiple dimensions. Association in the answer condition. Through this presentation, the idea becomes clear as the question that circulated in the researcher’s imagination, which is the elements of artistic creativity and the semantic and aesthetic characteristics of the conditional sentence, and thus the research hypothesis that the conditional sentence has grammatical connotations and rhetorical formulations that allow the creator an unlimited amount of replacement with expressive forms as manifestations becomes clear. The aesthetic highlights are very deep, taking into account the opinions of the respected specialists. The aim of this research is to clarify and clarify the grammatical and rhetorical pillars of the conditional sentence and to unveil some of its artistic dimensions in the service of Arabic literature and lovers of the language of Dhad.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2022-11-30T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 The Cave meeting between the Prophet and Gabriel / an analytical historical study during of the term Al- Faragh Al-Rwaei 2022-11-12T13:02:24+03:00 Razak Hussein Abd Moeen <div> <p>The spiritual aspects of the Noble Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him and his family) were ambiguous to the vast majority of his contemporaries. He was commanded with respect and praise before he was cracked by the call to God; He is known for his honesty and trustworthiness among the entire Meccan community. They are in fact a pagan society related to the world of finance and business only. But as soon as his human and creedal existence and his sincere call touched the essence of the pagan and polytheistic existence of society, they began to question it in any available way in order to look at the extent to which those methods corresponded to the honor of antagonism. Among the most important accusations is the attempt to degrade the genius of the Prophet and target his overwhelming success in attracting people to his side, as they found no choice but to question him by accusing him of illiteracy and lack of reading and writing. In order to focus this matter on it, it was necessary to perfect this accusation in a way that seemed convincing to the recipients, so the prohibition of Quranic interpretation was used as a tool to prove illiteracy; By relying on the apparent meanings of the Qur’anic verses (which need interpretation to be understood and placed within an acceptable rational understanding). Those verses were enough to prove this distorted. On the other hand, fictional texts were used with their attribution to people who are respected by an important segment of Muslims, as they took advantage of their position among the people; To focus this matter, such as Mrs. Aisha, who was alone in the company of Urwa bin Al-Zubayr (her sister’s son) and Muhammad bin Al-Nu’man bin Bashir in the story of the event, and it was not proven that the Prophet spoke to them about the matter and explained to them what that meeting was. This accusation was not sufficient unless it came in the context of an ignorant and illiterate social environment, which is very important in order to generate the conviction that the Prophet did not read or write and that he was inevitably affected by that environment. Also; in support of this idea. But what is proven is that the Arabs - at least - the settled ones among them are familiar with reading and writing, as they are a commercial nation, it is not at all unreasonable not to write down at all, in addition to the fact that the Qur’anic discourse was explicit in focusing on reading and writing, as the two words and their roots were mentioned hundreds of times. Also, there is anecdotal evidence indicating that the Prophet ordered some of his companions to write the names of the first Muslims in Mecca, which means, in one way or another, that writing is a common thing.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2022-11-30T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 A masterpiece for those wishing to explain the order of the plagues Abi Yahya Zakaria bin Muhammad bin Ahmed bin Zakariya Al-Ansari Al-Khazraji (d. 926 AH / 1520 AD) 2022-11-12T13:06:21+03:00 Majid Abid Zaid Ahmed Alkhzraji <div> <p>Because of the importance of the manuscript “Tuhfat Al-Thaqariya fi Al-Thawaa’ li'abi Al-Fawa’i” by Abu Yahya Zakaria Bin Muhammad Al-Ansari, 824 A.H. 1520 AD), he was born in the year eight hundred and twenty-six in Seneca from the eastern part of a poor family, grew up in it and memorized the Qur’an. Al-Badrashi, Al-Shehab bin Al-Majdi, Al-Badr Al-Nasabah, Al-Bushanji, Al-Hafiz Ibn Hajar, Al-Sharaf Al-Manawi, and he took from Al-Kafiji, Ibn Al-Hammam, and countless many, then returned to his town Snake, and returned again to Cairo. He excelled in all other sciences of Sharia, such as interpretation, hadith, doctrine, jurisprudence, mysticism, language and logic.He taught several schools, including the Sheikh of Salihah and Khanaqah a Sufi until he was promoted to the position of judges after many abstentions, in Rajab in the year eighty-six and he continued as a judge for the term of the mandate of Al-Ashraf Qaytbay and lasted as a judge of Qoqadas for twenty years until Sultan Qansuh Al-Ghouri dismissed him in 906 AH, and he is still a lieutenant in teaching and issuing fatwas. And classification and innumerable creatures benefited from it) he is one of the notables of the eighth and ninth centuries AH, and therefore he took an important share of books to collect the material he formulated in this book, which gives him a clear picture about the authors who preceded him, as well as another reason which is that the author incorporated the religious aspect In writing with the historical aspect, he relied on what he had collected from the narrative heritage</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2022-11-30T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 King Dara I campaign ( 522 – 486 BC ) To the Scythian and Ionian tribes 2022-11-12T13:13:26+03:00 Mohamed Ganem Hamoud Fadhil Kadhim Hannoon <div> <p>This study, tagged with (King Dara I's campaign] 522-486 BC [towards the Ascythian and Ionian tribes) aims to shed light on the events that accompanied King Dara I's campaign to control these tribes and countries and subject them to the rule of the Achaemenid state and to discuss the difference in the date of the occurrence of these campaigns, And the king’s policy to expand the area of the Achaemenid state using various methods, with the aim of expanding the influence of the Achaemenid state, increasing the volume of trade exchange, and preventing them from raiding the Achaemenid state. Dara on the country of the Scythians based on the accounts of Herodotus, which contained much information about King Dara's campaign to this country, Herodotus put his cautionary touches when he counted the actions of the king Dara among the new deeds, as no king of all the kings of the ancient Near East had preceded him, As for the Ionian revolution that occurred in 499 BC, one of its main causes was the resentment of the Ionians against the existing regime at the time (the regime of tyrants) and the support of the Achaemenids and their support for this regime. The rise of this revolution did not affect the expansionist policy of King Dara, and he was able to eliminate it after seven years , and return things better than they were, as he established a democratic system for the Ionians, and King Dara invaded the Greek cities that participated in the burning of Sardis. He enslaved Eritrea and invaded Athens, but lost the battle of Marathon (490 BC), and that the lack of luck for King Dara I in his campaign against the Scythians, which prompted the Ionian cities to declare their revolution against him, and it was a great challenge to him, which made him prepare his army again and enabled him to defeat the Ionian cities and punish the Greek tyrants who revolted against him</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2022-11-30T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Issa bin Subaih Al-Mardar and his impact on blogging 2022-11-12T13:19:35+03:00 Iintisar latif hasan Faten Kamel Shaheen <div> <p>The Mu'tazila is a religious movement that was founded in Basra in the first quarter of the second century AH / eighth century AD, by Wasil bin Ataa (d. 131 AH / 748 AD), and after that it became one of the most important theological schools in Islam. In explaining their doctrine, the Mu'tazilites rely on irrefutable evidence, not imitation, the foremost of which is the evidence of the intellect that distinguishes between good and bad and by which it is known that the Book is an argument, as well as the Sunnah and consensus. They prioritize reason because Allah Almighty did not address only the people of reason. And since the Mu'tazila school appeared at that time, which is considered one of the advanced scientific and literary centers in the Arab Islamic state, where the general atmosphere was saturated with the effects of different cultures. In addition, the era of retirement was characterized by being an era of controversy, discussion and victory for one opinion received for another opinion. At a time when the conflicts were at the most intense between the various intellectual currents, where we find on the one hand that Muslims want the whole world to condemn their book, and the followers of other religions want to defend their religion in the face of this newly coming thought. As a result of these differences, the Mu’tazila had assets and opinions that were unique to their men, and their division into groups. Each group tried to connect their group with the “Messenger of Allah” and his companions, and the reason for that was to clarify that their opinions were not new, but rather belonged to the author of the message, and what his companions were upon, and that is what each of those did.” Al-Qadhy Abdul-Jabbar and “Ibn Al-Murtada” as they divided them into ten classes, and among them was the subject of our research, Abu Musa Issa bin Subaih Aba Al-Mardar, to whom the credit is due for the spread of the Mu’tazila in Baghdad.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2022-11-30T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 The interrelationship between a man and a woman and its impact In prehistoric times (Mesopotamia as a model) 2022-11-12T13:26:13+03:00 Ahmed habeeb Sunaid Al-Fatlawy <div> <p>The importance of the research is to provide scientific information that deals with the issue of the interrelationship between men and women in the lives of the peoples that lived in northern Mesopotamia in prehistoric times, and traces the extent of its impact on their social, economic and religious lives by relying on archaeological evidence from reliable archaeological and non-archaeological sources from The scientific aspect, with regard to its impact on the social aspect, we find that sexual communalism was the one that prevailed in the Old Stone Age. There was no society in the strict sense of the concept of society. Rather, it was a kind of gathering. The same thing applies to the emergence of the family in its social, not sexual, concept. Society and social life This new social stage extended in Mesopotamia between the end of the Middle Stone Age and the Neolithic age, and the increase in population density was accompanied by a remarkable prosperity in the economic aspect. group members and a decline in the type and quantity of food, so the earth had reached the maximum capacity it could bear from humans, but it did not find In front of them, these groups searching for food will inevitably increase the quantities of plants that they feed on by turning them into food producers by planting it in the area from which they used to feed. To ensure the continuity and strength of his societies, so we find that man is a slave to fertility and everything that helps in the abundance of production in life. He symbolized this worship by statues of the mother goddess. Later he found that the phenomenon of fertility in nature belongs to two active elements, namely the male and female element, so the man began to participate in the fertility doctrine</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2022-11-30T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Tudmair : The city of revolutions against the Umayyad rule in Andalusia 2022-11-12T13:44:02+03:00 Ahmed Dahib Hadi <div> <p>The research touched on the city of Tadmur and the regions from which this city was formed, with going into some of its details. Part of our study to deal with its bounties (minerals, orchards and rivers), in addition to the human abundance represented by the population, and these two features were credited with the richness and prosperity of Andalusia, in addition to that, these played a role in providing the people of Andalusia with a large number of agricultural crops that they need, As a result of the abundance of rivers that encouraged people to produce agricultural yields and dysfunctional fruits, and this is what encouraged some leaders to revolts and try to break away from the Umayyad rule (163 AH-422 AH / 779 AD-1030 AD), with mentioning the reasons that led to these revolutions and their results, and the research showed that The reason for these revolutions is due to the desire of some of its leaders to secede and monopolize the rule in it, and to seize its resources and human resources, as well as the Umayyad rulers’ lack of interest in their subjects in the city, which motivated the people to support the revolutionaries against the Umayyad rule, due to the violent sedition. The Yamani tribe moved to Andalusia, which indicates that tribal fanaticism did not leave the Muslims, but rather remained with them wherever they pleased, in addition to the presence of parties working to fuel it whenever their interest required it.We also do not forget the role of the Carolingians who encouraged these revolutions and their continuous support for the opposition movements with weapons and money on the one hand, and on the other hand, the support of the separatists in order to destabilize the situation inside the Andalusian cities, especially destruction, for the purpose of achieving their goal of controlling the country with minimal losses, especially since this part From Andalusia is famous for the abundance of silver metal; Therefore, all parties tried hard to control Tadmur to benefit from its wealth.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2022-11-30T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 The poetics of the fairy tale and its role in modeling the characters of the texts in child’s theatre 2022-11-12T13:49:39+03:00 Maitham Fadhel Abdul Ameer <div> <p>In summary, the study tackles the poetic style in the fairy tale which played an important role in building symbolic characters capable of mimicking reality with an unusual fantasy style having a significant impact on the child’s imagination and stimulating him and/ or her to reproduce these fairy characters but in real world via imitation in the explicit behavior of the intended content; hence, the title The poetics of the fairy tale and its role in modeling the characters of the texts in child’s theatre. The paper has four main chapters: Chapter One (The theoretical framework) initiates with the problem of the research centering on the question: what is the poetics in the fairy tale and its role in modeling the characters of the texts in child’s theatre? The paper sheds light on the significance of the research as it studies modeling the characters in the texts of the child’s theatre using the literary approach in comparing (The poetic method) as a stylistic approach with (The fairy tale) in need. This study, of course, benefits the writers and specialists in child’s theater literature in adopting the technical rules to create a dramatic picture that matches the imagination of this important category. The paper aims to identify (The poetics of the fairy tale and its role in modeling the characters of the texts in child’s theatre). The paper limits are: temporally: 2010- 2011, spatially: global, thematically: (The poetics of the fairy tale and its role in modeling the characters of the texts in child’s theatre), in addition to defining terminology and procedural definitions. The second chapter (The theoretical framework) dealt with two topics: the first topic: (The poetics, the concept, and the transfigurations). The second topic tackled (The fairy tale in the writings of child’s literature). This topic included a line in which the researcher tracked (the typical character’s poetics in the texts of the child’s theater). The researcher devoted the third chapter to the research procedures, in which the research community was identified as including (20) twenty theatrical texts. The research sample was chosen by the intentional method, and it was represented by the play text (The tale of the Rooster Sayyah) written by (Hussein Ali Haarif). The researcher adopted the (Descriptive) method in analyzing the sample concluding the paper by mentioning the results that were nominated from the analysis of the research sample, the most important of which are:1.The typical character in the theatrical text mediated both ends of the reality/imagination dichotomy: (The rooster: speaks, sings, disguises, gives advice), and this has led to the absence of a pure match between the deep structure (content or essence) and the superficial structure (form) of the theatrical text.2.The mythical animal character (The Rooster Sayyah) contributed to the consolidation of the so-called break (the gap: the tension distance) and this resulted in the formation of a positive (mental image) in the child’s mind of values that this character carries, reproducible in practical behavior through simulation and imitation.Also, this chapter contains a number of conclusions, a list of resources and an appendix in which the researcher shows the research community.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2022-11-30T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 The effect of the stability of the stucco decorations of samara on the stucco decoration of the late abbaside A comparative study with the stucco decorations in the city of Balad Eski Mosul (Models from the Iraqi Museum ) 2022-11-13T06:45:23+03:00 Emad Mahdi Hassan <div> <p>Plaster is one of the materials that man has used since ancient times to clad walls and decorate them with ornaments due to the characteristic of this material of pure whiteness that attracts attention with the ease of obtaining it from nature at the lowest cost. In the palaces and houses of Samarra, we appeared in the houses and palaces of Samarra. During the Islamic era, thanks to the decorative spirit that characterized Islamic arts, stucco decorations reached a great artistic level that almost rivaled the status of other ceramics. The stucco decorations witnessed a great leap during the construction of the new Abbasid capital, Samarra, because the great speed with which the Caliph Al-Mu`tasim Billah wanted to complete the construction and decoration works in it. Casting in the mold that the prevailing decorative elements in all of them are intertwined geometric elements and plant motifs representing leaves, fruits, half-palm fans and grape clusters. Engraving on plaster, as these artistic styles left a clear impact in the later ages. I was able to trace the emergence of these styles and study their development and the most prominent influences they left in the decorations executed in the late Abbasid era. The facades of the mihrabs are decorated in mosques. The artist relied in most cases on the decorative elements in the era of Samarra and used them on the decorations that were made. Its implementation, as the artist relied on the same artistic method in implementing the decorations on the plaster, which is vertical drilling and casting in the mold. Influenced by the second style, the palm leaf fan is centered on nature, and it is the third style style.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2022-11-30T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 The multiplicity of jurisprudential opinions regarding the symptoms that hinder the performance of obligatory duties in the time of epidemics 2022-11-13T06:52:59+03:00 Ismail Salem Saleh Al-Barzanji <div> <p>The multiplicity of opinions regarding the symptoms that hinder the performance of the obligatory duties during the time of the repentance The research aims to demonstrate the capacity of Islamic law and its inclusion in ease and relief from the nation by enumerating the jurisprudential opinions on the symptoms that hinder the performance of obligatory duties in the time of epidemics and the dangers that afflict nations and peoples and destroy them. This is the focus of our research.The Corona epidemic has occurred in the countries of the whole world, and it is a great epidemic that has gone out of the way and confined people in their homes, but in their rooms, even one house, in which rooms were made isolated, so we find only closed markets, empty roads, and mosques free of gathering and groups, and people are in fear, panic and frightening terror, the epidemic has affected On the details of the life of the whole world, he stopped people’s work, occupied them, disrupted their lives, stopped studying and prevented travel, and kept people apart, until I made them sit isolated in their homes, and stopped the world’s economy and caused the collapse of the economy of many countries until we found in some Western countries their citizens throwing their money in the roads because they realized Death and were unable to heal as if the resurrection was upon them.But the Muslims were not perplexed because they believe in God’s decree and destiny (Say, “Nothing will happen to us except what God has decreed for us.” Governments and Islamic countries have agreed to close mosques and prevent gatherings and groups, and to suffice with raising the call to prayer at the time of prayers. Disruption of mosques, rather the qiblah of worshipers, the Sacred House of God, was devoid of sects and worshipers, only the presence of the muezzins and the imam, in order to establish rituals and not to disable them completely and to remind people to return to God Almighty, because He alone is blessed and Almighty able to lift this epidemic and affliction, humanity is powerless with all its capabilities and scientific and medical energy from Finding a cure for this disease, so there is no escape from God except to Him (so flee to God).Through our research, we discuss the opinions of the jurists on this issue and clarify the most correct one. And God is the conciliator for what is right. I ask Him for help, extension, and payment</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2022-11-30T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 The Doctrinal Impact of Allamah Al-Hilli (726AH/1325AD) 2022-11-13T06:57:34+03:00 Ali Kareem Amra Quraishi <div> <p>Al-Hilli had an effective impact in the various arts of human knowledge, until he won titles that distinguished him from the scholars of the era such as Ayatollah, Sheikh of Islam, the great Imam Mujtahid Al-Allama. The students who took knowledge from him until their number exceeded more than (500 mujtahids) who influenced them through the change in the way of thinking that was reflected on his students, as well as his doctrinal ideological influence, which was clear when he presented his argument and proof of the correctness of what he believed in, and this is what happened In the court of Sultan Khoda Banda, in front of the audience of scholars from different Islamic sects, who were fascinated by the method of discussion with the presence of witness from Historical novels , Accordingly, he received acceptance and approval from the Sultan and from most of those present. As a result, the Sultan believed in Al-Hilli’s belief and doctrine and made it a doctrine of his sultanate. Then he began to spread the ideas and principles of the Imamate doctrine by establishing the car school that accompanies the Sultan on his travels, whether in peace or war, through which he authored many of the The books and this appears through what the scholar chronicles at the end of the book by month and year from the end of its composition. These books formed the intellectual dimension of the Shiite doctrine that nourished all the issues that the Sultan was objecting to in various ideological and legal aspects. . Allama Al-Hilli remained righteous in his city, Al-Hilla, Al-Fayhaa. If he left it, he did not hurry to return to it, until he died in it. His body was transported, as usual, loyal lovers to the land of Amir AL- muminin, Ali bin Abi Talib (peace be upon him) Al-Najaf, and he was buried close to him a few meters away, specifically under the northern minaret on the right of the entrance to the Haram Purgatory from the small door and his grave is visible to this day</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2022-11-30T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 THE ARGUMENTATIVE FACTORS IN THE FIGHTING VERSES IN THE HOLY QUR’AN 2022-11-13T07:01:15+03:00 Issa Qasim Hasan Ashwaq Mohammed Ismaiel Al-Najjar <div> <p>This research aims to study the argumentative factors in the fighting verses in the Holy Qur’an, and state their effectiveness in understanding the purpose of Quranic discourse. Since it is one of the key issues that underlies the process of discourse; in addition to its important in discourse orientation, the intended recipient contributes in recipient’s understanding of the discourse purposes; because it hastes in the process of linking the argument to the result in the mind of the recipient by eliminating all interpretations that accompany the discourse and being satisfied with the result that is appropriate to its context, and which would achieve persuasion in the communication process. The nature of the research necessitated a forward to indicate the function of argumentative factors in harnessing all argumentative potentials for the core issue in the discourse because the argumentative factor supports the argument, drawing attention to the implicit issue that exists in the discourse. Then the research touches on the grammar style “pleasance” among Arab scientists from different disciplines; its exclusive underlying functions in the discourse and restrictions contribute to fulfill the purpose of the discourse. Next, the research covers the argumentative factors in western linguistic studies that are exemplified in the work of Ducrot and Anscombre who argue that language fundamentally bears an argumentative trait. After that, in the practical section, the researcher analyzes the holy verses from the blog of research to clarify the impact of argumentative factors and their effectiveness on recipient’s understanding of the discourse purposes. Finally, the study concludes that argumentative factors have a demonstrable impact on fixing the time for jihad and fighting, confines it exclusively to an assault on the believers, and the faction should be fought</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2022-10-27T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 The Effect of the principles of the islamic law on the rules of the designation of judges in Iraq 2022-11-13T07:06:21+03:00 Mustafa Fahim Gezar Said Ali Rida Tabatabai <div> <p>The judge is a symbol of judicial justice because he must abstain from all behavior in his personal life, even if it is right in his own eyes. This task may be carried out by one judge, or it may be given to a group of judges known as (a judicial body). In this sense, the judge is the natural person who performs the role of the judiciary, and he needs a variety of qualities to be qualified for the tasks that are given to him. The Iraqi and Lebanese law stipulated a set of conditions that must be met by the judge, including those related to nationality by birth and age, that he must have completed twenty-eight years of age, not more than forty years, enjoy civil capacity, and not have been convicted of a felony or misdemeanor except for political crimes or misdemeanors affecting honor, and that he be of good conduct and reputation. Conditions related to testimony and dismissal from the Judicial Institute That he be a graduate of one of the recognized law faculties and that he has not previously been dismissed from the Judicial institute and others. The research problem appears in the conditions for recruitment and employing judges in Iraq and Lebanon. The aim of the research is to compare the appointment and employment of judges in Iraq and Lebanon, and to benefit from the experiences of the country in terms of the employment of judges and their ratio in the circumstances of the judge in relation to Islamic law. . In addition to academic excellence and the necessary training, a judge must possess specific qualities, such as intelligence, intuition, strong character, stamina, impartiality, and integrity, along with known moral qualities such as honor, integrity, courage, and respect for the dignity of others . We discussed the subject of the study through the comparative analytical research method between Iraqi and Lebanese law, and we reached a number of results, among which the Iraqi law did not stipulate the condition of Islam, and the Iraqi law did not explicitly</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2022-10-27T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022