Journal Of Babylon Center for Humanities Studies 2023-08-20T10:17:15+03:00 Open Journal Systems <p style="direction: ltr;">The journal is devoted to the publication of subjects of various human and linguistic specialties for the purpose of scientific and cultural publication as well as for the purposes of scientific promotions for academic staff. The journal publishes researches or articles in both Arabic and English and the journal aims to publish in other languages.</p> <p style="direction: ltr;">Journal Of Babylon Center for Humanities Studies is a official Journal issued by the Babylon Center for cultural and historical studies at the University of Babylon, and specializes in the deployment of research and academic articles in the fields of humanities and historical and cultural, Journal is published Quarterly, four times each year which it been edited by a panel scientific works on research Assessment sent where each search is sent to the management of the Journal is working on at least two experts in the evaluation of every aspect of it, and according to form designed for this purpose and we do not publish any articles or research without authorize of the deployment by our experts. </p> <p> </p> The concept of state philosophy among some Western philosophers 2023-07-11T13:35:32+03:00 Hassan Abd Ali Kazem Al-Taie <p>Philosophers were concerned with the concepts of the state and what this term means. Accordingly, each philosopher presented, according to his theory, a special definition of the concept of the state, and some of them differed from each other in presenting these concepts that explain this term, while some of them agreed on the meaning of the term state and what it indicates. Accordingly, the research touched on the most important concepts that some Western philosophers touched upon. The study of political thought is one of the important studies that the researcher must address and delve into some of its gaps. In this research, I touched on studying the concept of the state among some Western philosophers, and what is its concept from the point of view of each of the Western philosophers, from Plato to Marx. And the opinions of philosophers about the concept of the state, and what are the opinions of each philosopher about how the state arose, what it consists of, and what are its basics on which this state is built. The state, in its capacity as realism of the essential will, in fact, the reality that it receives in its own self-awareness that has been raised to the level of totality, is the rational in itself and for itself. This essential unity is its absolute end in itself, in which freedom obtains its highest value, and in this way this final end has a supreme right towards individuals, whose highest duty is to be members of the state</p> 2023-08-20T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 The Iraqi government's policy towards the Assyrians and the British position Including 1918-1933 2023-07-13T10:29:05+03:00 Ali Talib Obaid Al-Sultani <p>The major colonial countries took the pretext of protecting Christian minorities, as a tool to penetrate the affairs of states to achieve their goals and the many other interests to achieve their goals, and throughout them, and the quality of the presence of Christians in the Arab region permeated with tragedies that prompted them to become a people in despair for their future. The religious (patriarch), until immigration forced them to leave their mountains, and despite the political culture, he did not understand the solution of restoring the glories of the Assyrian empire, but that solution collided with a bitter reality, camp and they lived in Baquba camp near Baghdad, the divisions benefited the mandate forces that did not hesitate to intervene to benefit from the tribesmen The Assyrians formed armies and forces from them, a turbulent game between the British occupation authorities of Iraq, then this small people was neglected and excluded from the theater of politics and decision, which prompted us to shed light on an example of that, which is the policy of the Iraqi government towards the Assyrians and the British position towards it 1918-1933. There is no other British position in Persia, Iraq, and Turkey until the year 1918, and the second axis discussed the British Center the First World War, which issued the third and final axis concerned with the period that ends the World War until the year 1933, when the Simele massacre took place against them</p> 2023-08-20T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 The development of trade relations between Egypt and the Nile Basin countries since 2014 2023-07-13T12:39:06+03:00 Anesa Abd El Hafeez El basal <p>The Egyptian authorities have worked to develop cooperation with the Nile Basin countries in a number of vital areas, the most important of which are trade, investment, irrigation, agriculture, health and education, as these bodies provided their various expertise to the Nile Basin countries, and the Ministry of Trade and Industry followed the strategy of targeting African markets and identified a number of measures to maximize the benefit of the COMESA agreement, In view of the economic and social importance of the Nile River to the peoples of the basin countries with the strong desire of those countries to cooperate among themselves, this study aimed to clarify the extent of the development of trade relations between Egypt and the Nile Basin countries since 2014 until the last available data, using the descriptive and analytical approach, To analyze the indicators of exports and imports between Egypt and the basin countries during that period, the study found that Kenya and Sudan accounted for a large percentage of Egypt's exports to the Nile Basin countries, while 5 countries accounted for 99.1% of Egypt's total imports from the Nile Basin countries with a value of $ 494 million. Sudan comes in first place with a value of $ 258 million, accounting for 51% of the total, and despite the high volume of trade exchange between Egypt and the Nile Basin countries, there is still a gap in the volume of trade relations, and there are wasted opportunities in the field of trade between the Nile Basin countries in many products, especially agricultural and food, The study also found that the reason for this gap in trade relations is due to the existence of obstacles to trade exchange between Egypt and the Nile Basin countries, such as the lack of regular shipping lines, and to face these obstacles, the study developed ways to address these obstacles, and the study also recommended stimulating investment in African infrastructure, which contributes to reducing restrictions on Egyptian-African trade in general and the basin countries in particular, especially the countries joining the COMESA Group</p> 2023-08-20T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Manifestations of quranis characters in contemporary Iraqi poetry 2023-07-16T13:32:04+03:00 Ali kteeb dkeen <p>The interaction with the contents of the Qur’an and its forms, structurally and semantically, and their employment in literary texts through a variety of mechanisms, is part of what is called interaction with the religious heritage in its various forms. recipients from long ago, and still exercises spiritual and aesthetic dominance to this day, The Arabs were not immune to this kind of heritage, and they did not ignore its influential and fundamental role in shaping their culture, as it represented for them an essential source of the sources on which they relied, and derived from its experiences, so the poets began to draw from its intellectual wealth in various ways, to add to their texts a high sanctity. &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;And an extraordinary spirituality through their openness to this sacred heritage and they are rewriting it in their texts, because it is the text that is still stuck in the Arab memory, due to its privacy, distinction, semantic and historical richness, and its containment of many lessons, events and stories full of revelations. , which prompts the poet to quote from it as appropriate His poetic experience, in addition to the fact that it represents a sacred spiritual text and a vision and reading different from man and the world, and it represents a new writing that changed the way of thinking and writing for the recipient. It matches his experience And the data that he wants to express, and the contemporary Iraqi poet did not follow in the footsteps of previous poets throughout the ages in his dealings with the Qur’anic text, and in terms of his dealings with this sacred text. Due to the frequent invocation of Quranic characters in the structure of the contemporary Iraqi poetic text, we decided to rely on This research is to recall the Quranic characters and classify them according to their occurrence in the studied text</p> 2023-08-20T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Flexible attribution in the electronic contract (A comparative study) 2023-07-16T08:45:08+03:00 Ali Abdullah Naji Mahmoud Hekmat Nia <div> <p>In light of the developments taking place in the field of electronic commerce and the sale of goods and commodities، Many disputes have arisen related to the law applicable to these commercial transactions، and since the principle of will power is applied in many of these contracts and transactions، where the two parties choose the law that will be applied to the contract.However، in electronic contracts، there was a difference in terms of the applicable law، due to the fact that these contracts are conducted remotely and by different technical means، as the law of will is not sufficient to apply it to these types of contracts.As electronic contracts are by nature international contracts that cross borders، and not only within the borders of a particular country، and may be of a commercial، civil، or mixed nature according to the nature of each contract and the relationship that binds the parties to the contract.The law applicable to the electronic contract is the law of will، that is، the law chosen by the parties. In the event that there is no agreement between the parties about the law that will be applied to the contract، the judge resorts to extracting their implied will through evidence and evidence، and he has to review the competing laws to resolve the dispute. In order to reach the law most closely related to the contract، such as the place of its conclusion or the joint nationality of the contracting parties، other issues emerged that differ from the will، the example of which was the controls that the judge chooses to apply to electronic contracts، especially the flexible attribution control with its discriminatory performance control and the objective focus of the contractual relationship.And these electronic contracts must put in place the laws and regulations that regulate them، and show the rights and commitment of the parties to them، which generates confidence among them in light of the ease of spreading information through this network، and the existence of the possibility to change it and manipulate it before the users of the network communicate it to the other party. Thus، every country sets the necessary laws to regulate these contracts، and countries were not satisfied with this amount of regulation، so they concluded agreements among themselves to regulate these contracts.But the problem is that these contracts are of recent origin، as there are many countries that lack appropriate legal regulation of these contracts، especially in developing countries. Because the place of origin of these contracts is the developed countries، it was obvious that these countries are the first to develop the appropriate laws for them</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2023-08-20T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Qur'anic appearance, truth , its manifestations, theoretical study 2023-07-16T09:01:03+03:00 Zohreh Babaahmadi Milani Yousef Mahfouzy Haider Kazem Abd Ghazi <div> <p>The discussion on the reason and evidence of the Qur'anic revelation and, as well as its various manifestations has undergone significant growth and expanded on the issue of the appearance of Quranic addresses.Various scientists have analyzed the subject matter from various perspectives and published numerous works on it. Furthermore, it has been highlighted that the revelation of the Qur'an serves as a criterion and can be deemed reliable. This means that the involvement of tradition or the endorsement and validation of Masoom (peace be upon him) is not required.The issue of the authenticity of the appearances of the Qur'an is one of the fundamental topics in the principles of Shia jurisprudence. which has opened its place since the time of confrontation between the thoughts of Akhbaris and Usulis.The first step in obtaining the principles of understanding the Qur'an in the capacity of inferring rulings is to prove the authenticity of the Qur'an's appearances, Because the majority of our connection with the meanings of the Qur'an is through the appearance of its words.In reality, the appearance of the Quran serves as the foundation for comprehending every verse of the Quran, regardless of whether another verse exists or not. Therefore, whatever is established as a result of the revelation of a verse becomes sufficient proof until proven otherwise, unless there is a reason to suggest otherwise.The appearance of the book is important because it shows the legitimacy of religious work, such as prayer, fasting.And if the interpreter does not find a reason to interpret the verses such as abrogation, restriction, clarification or hadiths, he refers to the originality of the appearance.which requires that the appearance of the word is proof.Also, the rule of appearance is considered as one of the rules of interpretation that the commentator relies on like the rest of the rules."The aim of this work is to use descriptive and analytical methods to examine the appearance of the Quran across various dimensions, such as its truthfulness and the forms in which it manifests itself. “This involves examining various aspects related to the truth and comprehensiveness of emergence in the Quran, such as its clarity, inner meaning, obstacles to understanding, those who have knowledge of these obstacles, and the effects of emergence. Other areas of focus include speculative and definite implications of emergence, understanding individual words and their lexical meanings, as well as the overall meaning conveyed by entire words or phrases</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2023-08-20T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 The effect of the POE strategy (predict, observe, explain) on the achievement and treatment of circular thinking among students of the fourth stage, College of Education for Pure Sciences 2023-07-16T09:14:07+03:00 Yasir Mohammed Tahair M. Saeed <div> <p>The objective of the current research is to discover the impact of the POE strategy (predict, notice, interpret) on the achievement and processing of circular thinking among the fourth stage students of the College of Education for Pure Sciences University of KirkukDepartment of Chemistry, and to achieve the objectives of the research, the use of a semi-experimental design for that, as the subject of measurement and evaluation was taught For the first semester, for the academic year 2022-2023, as the research sample consisted of 160 male and female students and two groups, the first - experimental was studied according to the strategy (POE) and the second - control was studied according to the usual method, and to achieve the objectives of the research, two tests were designed, one of which is achievement and consists of 20 objective items and the second The circular thinking test consists of 20 items as well, and they were applied to the sample after adjusting the psychometric characteristics for them, and using the spss program by the researcher, the results showed the positive effect of the experimental group that used the POE strategy on the traditional method (the control group) in achieving and reducing circular thinking, and we conclude Also, the strategy used developed and improved the method of logical, inferential thinking, which takes them out of the weakness of evidence (circular thinking) for students in interpreting the scientific concepts studied and the cognitive content of the subject, and thus was reflected on achievement and reducing the degree of circular thinking. Accordingly, the researcher offers recommendations, including good training for teachers. In clarifying scientific knowledge to avoid losing the integrity of knowledge, Giving students opportunities for discussion and free interpretation when participating to increase their understanding and thinking based on their rational conclusions (cause and effect)</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2023-08-20T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Aesthetics of daily language in the poetry of Nizar Qabbani 2023-07-16T09:19:27+03:00 Saleh Mohamed Abd Widad Ismael Al-Ayoubi <div> <p>Each poet has his own poetic language, working on making it from poetic and linguistic accumulations over his life, and working hard to improve and develop it to reach the threshold of uniqueness and specialization. He is one of the most inclined and eager to innovate and innovate. This is because “the desire that the poet possesses for innovation and novelty may take his poetry a long way, bypassing the well-known ways of dealing with language and its vocabulary, and seeking to move the language away from its generality and give it a special characteristic that distinguishes it from other poets who preceded him. And Nizar Qabbani is one of those poets who were able to create a new language that no one else was able to ride a horse to be able to master it, as he did with his poetic chivalry and his unique poetic lust. He was also able to break the stalemate and decipher the duality that exhausted ideas and feelings in our lives by merging between the originality of the Arabic language and the ease of colloquialism . In this article, we tried hard to reveal the manifestations of development, verbal creativity, and spectacle in the expression and description that characterized Nizar Qabbani's poetry. He was known for his distinction and rebellion against the natural, by creating a language that broke the restrictions of language and dictionaries. He traveled with it to the world of simplicity in expressing his feelings, and all of this was in a language Simple, it was between the colloquial language and the standard language. Nizar called it (the third language). And he had multiple and varied ways to create this language, such as derivation and borrowing (on the morphological level), and the use of colloquial language in his poetic scenes and images, and his reliance on linguistic plurality to express his feelings and feelings, and this is what we tried to show in this article through some selected poetic models that glowed and sounded. The light of Nizar's third language, and the aesthetics and innovations of the daily language emerged in his poetry.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2023-08-20T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Arab social life 2023-07-16T11:36:31+03:00 Batool Abbas Fadel Nidal Muayyad Mal Allah <div> <p>The aim of this research is to study the social life of the Arabs in the pre-Islamic period and the era of the message, and to show the basic elements that make up the Arab society in the Arabian Peninsula, where the Arabs formed the most important element from which the Arab society was formed, and to demonstrate the pride of the Arabs in their lineages and tribes and their pride in them, then we talked about the loyalists who formed part Regardless of the formations of Arab society and the Arabs’ view of them before Islam, where there was no law regulating the relationship between the master and his masters, and then showing the position of Islam towards the master, the principle of brotherhood and equality became the basis that governs the relationship between the master and his masters, and faith became the criterion of differentiation between people, and the master occupied a lot of The important functions of the state in Islam, in addition to talking about the dhimmis of the Jews and Christians, the Arab community knew these religions and dealt with their adherents, and with the advent of Islam, the principle of tolerance, good treatment, and safety was adopted as a basis for dealing with them. And the practice of some trades, and the view of them differed after Islam, as the Islamic religion sought to T There is no doubt that the existence of these elements and their customs and values and their interaction with the people of other groups led to the influence of each of them on the other. ) from her status by saying: ((Women are the sisters of men)), and marriage was talked about considering that marriage is the basis of the universe. Before Islam, the Arabs knew several types of marriage. Through it, the relationship between the spouses and gave both parties their right by emphasizing on several matters, including engagement, dowry, publicity, and the existence of desire and acceptance on both sides, given that the family is the basic building block in the formation of a good society, as the Arabs before Islam knew divorce, and it had rules, custom, and reasons, and with the advent of Islam those rules were organized by those who Through a group of Quranic texts that showed the number of pregnant and non-pregnant divorced women from guaranteeing the rights of that woman after her divorce, and the research reviewed the role of Islam in examining some of the values that the delegation The approach to it from ignorance and its treatment is a positive treatment that is consistent with the vision of Islam.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2023-08-20T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 The signals temporal in Al-Sahifa Al-Sajjadiyah, a deliberative study / The supplication of Imam Al-Sajjad in receiving and bidding farewell to the month of Ramadan as a model 2023-07-16T11:45:21+03:00 Star Hussein Mohi Hassan Abdelhi Kazem Jassem Mansour Al-Azzawi <div> <p>In this research, I will address the importance of temporal signs as one of the important elements in pragmatic research, and the importance of these signs appears in their role in analyzing the deliberative phenomena of the verbal utterances within the carpet text. We examined the temporal signs that were mentioned in the supplications of the blessed Sahifa al-Sahifa al-Sajjadiyyah by the master of the two prostrators,Imam Ali bin al-Hussein bin Ali bin Abi Talib, peace be upon them both. And these indicative signs were called in Arabic grammar ambiguous, so they have no indication except through the sentences and the context in which they are contained, and they are expressions that indicate time, such as: an hour, a day, a week, a month, after a year, after a week. Their present function, these temporal indicative expressions sometimes refer to what is mentioned before it and are called a prior referral, or refer to an internal textual post referral, and these elements are distinguished by having a major role in the harmony and consistency of the text, as well as an effective role in linking phrases to each other, such as linking the previous later.We must pay attention to a very important issue, which is the moment of utterance by the speaker, as it is the center of the temporal reference. Determine the reference of the temporal signals; It is now, tomorrow, month, week, year, and day, so the addressee must be aware of the moment and time of the utterance, so that the recipient or listener can take it as a reference to be referred to, and in addition to that, he can interpret those indicative elements that are mentioned in the text.The temporal signals were monitored in this research, such as the day, month, year, and othersThe reference to the indicative element (the month) in the supplications of Al-Sahifa Al-Sajjadiyya, especially in welcoming and bidding farewell to the month of Ramadan, is the time of uttering this supplication.about the prayer of Imam al-Sajjad in receiving the month of Ramadan and meekness is that the indicative element (the month) was repeated a lot and intensively.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2023-08-20T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Towards the university smart libraries for fifth generation 5G internet of mobile phones 2023-07-16T11:58:16+03:00 Ayas Younes Ismail <div> <p>The research presents the fifth generation network of Internet in terms of its concept, and the technical development of this network, represented by the network generations that preceded it, As well as clarifying the mechanism of work of this technology and the requirements, techniques and layers it needs, then present the advantages and disadvantages of the fifth generation technology. After that, the current state of smart libraries and information institutions was reviewed in terms of the technical and administrative aspects and the services provided in order to develop a design scheme for a system for the work of smart university libraries within the fifth generation network for mobile phones. Develop a full preception of what libraries can be in the future, and access to modern services, applications and experiences as a result of the application of this network, and this is represented in three aspects: service management, virtual reality and mobile terminals experiences, and smart academic communication. The current challenges and obstacles faced by smart university libraries that limit the exploit the capabilities of the fifth generation network were also presented.The integration of fifth generation networks in smart library represents an inevitable trend to exploit in construction smart libraries and to develop what already exists, and thus its feasibility will be reflected on all knowledge organization institutions with great returns and benefits, regardless of their type and size, especially university libraries. It also opened wide horizons for it to look forward and establish relations at various levels with governments, companies and stakeholders, as the issue is related to the acquisition of big data and the ability to control it.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2023-08-20T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Tanker war during the Iran-Iraq war and its impact on Kuwait (1984-1986) 2023-07-16T13:11:11+03:00 Fawzia Abdullah Saeed Salah Muhammad Salim Mahmoud <div> <p>This research aims to study the effects of the Iraqi-Iranian war, not only on the two sides of the conflict, but its impact on the countries of the region, especially Kuwait. In 1984, Iraq began to expand the scope of the war by attacking Iranian oil tankers. On the pretext that these countries provide support to Iraq in its war against Iran in order to force these countries to stop their support for Iraq, the tanker war continued until 1986, in the same year Kuwait was forced to seek help from major countries (the United States of America and the Soviet Union) to protect its tankers from Iranian strikes ,The UN Security Council held an emergency session and issued Resolution No. (552), in which it condemned the attack on oil and commercial tankers in the waters of the Arabian Gulf. The League of Arab States also sought to find a solution to this crisis, but to no avail. The tanker war greatly affected Kuwait, since oil is considered to be the essential source of its economy, and therefor ships and oil tankers became the target of Iranian artillery bombardment. From April 1986 to 1987, damages to Kuwait reached an estimated 48 Kuwaiti oil tankers. The study as a whole is a historical and analytical attempt to highlight the role of Kuwait in providing aids to Iraq in its war against Iran, and to indicate the extent to which it was affected by this war as a result of its support to Iraq, as the Iranian government pressured Kuwait to stop its support for Iraq by striking its oil tankers, which forced Kuwait to request Assistance from the superpowers (the United States of America, the Soviet Union) to protect their oil tankers from Iranian attacks.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2023-08-20T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Tendency Towards Egalitarianism: An Analytical Study of Sonia Sanchez’s Dirty Hearts 2023-07-11T13:45:50+03:00 Hamid Hammad Abed (PhD) <div> <p>This study highlights the unkind actions some people take against one another, which are perceived as forms of social rejection. Sanchez intends to show how, if African art techniques were used and adapted, people may view black radical art. The relationship between blacks and whites is frequently bad and increasing harsher, particularly when it is driven by immoral personal objectives. In the majority of her literary works, Sanchez looks for environments that are safe, egalitarian, amiable, and respectful in an effort to eliminate the seeds of racial discrimination. She is a fearless poet and dramatist who has worked hard to instill in her black community a true sense of equality and respect. She has, therefore, committed the majority of her poetry and plays to defending the rights of her community, particularly those of black women. The dramatic dialogue between the characters in Sanchez's play Dirty Hearts is used to express the playwright's concealed intentions as an attempt to achieve her aim of equality. Her main purpose is to show that everyone in the society is moving towards equality in order to assure their ability to live comfortably. While some argued for black unity, in her opinion, Women were given inferior treatment. Several of Sanchez's plays questioned the motives of black male leadership in this context. In order t o promote the chance that she will be able to propagandize for or offer a solution for the inferiority of her black people in a predominately American white culture, Sanchez quietly exploits the idea of egalitarianism throughout this drama.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2023-08-20T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Deconstructing the Gynocentric Narrative in Rupi Kaur's Poetry: An Exploration of Female Empowerment and Representation 2023-07-11T13:54:59+03:00 Hadeel Aziz Mohammed Ridha, (Ph.D.) <p>Throughout history, men have dominated the narrative on how women are perceived. In response to this, women rose in a feminist movement, which was initially met with resistance. However, this movement eventually evolved into gynocentrism, a philosophy that aims to promote the interests and well-being of women.The 21st century has seen the emergence of digitalization in literature, particularly in poetry, with the rise of social media platforms. This has facilitated the emergence of new literary forms such as AltLit and InstaPoetry, where poets can interact directly with their readers, resulting in a new era in poetry writing. One of the most renowned poets in this field is Rupi Kaur, an Indian-Canadian who uses her experiences to write from a gynocentric perspective, highlighting the rise of women.This paper analyzes several of Kaur's poems, with a focus on their gynocentric themes. Kaur's work is significant as it highlights the experiences of women in society and their struggle for gender equality. By using social media as a platform to promote her work, Kaur has created a space for women to connect, relate and express themselves.The digitalization of literature has enabled greater access to poetry, giving voice to diverse perspectives and promoting gender equality. Kaur's work and the emergence of gynocentrism represent a significant shift towards gender equality and the empowerment of women. This paper aims to explore Kaur's contribution to this movement and her impact in the literary world. Overall, the rise of gynocentrism and digitalization has facilitated a space for women to express themselves, paving the way for a more equitable and just society.</p> 2023-08-20T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Investigating Iraqi EFL Undergraduates' Pragmatic Failure in Polite Request 2023-07-13T10:39:39+03:00 Ahmed A .Hamza <p>English, as a communication tool, is playing an extremely significant role in cross-cultural communication. The main function of language is communication, and pragmatic competence is an important component of communicative competence. However, owing to a lack of pragmatic knowledge, English learners can hardly avoid committing pragmatic failure in cross-cultural communication .Pragmatic failure sets up barriers to the success of cross-cultural communication since pragmatic failure closely relates to English learners’ lack of pragmatic knowledge and understanding of the culture of the target country. In order to improve their pragmatic and communicative competence, more introductions to pragmatic knowledge and cultural information should be incorporated into English teaching. This research aims to investigate the pragmatic failure of Iraqi EFL undergraduate students and to provide constructive suggestions as to how to improve their pragmatic competence. This paper first investigates pragmatic failures that college English learners tend to commit in polite request in cross-cultural communication through a test, building on the analysis of the collected data, it further discusses the main sources of the pragmatic failures and provides suggestions for it. It is hoped that these suggestions can help to develop students’ pragmatic and communicative competence.</p> 2023-08-20T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 The Subaltern Ideology in Aravind Adiga's WHITE TIGER: A Postcolonial Study 2023-07-13T12:47:31+03:00 Maryam Mohsin Jebur Al -Obaiody <div> <p>knowing the notion of the subaltern, which describes the struggles of minorities in society and culture, is necessary to comprehend postcolonial literature. One of the most fundamental standards for evaluating Indian society and culture is subalternity, and it is one of the most typical experiences a person from the East will have. Subaltern studies are used in this study to define and analyze Indian postcolonialism. Subalterns are marginalised by race, socioeconomic status, gender, sexual orientation, ethnicity, or religion. This symbol stands for non-elite cultural groups, the underclass of an illiterate society, and dependent non-illegal individuals. The beliefs of the wealthy elite influence or shape the thinking of these organisations. The protagonist is as distinct as the white tiger depicted in the title. He demonstrates bravery by fleeing the rooster coop, symbolizing servitude and the underworld. The binary of night and day can effectively represent the opposition between Indians. From postcolonial hybridity and marginalization to postmodern coexistence, the novel's discourse advances. Adiga's use of literary devices shift in today's sociocultural environment and his freedom to do so are assessed. The author has attempted to challenge established power histories and create a neutral ground where elite and underprivileged perspectives can coexist. He has created a space for unity where people from the centre and the margins can interact and learn from one another through postcolonial discourse. Adiga's use of numerous similes simplifies classification. He frequently compares various things to human anatomy, behaviour, etc. He has also drawn parallels between the characters and various natural phenomena. He remarks how similar humans are to animals. He considers women to be as malleable as fruits and vegetables. The White Tiger by Aravind Adiga, which describes the conflict between colonizers and colonized people, and Spivak's subaltern theory will be used to examine the author's opinions and thoughts. The study highlights alienation and otherness through social inequality, subaltern and subaltern concerns. The reasons listed above are only a few of many. The study will make an effort to explain how the nature of the concepts under examination and the present relate, starting with this common premise.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2023-08-20T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 The availability of mechanisms to reduce job hypocrisy An exploratory study of the opinions of a sample of administrative leaders in the General Directorate of Education in Nineveh Governorate 2023-07-17T11:52:03+03:00 Ahmed S. M. Al-Jarjari Mais Mahmoud Asaad <div> <p>The research aims to determine the availability of mechanisms to reduce functional hypocrisy represented by (limiting flattery, confronting contradictions, avoiding appearance, diagnosing and containing formal courtship) among the leaders of the General Directorate of Education in Nineveh Governorate, as organizational hypocrisy is an informal style emanating from values and principles that adhere to By some workers, this method relies on some workers revealing what they believe to be illegal practices and unethical behaviors that occur in their organizations with hypocrisy in front of their departments, with praise and flattery, and approving all the actions of the president without weighing and evaluating them, and reflecting the treatment of a research problem that says "Are there available mechanisms expressing Reducing functional hypocrisy in the researched organization? The General Directorate of Education in Nineveh Governorate was chosen as a field for the study based on the importance of the subject of the study and the importance of the study sample in the researched organization. and the middle one in the General Directorate of Education in Nineveh Governorate, as their number reached (96) respondents, and (80) questionnaires were distributed to the respondents, of which (70) forms valid for statistical analysis were retrieved, meaning that the proportion of forms suitable for analysis is (87.5%) of the total distributed questionnaires. The study added statistical analysis tools according to the statistical program (SPSS.V.25). The research reached several conclusions that confirmed the availability of these dimensions at high levels in the researched organization, as well as achieving mechanisms to reduce functional hypocrisy at high levels, which indicates the serious pursuit by the leaders of the researched organization, and their work on mechanisms to reduce functional hypocrisy represented by (limiting flattery, avoiding appearances Confronting contradictions, diagnosing and containing cases of formal courtship), and the research concluded by presenting a set of proposals represented in the search for the causes that lead to job hypocrisy among workers in a way that enables them to find an effective treatment in a way that guarantees its limit and stresses the need to work on adopting mechanisms to reduce Functional hypocrisy and the promotion of its ownership by the researched organization to serve its objectives.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2023-08-20T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT IN AL-BALDAWI COMMERCIAL STREET IN AL-SHAMIYA CITY 2023-07-17T12:01:55+03:00 Ibrahim Naji Al-Shabani <div> <p>The main objective of the study is to assess traffic management environmentally using one of the modern means, the SIDRA TRIP program, which helps in analyzing trips and standard driving cycles used in vehicle fuel consumption, estimating emissions and estimating noise levels (dB) generated during the trip on Al-Baldawi Street in the city of Al-Shamiya, which is a center Al-Shamiya district of Al-Diwaniyah governorate.One of the most important results of the study is the difference in the numbers and types of vehicles during peak hours, and that small vehicles (saloons and station wagons) are the most numerous among vehicles on this street during monitoring hours, in addition to two- and three-wheeled motorcycles, because they are small, easy and cheap compared to other vehicles. In addition to the absence of mass transportation.And the time of the trip was affected by the number of obstacles along Al-Baldawi Street between the two sides of the city, and it appears through the duration of the trip 298.10 seconds on the left side and 319.01 seconds on the right side. The behavior of individuals through shopping, crossing the street, or driving vehicles has affected the lengthening of the travel time and the increase in air pollution, Through the evaluation, it appeared that the procedures that reduce the speed of vehicles will increase the duration of the trip, which increases fuel consumption and its cost, but it has less effect on the noise level, while the measures that increase the speed of vehicles will reduce the duration of the trip and reduce fuel consumption and its cost, but the speed will increase.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2023-08-20T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Hope And Pain In Contemporary Iraqi Poetry 2023-07-17T12:14:46+03:00 Rasim Ahmed Ebys Aljryawy <div> <p>The True Meaning of life. the poet's concern wants to transcend the current situation of life; in order to reach another, more valuable level, and this type is a psychological state that is necessary for development, and it is the right of the contemporary poet to feel sadness and pain and aspire to the aspirations of his will; because he sees the world in an image that does not satisfy his feelings and feelings, and he rejects this image and asks for an alternative to it. in addition, the contemporary iraqi poets were keen to establish a degree of balance between creativity and commitment in the poem, in addition to their keenness to turn their pain into a political pain and at the same time turn it into a human tragedy. in order for it to become a song for all the wanted and the oppressed in various parts of the world, and iraq in particular, and for some hope to remain for the present and the future, in what resembles fegel's reaction on the tragic side. The Research consisted of a theoretical introduction to the concept of hope and pain and the reasons and place of writing them. the first topic talked about hope in contemporary iraqi poetry, its theoretical basis and its applications in iraqi poetry. the other topic dealt with pain in contemporary iraqi poetry and its theoretical basis and applications in iraqi poetry. and a conclusion dealing with the most important findings of the research. and a list of sources and references from which the research drew its ideas and texts. in conclusion, we hope that god, glory be to him, will make this work of ours a service to knowledge and its people, and our last prayer is that praise be to god, lord of the worlds, and peace be upon you abundantly.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2023-08-20T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Manuscripts of Sheikh Al-Waheed Al-Bahbahani in the Commander of Believers' library (peace be upon him) 2023-07-17T12:20:06+03:00 Qasim Ali Muhammed Al-Yassari <div> <p>The study of a man of science and knowledge and their scientific output is one of the important studies, as it reveals many secrets including his scientific abilities in teaching, diligence, and the establishment of the fundamentalist school, in addition to his compositions. Moreover, his teching in Hawza enabled him to gain the lead and to attract many students of science and knowledge. Al-Bahbahani had a special approach and was unparalleled in establishing the Fundamentalist School in Karbala, which played a major role in explaining the theory of ijtihad. Furthermore, he criticized the opinions of the Akhbaris and was able to overcome them with his scientific efforts. He truly was a watershed between two ages of scientific thought history in jurisprudence and fundamentals. Sheikh Al-Waheed Al-Baha’i had raised in Behbahan and moved between the Islamic world’s cities until he reached Al-Najaf, where he was able to continue his academic achievement there. He began frequenting the councils of scholars and becoming a student of great scholars, such as Sayyid Muhammad al-Tabataba’i and Sayyid Sadr al-Din al-Razavi. Then, he moved to Karbala and became well known after a short while even his reputation spreaded in the horizons. His council became adjacent to other religious councils, and he was able to form a solid scientific base that he made the shrine of Imam Hussein (peace be upon him) a starting point for his intellectual revolution and the establishment of the fundamentalist school. He remained in Karbala until his death.When searching for the manuscripts and writings of Sheikh Bahba’i and his scientific productions, we see that he left a huge legacy; varied between research, treatises and books, as his scientific output was estimated at about (130) authors, most of which were in the form of letters to respond to the suspicions of the Akhbaris and answers to jurisprudential issues, and others specialized in the discourse on.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2023-08-20T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 The ontological nature of the dialogic relationship and its educational implications in Martin Buber’s philosophy 2023-07-17T12:26:05+03:00 Abdullah Almutairi <div> <p>The dialogic relationship is one of the important kinds of relationships that modern education relies on. This relationship can be studied from different perspective. For example, it can be seen as a strategy by which the teacher can reach his or her goals. Moreover, dialogic relationships can be understood as a social phenomenon where a safe space for group deliberation and decision making is created. On the other hand, dialogic relationships can be studied from a different angel, namely, as an ontological attitude towards things and others. This paper aims to analyze the dialogic relationship in the latter sense using Martin Buber’s discussion in his book I and Thou which was written in 1923, but has not been translated into Arabic until 2010. This book is one of the important existentialist works that studied human relationships, especially the self-other relationship. According to Buber, the world is twofold for man in accordance with his twofold attitude and the attitude of man is twofold in accordance with the two basic words he can speak. The first word is I-Thou and the other is I-It. Each word refers to a different existential mode. The difference does not lie only in the relationship with the other, but also in the nature of the I. We notice that language is a kind of ontology for Buber which is a common theme among existentialists. This paper contains an introduction to Buber’s thesis, including its philosophical underpinnings and Its educational implications and critique.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2023-08-20T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Evangelization of Atenism Religion "In The Ancient Near East" 2023-07-17T12:35:19+03:00 Zainab Jabar Jasim Fadul kadhum Hanoon <div> <p>The Egyptian religion was distinguished, in terms of its origins and its long historical stages, by the multiplicity of gods and goddesses, as was the case with other lowly religions in ancient times. However, what distinguishes it from others is the availability of its texts, the clarity of its issues, the constancy of its principles, and the path of its development, in which pluralistic beliefs moved to different forms of monotheistic thought, but the study of its origins depends mainly on intuition and conclusion more than it depends on texts with a specific idea.The opinions of scholars and researchers differed about the idea of monotheism in the ancient Egyptian religion, such as Akhenaten. Some of them show that the Egyptian religion is monotheistic based on the interpretations of some texts and terms indicating the unity of God, such as the word (nitro), while some insist that it is monotheism. From their point of view, the Egyptian religion did not know monotheism only by the time of Akhenaten.It is worth noting that there is a belief among Egyptologists that the religion (Aten) is the invention of Akhenaten, but the evidence indicates that the Atonian thought was present since the era of the Middle Kingdom, and this is indicated by many religious texts such as the texts of the pyramids that date back to this period, as well as the texts of coffins From the middle state and religious supplications and some physical evidence dating back to different times.Akhenaten's movement was based on a number of principles, including monotheism and the abolition of the worship of all gods, for there is only one God who is the Aton, and abstraction, by rejecting the idea of embodying God in the form of an animal or the form of a human being, and exposure and appearance in front of humans, by dropping the veil and concealment between the one God and his servants, for he is visible in front of them. Universalism, as he is not only the god of Egypt, but the god of the world known at that time, and any person can worship him and converse with him wherever a ray of god fell on the earth, and Akhenaten’s movement left its clear traces in the religious field. There is no doubt that the priests of Amun were able, with the help of (Horemheb), to obliterate the doctrine of monotheism, and they were able to eliminate the spread of that doctrine after the departure of its owner.Through the title of the research, "Proselytizing the Atonian Religion in the Ancient Near East," it includes an introduction and three sections. The first: It is divided into, "The features of religious thought and its impact on the emergence of the ancient Egyptian religion, and the second section, the principles of the Atonian religion, in which we covered the call to a universal religion, abstraction, and exposure appearance, trinity and pluralism, and the call to one God and the mediator. As for the third Section, we dealt with the spread of the Etonians in the ancient Near East. Likewise, the research included a conclusion in which we reviewed our findings with an index of the margins and sources that were used in it.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2023-08-20T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 The impact of German Philosophers and Thinkers and their Intellectual Propositions on the Political and Economic Reality in Germany (1905-1933) "select models'' 2023-07-17T12:50:06+03:00 Nadia Jasem Kadhim Al-Shammari <div> <p>The study revealed the leadership talents affecting German society and the different professional roles of German thinkers and philosophers as theorists, preachers, authors of political and economic books, writers of novels, articles and political notes, editors-in-chief of German academic journals, and lawyers who defended the rights of German society, who had a clear impact through their formulation of scientific and intellectual theories and their authorship of books, which has been translated into various languages with the aim of enlightening the minds of Germans with science and knowledge, which is an essential condition for obtaining political and cultural freedoms, and increasing their awareness of intellectual, political, social and economic concepts and urging them to claim their rights and unleash their freedoms and their emphasis on cooperation between democratic socialist institutions and trade unions on the one hand and workers, engineers and intellectuals on the one hand On the other hand, to confront the exploited capitalist class for their efforts. The study explained that most of the publications of German philosophers and thinkers included photographs of German military developments, experiences and plans in war battles, pictures of German planes that were employed in World War I, and pictures of German soldiers who showed great courage and were martyred in these battles, especially the book published by the German philosopher Ernst Junker. In 1933, entitled "War and Warriors" to commemorate and preserve their military history. These books had a great impact on the feelings of German soldiers, reminding them of the heroism and experiences of the former, drawing on their military experiences, and urging them to continue the war against the enemies, as well as German thinkers and philosophers delivering political, economic and intellectual speeches that emphasized all An individual must combine military discipline and self-sacrifice in order to establish a German society based on justice, equality, and serving the German homeland with all dedication and sincerity, which is one of the true Socialist principles that will eliminate Capitalism.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2023-08-20T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Prisons and reform requirements A field study in Babel Central Prison 2023-07-17T12:55:53+03:00 Dhahir Muhsin Hani Bashir Muhammad Ali Abdul Hassan Hussein Abbas Sultan Hamed Hajim Hamza <div> <p>The current research aims to clarify the importance enjoyed by the correctional institution, and an attempt to clarify how the requirements of reform contribute to improving the level of performance of the correctional institution, raising the awareness of specialists in correctional institutions of the need to develop the correctional system in Iraq, and to achieve these goals, the researcher prepared a questionnaire that dealt with the subject of the research, and it was It was applied to a sample of employees of the Central Prison of Babylon, who numbered (154) respondents, as they were chosen randomly at a rate of (30%) of the total research community, which numbered (512) respondents, and among the most prominent findings of the research; The majority of the respondents believe that the prison administration applies human rights standards, and (77.3%) of the respondents believe that their institution is committed to these rules during its dealings with the inmate, while (84.4%) of the sample confirmed that the financial allocations do not meet the needs. The increasing number of the correctional institution, and it was found from the results of the research that the correctional institution is in dire need to recruit new elements from the social and psychological researchers as well as the doctor and the legal, in addition to a correctional guard, and professional experts in the workshops of various specializations such as carpentry, blacksmithing, etc., while (57.7%) of the respondents confirmed The sample indicated that there is weakness in the rehabilitation and reform programs within the institution, which is a result of the lack of financial allocations, the increase in the number of inmates, the lack of development courses, and the lack of interest in technical workshops and increasing them with modern equipment and machines, while (84.4%) of the sample confirmed that the financial allocations do not meet the increasing needs of the correctional institution. While (73.4%) of the sample confirmed that the aftercare programs did not succeed in returning the inmate to his normal life, and this was as a result of the inmate ending his relationship with the social worker after leaving the institution, and that this program does not provide financial assistance to help the inmate After leaving the institution, he started building his own project to live with honor and confirm that he would not return to committing crime again.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2023-08-20T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Penal policy towards crimes against the family in Iraqi laws and Islamic law 2023-07-17T13:16:48+03:00 Ahmed Mohammed Mohsen AL-Abbadi Mohammed Ali Haji Dehabadi <div> <p>Punitive policy as part of the criminal policy includes criminalization and punishment towards actions that harm the safety of the individual and the security of society and threaten its entity, and among those actions are the actions that occur against the family and the cause of its disruption. Analytical and comparative study. One of the most important results is that the Iraqi legislator has a punitive policy that is manifested in the various criminalizations and also the imposition of the necessary penalties that will impose prestige and correct the social course of the family, and this is consistent with the provisions and rules of jurisprudence in Islamic law, but the Iraqi punitive policy was not complete and fully effective. .Crimes against the family are among the most serious acts that are committed and pose a great danger to society and the family, as they lead to the disintegration of society and the family, so the law punishes the acts committed against the family, whether these acts are from inside or outside the family, as the crime of marital adultery and incest is punished Crimes of assaulting children and violating their rights, and that the Penal Code in general lays down broad lines for the role of each of the spouses towards one another and towards the children within the same family and its contribution to preserving the family as an institution that must be protected from every prohibited action aimed at its cohesion, stability and continuity, and specifying the penalties imposed on these Crimes and their suitability for these crimes and their ability to reduce these acts, and to provide optimal protection for society and the family. In this research, a number of crimes that fall on the family were addressed, including violating the formal and objective conditions for building a family, in addition to some of the crimes that occur on the person and money with the position of the Iraqi legislator Islamic law is one of those crimes and the penalties prescribed for each punishment.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2023-06-25T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 The effect of multilateral on the termination of the deposit contract A comparative study 2023-07-17T13:36:29+03:00 Dhamear Hussein Almamoory Ahmad Raed Jadeer Al-Obeidi <div> <p>Plurality is a description attached to the obligation, or the right to modify its effects after it was limited to two parties. Polygamy, as a description of the obligation or right, may be attached to the deposit contract, making it a multi-party contract. And since the multiplicity of parties, of course, changes the effects of the simple contract, so the study of the impact of this multiplicity in the deposit contract is important, in terms of standing on the effects of this contract in the presence of multiplicity of parties, and this change in the effects applies starting from the stage of concluding the contract Until it expires, the contract may expire with respect to one of the multiple parties without the rest, and it may expire against all of them.This difference in how the contract ends in the presence of multiple parties is due to the desire of the contracting parties in the manner in which they want the contract to end in light of their plurality, and the desire of the multiple parties is known by knowing the nature of their plurality, whether it is in a single contract. The termination of the contract with the fulfillment of one of the cases of termination for one of them without the rest; This is due to the impossibility of meeting at work, or the plurality of separate contracts, and therefore the contract does not require working together; Which does not affect the termination of the contract for one of them on the rest. Knowing whether polygamy is a single contract or separate contracts, just as it has a role in explaining the effect of the termination of the deposit contract when there are multiple parties. The same applies to the nature of the deposited money in terms of whether it is shared among depositors or not. The fact that the money is shared indicates that the termination of the contract of one of the depositors without the rest will be affected by this joint money because he does not own the deposit alone until it is returned to him in full, which requires looking at the fact that the joint money is of the same, which indicates the possibility of returning his share of the deposit and with this return the deposit contract ends with respect to It belongs only to him without the rest, or is the shared money from the values that need the satisfaction of the remaining depositors Without achieving this satisfaction from the rest, the deposit contract is subject to termination for all depositors.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2023-08-20T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Pride at Nabhani Descriptive inductive study 2023-07-17T13:43:54+03:00 Nahla Bashir Omer Ali <div> <p>This study deals with the topic of pride in Al-Nabhani, and that is because pride in Al-Nabhani takes a special path, as our poet went a long way in it, and exaggerated it with crude and rude exaggerations. Until it became the most common feature in his poetry, so we find Al-Nabhani proud, whether he was lamenting, satirizing, or flirting, so the spirit of pride, especially his pride in himself, appeared in all the purposes of his poetry. Rather, al-Nabhani's pride in himself made many scholars point fingers at him, accusing him of shortcomings and psychological complexes.This study aims to identify the phenomenon of pride in Al-Nabhani, and to explain what it represents in relation to his poetry and personality. This study necessitated that I follow the descriptive-inductive approach, by following Al-Nabhani's pride in all its manifestations, and showing its abundance in his poetry. In these studies, it relied on previous studies, including: Al-Fakhr in Youssef the Third, prepared by Mahmoud Rashid Mustafa, Al-Fakhr in the Pre-Islamic Era (an objective study, of the poetry of Al-Fakhr in Qais bin Al-Khatim, prepared by: Adel Hajji, Al-Fakhr and Enthusiasm in Arabic Poetry, prepared by: A. Dr. Al-Sayyed Abdul Halim Muhammad Hussein Diwan Al-Nabhani, An Objective Artistic Study, prepared by Shukri Barakat, Al-Nabhani, Poet of Diversity and Difference, prepared by Saida Khater Al-Farsi. In this study, I concluded several results, the most important of which are: that pride in Al-Nabhani reaches the point of exaggeration and narcissism, and that pride in himself was the dominant one in his poetry compared to his pride in his family and his tribe, and the diversity of the poet in his expression of pride through the use of many methods such as the pronoun, (we), (how much news), (interrogative disapproval), (exaggeration form), and other methods.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2023-08-20T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Ibn al-Shihna (749-815 AH / 1348-1412 AD) His resources and methodology in his book Rawd al-Manazir fi 'Ilm al-Awa'il wa'l-Awakhir. 2023-07-17T13:49:47+03:00 Hussam Sabbar Salman <div> <p>The present research studies the resources of Ibn al-Shihna and his approach in his book Rawd al-Manazir fi Ilm al-Awail wa al-Awakhir, which is considered one of the most important books that deal with historical incidents according to the years of their occurrence from the beginning of creation until the year 806 AH / 1403 AD. The research material included his name, Ibn al-Shihna, lineage, birth, upbringing, death, and opinions of the scientists in it, his writings, resources and methodology in his book Rawd Al-Manazir, which is considered one of the valuable historical series of books in the field of Islamic history, as viewing it gives the reader a perception of historical events from the beginning of creation until the ninth century AH / fifteenth century AD.In the research, we have touched on the name and lineage of Ibn al-Shihna and his origin, which is of Turkish origin, and his birth and upbringing were in Aleppo, so he learned from its sheikhs. Also, he traveled to Damascus and Cairo and learned from its sheikhs, so he gained knowledge that enabled him to address fatwas before he was alive and this thing increased his fame, which made the princes entrust him with the task of judiciary, as he took over the judiciary of Aleppo and the judiciary of Damascus, and the scientific status of Ibn al-Shihna made him not specialized in one science, but rather with several sciences, and this is what made him Scientists praise him.As for his resources and methodology in his book Rawd al-Manazir, Ibn al-Shihna was distinguished by the multiplicity of his sources in this book, Some resources are declared by mentioning the name of the author or the name of the book, and sometimes the name of the author and the name of the book together. And other sources that he did not declare and mentioned in the form (the people of history said, some commentators said, his companions said), in addition to what he took from the media of his contemporaries, in addition to that his observations regarding the historical events that he lived through. As for his approach, Ibn al-Shihna followed the annual approach in his mention of historical events.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2023-08-20T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 The strangeness in the stories of Anmar may God have mercy on him 2023-07-18T09:19:20+03:00 Zainab Satie Abbas <div> <p>Texts are a wide world, and the different ways in which texts are woven increases their magnificence and beauty, and the exotic texts that are colored in a strange form that is different from the familiar and sideways to the path of hierarchical narration are texts that have become known for their identity and give their writer distinction and uniqueness, and I chose Anmar, God’s mercy, because he pervades all his writings Marvelous literature, where there are writers and authors who write in the exotic, but in a small way that hardly appears clearly, and that is why our readings were in the product of the four signs of God’s mercy, all of which flow into this exceptional literary tributary. He brings back to us, in one way or another, the stories of myths, myths, and tales that take place according to the Sunnah of the jinn and the gods, but in a modern and contemporary way. Rigid and makes it a person to talk to him and feel his pain with him and discuss his ideas, the research standing on some stories of Anmar has shed criticism on the drama, adventure and the shocking end, and thus increases the suspense of the narration by making it not different from the idea but different from the event and the dialogue as well, and from here the exotic texts acquire their color and character The difference is in ambiguity, obscurity, and sometimes obscurity, and this is exactly what we tried to apply and clarify by researching the depths of the texts of Anmar, God's mercy.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2023-08-20T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 The Portuguese invasion of the Arabian Gulf and the Ottoman position on it 1507-1650 2023-07-18T09:25:33+03:00 Mona Abdullah Mohammed <div> <p>The Arabian Gulf region occupies a privileged position in the strategies of major countries, and the fact that this region enjoys international and regional importance that extends throughout history to the present day, and comes as important as the Arabian Gulf region is an inaccessible route for maritime navigation, in addition to its political, economic and military importance and its possession of natural wealth. And when the renaissance of Europe began, Portugal headed the marine exploration campaigns, and the penetration began after the arrival of Vascorddeva to the Arabian Gulf region in 1497. This arrival represents the first beginnings of Western penetration in the region and the outbreak of a struggle that lasted one hundred and fifty years of the Portuguese invaders and the tribes of the Arab region. However, the valiant Arabs of the Gulf stood up bravely in the face of these foreign ambitions, especially when the region witnessed the birth of important Arab states such as the Ya'ariba state in Oman and the increase of its naval power in the Arabian Gulf and the Indian Ocean, which took upon itself to fight the Portuguese invasion until it was able to expel it from the Arabian Gulf, as well as The valiant Arab resistance, which played a major role in carrying out the revolutions against the European invasion, and which proved its steadfastness and resistance by standing in the face of this foreign invasion until it was able to expel it from the Gulf region, similar to what the Arabs did of heroic stances under the leadership of Nasser bin Murshid al-Yarubi. The European approach was not a sudden event, but it came at a time when weakness prevailed in the capabilities of the Muslim Arabs, especially after the fall of the Abbasid Caliphate in Baghdad in 1258, the fall of Granada in 1492, and the disintegration of the Arab Islamic state into weak entities that were unable to protect themselves from external dangers. The interests of the Europeans were concentrated in two Arab regions, the African coast represented by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, and the other by the Arab waters called the Arabian Gulf, the Red Sea and the Indian Ocean. By knowing the way by sea to the east or what is known as the Cape of Good Hope.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2023-08-20T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Anthropological features of metaphysical thought in Sumerian sculpture 2023-07-18T11:31:41+03:00 Ali Aziz Nasser Hussein Ali Shanawa Wadi <div> <p>The tagged research dealt with (anthropological features of metaphysical thought in Sumerian sculpture), by studying the features of metaphysical anthropology in the prominent and prominent Sumerian sculpture of the era of dynasties. "The features of anthropology are known for metaphysical thought in Sumerian sculpture." Then the researchers finished the aforementioned chapter by defining the terms that have a direct relationship to the title of the research and its objectives. As for the second chapter, it included a presentation of the theoretical framework and previous studies. (The meaning of anthropology and its technical applications) by reviewing the features of anthropology as a concept in ancient metaphysical thought, Anthropology studies of human societies mostly focused on traditions, customs, systems, relationships between people, and different behavioral patterns practiced by a particular people or nation. Anthropology relies in its theoretical origins on the basis of descriptive material. The academy in the nineteenth century, and the need arose in the era of the cultural and scientific revolution for this new branch of knowledge as it looks at man in a comprehensive framework, through the retreat of philosophy in front of the progress of scientific thinking and the development of social sciences, as man derives his knowledge assets and concepts from Sciences related to both biological and social life. while the second topic was concerned with: (intellectual and artistic references to the metaphysical forms of Sumerian art). This topic included the Sumerian and the impact of (metaphysical thought) in the arts of that era. During the third millennium BC, the Sumerians established religious ideas and spiritual concepts that left an indelible impact on the modern world, especially through Judaism, Christianity and Islam. On the intellectual level, the Sumerian thinkers and sages, as a result of their translated contemplations of the origin, nature and method of its work, developed a science of the universe and a theology in it. A lot of what leads to conviction, to the extent that they became the basis for the testimony of faith and the recognized belief of many religions of the ancient Near East, on the scientific and functional level. As for the third chapter, it was concerned with following up the research community by adopting the descriptive analytical method for the purpose of analyzing it according to the indicators adopted by The researchers and samples were selected, amounting to (4) sculptural works that covered the limits of the research As for the fourth chapter, it contains the search results.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2023-08-20T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 The position of the United States of America on the Ethiopian settlement policy for the period 1985-1987, a historical study 2023-07-18T11:37:43+03:00 Salah Wahib Hanash Mohammed Yahia Ahmed <div> <p>The research aims to shed light on the position of the United States of America on the Ethiopian settlement policy, and the position of the United States of America against this policy has emerged, as the United States of America considered the settlement policy a waste of Ethiopia's limited resources, and that life opportunities in the southern part of Ethiopia were bad. The drought hit Ethiopia completely, but the severity of the drought in the north was greater than in the south, due to the events that were continuing at a single pace, which the Ethiopian government took as a pretext to empty the rebellious Ethiopian north, so the Ethiopian government expedited the transfer of two hundred thousand Ethiopians within the program of this policy, desiring it By transferring more than a million and a half to the south, there was strong opposition from the US administration, after the reports of the US State Department revealed the exacerbation of catastrophic effects as a result of the resettlement program, so I made a decision not to provide aid with regard to this program, because of its negative effects on agriculture and agricultural production , As well as the social aspect of the fragmentation of the fabric that makes up the Ethiopian society, and the resettlement program has increased the severity of the famine that Ethiopia has been suffering from for several years. While reports issued by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs that condemned the Ethiopian government for implementing the forced settlement policy, and there were calls from the US Agency for International Development, to countries that were providing assistance to Ethiopia in the settlement program to stop the latter, the United States of America also used the media and international bodies to influence the government The Ethiopian government backed down from the resettlement program, in addition to waving congressional legislation, which emphasized the cessation of relief aid to stop the famine and the end of commercial dealings between the two countries.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2023-08-20T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 The role of British consultants and experts in establishing health institutions in Iraq 1921-1932 2023-07-18T11:44:52+03:00 Alyaa Sabbar Khalf Jamal faysal hamd <div> <p>Those in charge of highlighting the idea of establishing the medical association realized the existence based on their call to develop the country healthily and fill the deficiencies that it was suffering from during that period.This study came to shed light on the role of consultants and experts in establishing health institutions and the extent of their influence in drawing up health policy in Iraq.The issue of establishing health institutions in the third decade of the twentieth century was a great achievement and the first building block of the health base in Iraq. The Iraqi government during the royal era showed interest based on its need for health professionals such as doctors, pharmacists, nurses, and midwives, by increasing financial funds and providing appropriate buildings. . By reviewing a topic, it became clear to us that foreign consultants and experts played a major role in establishing health institutions, as the British realized after their occupation of Iraq the importance of the health situation because it had an impact on the health of their soldiers, so British doctors like Dr. Hicks played a role in establishing the medical association following the request of the head of the Public Health Department For the city of Baghdad, the Medical Association was formed on the fourteenth of August in 1920 in Baghdad, so all British doctors and others joined it to the association, and that association had an impact on the health situation in Baghdad. From the first moment, the Medical Association played a key role in the establishment of the Iraqi Medical College, as British doctors dominated the presidency and management of the Medical Association. (50), if the goal of the project is to increase the number of national doctors in Iraq by establishing an Iraqi school to study medicine in Baghdad</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2023-08-20T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Truth and metaphor in the interpretation of Imam Hassan Al-Askari (peace be upon him) 2023-07-18T11:56:54+03:00 Hawra Mahdi Abdul Sahib <div> <p>The Holy Qur’an is a miracle in its wording and structures, for it is the miraculous word of God that dazzled the Arabs with its words and expressions, its syntactic sentences and its sounds expressing events with accuracy and wisdom. With the thought of its contents, therefore, a group of linguistic phenomena appeared, and among them were the phenomena of truth and metaphor, which gained great favor from the scholars of rhetoric. There is a linguistic truth, a legal truth, a general customary truth, and a private customary truth, and there is a linguistic and mental metaphor, and each of these types has relationships. And I will explain this in the pages of the research, and since my study was about truth and metaphor, I did not find better than the application of these two phenomena except in the interpretation attributed to Imam Hassan Al-Askari (peace be upon him), and the interpretation of Imam Hassan Al-Askari (peace be upon him) was the best commodity that he benefited from, as it is a rich scientific encyclopedia With this topic and how that, Imam Rabbani knew, as he is the descendant of the pure progeny, so the subject of the research was the truth and the metaphor in the interpretation of Imam Hassan Al-Askari, peace be upon him.The research is divided into an introduction and two chapters:The title of the preface was tagged with (the truth and metaphor, linguistically and idiomatically), and it contained a set of demands.As for the first topic: I dealt with the verses that were used metaphorically, then the second topic came and was titled an analytical study and an approach to the verses, then at the end of the research I reached a set of results, which is the conclusion of the research.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2023-08-20T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Partition in the Glorious Quran 2023-07-18T12:03:40+03:00 Farah Salim Muhammad Shet Ziadan <div> <p>Partition is a concept that denotes the meaning of sufficiency, which is to dispense with a letter and suffice with an appropriate movement for it. The ( kasra) from the omitted (ya’), the (dhammah) from the omitted (waw), and the fatha from the omitted alif, and the parting with the kasra from the omitted ya’ was more frequently mentioned in the Glorious Qur’an. Among the benefits of partition is the indication of the occurrence of the verb in the given witness, and its ease for the subject . The intensity of the acceptance of the affected by it in existence, just as if the denominator is the totality , then it is taken by affirmation, and if the denominator of particulars, then it is the partition . In addition to other benefits, including what indicates in it what is omitted, such as the Day of Judgment, as in (and obey), that is, it refers to what is omitted, absent, or everything that is absent from perception, and what is my other kingdom or my kingdom, such as (neighbourhood). Partition is useful in denoting the rapid occurrence of the action in the places of the witness, its easiness for the subject , and the strong acceptance of the affected by it in existence. From this, it can be concluded that the benefits of partition are the same as the benefits of omission , as the relationship between them is direct and proportional. Examples of partition include:Al-Zumar: 10 Al-Zumar: 53, the abbreviation for the kasra from the ya’ in the first verse is the basis of the witness that it is for honor and strengthening the connection with God and that they are not veiled from Him, the Most High And there is no means between God Almighty and them, and in the second verse the place of the witness here has been proven yaa to strengthen the attribution of the slavery of these people to God Almighty, and another place that happened in the words of the Almighty Hood: 46, in the first verse the evidence occurred in the word (so no You ask me) from Surat Al-Kahf for the letter Yaa, in contrast to the word (so do not ask) in Surat Hud. Here, the sufficiency of the kasra from the ya’ has occurred. The rhetoric is explained in the affirmation in the first verse the place of the witness that the knowledge or matter that Moses (Peace be upon him) forbade asking about is not known by Moses (Peace be upon him). But the scholar who taught Moses (Peace be upon him), who is Al-Khidr (Peace be upon him), knew this knowledge and told him about it later on, so he told him about the three things that the scholar Al-Khidr (Peace be upon him) did. Whereas in Surat Hud, the abbreviation occurred in the Ya’, because the prohibition here of asking about knowledge that Noah (Peace be upon him) did not know, contrary to what came in Surat Al-Kahf.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2023-08-20T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Narrative discourse and its representations in the contemporary Iranian theatrical text )Akbar Rady as a model( 2023-07-18T12:30:46+03:00 Ayad Mohammed Hussain <div> <p>Theatrical art is one of the most important cultural data that coincided with the intellectual and artistic movement within civilized societies, to paint its images or to address its problems at all levels. Therefore, the Iranian theatrical art played an important role in this field, even if it came later than its peers in other civilizations and nations, but it was able to keep pace with it and outperform some of it. The Iranian theater is one of the modern theaters that came with the cultural renaissance of the Qajars, which was able to keep pace with the global theatrical movement and present a solid intellectual product. In the field of writing theatrical text, the Iranian writer was able to present theatrical texts in accordance with the textual controls and standards adopted by the Western author, so his intellectual production was a true expression of the social reality in all its forms and images. Some historians consider that the Iranian theater began with the writer Akhwan Zadeh and Mirza Agha Tabrizi. In this field of our research, we chose the playwright Akbar Rady, who contributed extensively to the contemporary Iranian theatrical production through his many plays and writings, and his style and textual and narrative treatments were highlighted through his play "Az Pesht Shisha Ha" meaning "From Behind the Windows". , whose events revolve around the issue of isolation and alienation, including the isolation of the thinker and the intellectual from society, his alienation, and his closing in on himself, due to his collision with the social reality surrounding him, which is not commensurate in any way with his thought, temperament, behaviors, and ambition. The writer was very successful in his textual and narrative treatments, in line with the events of the play.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2023-08-20T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 A Study into Makkah and Hijaz Status Based on Al-Mustabser History BookBy Ibn Al-Mujawir 2023-07-18T12:41:40+03:00 Thikra Mohamed Kadhum <div> <p>One of the most important sources tha One of the most important sources that dealt with the conditions of Makkah and the Hijaz is the book “The History of Al-Mustabasir” by Ibn Al-Mujawar, where he presented in his book the geographical location of Makkah and the most important names that were given to it through his narrations. Others such as Taif and Hijaz and their division, and Yemen and the most important states in it. He also dealt with historical events and economic events in those countries. He mentions cities in all their details because his approach was not purely geographical. Rather, it is more like being encyclopedic and we can adopt it as a historical, geographical and economic source because it mentions historical events through its narratives. In addition to the accurate geographical description, the book of Ibn Al-Majawar was not only a geographical book, but included within it valuable historical information and dealt with by Ibn Al-Majawar in an interesting manner, including mentioning the story of the conquest of the Commander of the Faithful Ali bin Abi Talib (peace be upon him) for the mountains of Bani Salim, where he tells us the whole story and how the Muslims were helpless About conquering those mountains until the most honorable Messenger Muhammad (may God bless him and his family) summoned the Commander of the Faithful Ali Ibn Abi Talib and managed to conquer them and called him the dragonfly of religion by saying what he said: “I read in some books that Banu Sulaym in pre-Islamic times had great bees, so if An enemy came to them smoking in the aquaria, meaning bees, and it was flying and the air was rising, showing to the beholder a resemblance to a cloud due to its abundance, and when it rose, it descended and descended on the enemy’s horses and grieved against them, and then the enemy’s horses were defeated from their hands, and the Banu Sulaym had subdued all their enemies with this art and remained They remained in their condition until God Almighty showed Islam and the Prophet (and those with him of the Companions) went out to these actions, so the Banu Sulaym did what was previously mentioned. Islam and the city of the Noble Messenger Muhammad (may God bless him and his family and grant him peace) held the banners of the Muslims and strengthened matters of religion, just as the Hijaz is a middle region between the civilization of the Arabs of the south and the civilization of the Arabs of the North. .t this research adopted is Al-Mustabser History Book By Ibn Al-Mujawir, it mentions The geographical location of Makkah, the most important names of it, and also Makkah rulers. In addition to Makkah other important details of other districts in the region as Taif, Hijaz, and Yemen as well as historical and economic events, this book demonstrates different details of these districts as his approach wasn't considered with geography alone, but more like comprehensive. It could be deemed as a geographical, historical, and economical source; in addition to the historical facts, it maintains an accurate geographical description</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2023-08-20T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Demolition and construction in modern sculpture (Giacometti as a model) 2023-07-18T12:50:10+03:00 Emad Hammoud Abd Al-Hussein Twij Ammar Muhammad Ali Banoun <div> <p>The current research deals with the definition of demolition and construction in modern sculpture (Giacometti as a model). The research contains four chapters. The first chapter is concerned with the methodological framework of the research which is represented by the research problem that deals with shedding light on what is demolition and construction in modern sculpture (Giacometti as a model). Which had a great impact on the development that took place in art in terms of demolition and construction in the form. Which the work of (Giacometti) embodied in his artistic achievements. By departing from formal stereotypes to abstraction and reduction, by employing human and animal forms and paying to technical treatments, the first chapter also contained the goal of the research, which is: to define demolition and construction in modern sculpture(Giacometti as a model). As for the limits of research, the current study has determined his sculptural works in the exhibition halls of the Museum of Modern Art - New York - USA, and the Metropolitan Museum of Art - Switzerland and for the period between (1930-1962). The second chapter ,including.the most important indicators that resulted from the theoretical framework, where the first topic dealt with (the philosophical concept of demolition and construction). The second topic dealt with (modern European art) and the third topic deals with (works Sculptural giacometti between reality and fiction) While the third chapter included the research procedures that included the research community and its specimen, the research methodology, the research tool, and the analysis of the research samples, which numbered (5), a sculptural work. The fourth chapter of the research included the results of the research and its conclusions, recommendations and proposals, and the researchers reached a number of results, including:1 - The sculptor relied mostly in his sculptures on the manipulation of the elements of art (texture, space, line, mass), thus investigating the method of reduction in the human form and the animal form.2- The interaction between demolition and construction in form and content, as well as the manipulation of the material and the technology adopted in a work, which gives it the characteristic of reduction.As for the conclusions, the researchers came to a group of the most important of them: Demolition and construction is an artistic method that relies on simplification and reduction in the arts of modernity.As for the recommendations, the researchers reached a group of the most important ones: Providing the library of the College of Mixed Education / Department of Art Education. With books, sources, letters and treatises dealing with (shorthand) in the plastic arts and sculpture in particular.As for the proposals, the researchers has reached a group of the most important of them: The effect of the artistic style of the sculptor Giacometti on postmodern sculpture.It was followed by a list of sources and annexes, and then a summary of the research in English</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2023-08-20T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 The Marazqa family and its impact on public life in the era of the Marinid state (622-844 AH / 1244-1465 AD) 2023-07-18T12:59:53+03:00 Abbas Karim Abd Al-Khafaji <div> <p>This family has lived in the Maghreb for a long time and a large number of scientists, writers and intellectuals have emerged from it, and this family through its men played a large and prominent role in the political, social and intellectual life in the Maghreb during the reign of the marinid state.Therefore, this research represents a contribution to exploring the depth of the activity of this family in making events and contributing to various political, social and economic affairs in Moroccan society, especially since there are not enough studies and research to define this family and indicate its role in public life during the marinid era, so this research aims to introduce this family and its great role in the course of events different aspects of life Political, social and intellectual spheres.Accordingly, the need calls on researchers to exert more efforts and prepare research and solid scientific studies to establish a strong platform in employing such research to serve the movement of sober and purposeful scientific research to represent a wealth of knowledge documenting the time periods lived in this country and others.The research in its various paragraphs included a serious contribution to achieving its goals above and forming a clear picture of the great and growing role played by this family in the overall events and circumstances experienced by the marinid state.The researcher used the method of presentation, theoretical analysis and the combination between the historical material and the extrapolation of actual reality and the conditions that accompanied the establishment of the marinid state.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2023-08-20T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 The Technical Transformation of the Stimulus and its Role in Shaping the Iraqi Theatrical Show 2023-07-18T13:07:25+03:00 Nadia Ali Abdul Sadah Ali Ridha Hussein <div> <p>This study deals with presenting a different vision of theatrical techniques, and analyzing it according to the foundations and narrative rules established by the formal studies of (motive) as an objective equivalent to the theatrical act rooted in the dramatic structure. The research consisted of four chapters, the first chapter included(Methodological framework) starting with the research problem, which centered on the following question: (What is the technical transformation of the stimulus and its role in shaping the Iraqi theatrical show?), and the importance of the research that stemmed from the fact that it sheds light on the nature of (the stimulus) and its artistic outputs that form the intellectual and aesthetic fabric in theatrical presentation techniques; the aim of the research: to identify the technical transformation of (the incentive) and its role in shaping the Iraqi theatrical show; the temporal limits of the research: 2013 AD, spatial: Iraq, and objectivity: a study of the technical transformation of the stimulus and its role in shaping the Iraqi theatrical show, in addition to defining terms and procedural definitions. As for the Second Chapter (theoretical framework), it came in two sections, the first topic centers on studying (the motivation) in terms of the concept and references, while the second topic sheds light on the directive visions of the incentive in light of the technical transformations of the theatrical show. The researcher devoted the Third Chapter to the research procedures, in which the research sample was identified and chosen in an intentional way to be a model in the analysis, and it was represented in the play (Camp Iraq) written and directed by (Muhannad Hadi), The researcher adopted the (descriptive) approach in analyzing the sample, according to what was dictated by the nature of the current research. At the end of the study, the researcher mentioned the below results:-1. The technical transformation in the performance of the actors, using the art of invisibility and transfiguration, compatible with the technique of moving doors, nominated a dynamic stimulus whose mission is to break the balance of the initial situation of the theatrical event.2. The austere scenography designed for the trial scene: (torture room, chairs, and military uniforms), embodied a semantic role for (the delayed stimulus).The researcher arrived to a set of conclusions that came in accordance with the previously nominated results, and eventually finalized the study with the list of sources</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2023-08-20T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Obstacles to the application of e-learning from the point of view of all teachers of social sciences in Diyala Governorate and their proposals for treatment 2023-07-20T09:41:13+03:00 Ali Hadi Hussein Al-Tamimi <div> <p>The current research aims to know (Obstacles to the application of e-learning from the point of view of all teachers of social sciences in Diyala Governorate and their proposals for treatment). intentionally, as it consisted of (158) male and female teachers after excluding (20) A male and female teacher, who are members of the exploratory sample, to whom the researcher applied the questionnaire to calculate the reliability coefficient, and the researcher used the descriptive analytical approach for its suitability for the research procedures. One of the specialists in teaching methods and Islamic and modern history. The researcher also used many statistical methods, including the (Pearson) and (Spearman Brown) equations to calculate stability, and Fisher's law to find the weighted mean to know the probability of each paragraph. He also used the percentage weight law in analyzing and interpreting the results. After applying the tool and processing it statistically, the results showed that there are some obstacles that lead to the non-application of e-learning in primary schools, including the following:• Lack of involvement of educational bodies in development courses for the use of e-learning.• Lack of classroom equipment with modern tools and devices necessary for e-learning.The researcher recommended a number of recommendations, including the following:• Intensifying training courses for educational bodies to develop their electronic and technological skills.• Providing an appropriate infrastructure that encourages the use of e-learning in schools.The researcher suggested several proposals, including the following:• Conducting a study similar to the current study at the level of schools in the country to unify points of view in identifying the most important difficulties of e-learning facing all male and female teachers.• Conducting a study aimed at developing solutions and treatment proposals for the difficulties of e-learning in all schools</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2023-08-20T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Reformist Manifestations In The Holy Qur’an Of The Revolutionary Personality 2023-07-20T09:48:43+03:00 Muhammad Jaber Alwan Al-Husseini Amer Omran Al-Khafaji <div> <p>importance of the idea of reformism stands out in terms of its essence. It is a call and foundation for the necessity of correcting and amending the "crookedness" in the lives of nations and beliefs (religious and worldly), meaning that it coincides with the content of "straightforwardness" and "the straight path" as the symbolic and graphic formula for reforming "deviation" and "deviation and delusion." On the "first ideas", "high ideals" and "origins", therefore, the emergence of the idea of uprightness and the straight path is equivalent to the meaning of steadfastness in the path of truth and truth, and then the straight path means nothing but the path of truth and its history, which made the "history of truth" on Persistence is the most crooked type of integrity, because it contains all possibilities and all possibilities, just as the reformist idea always contains the meaning of criticism and modification of the course of life, thinking and beliefs. Rigid and fatal to the mind and conscience, as it is the movement of permanent renewal, i.e. the natural state of the historical process in the life of nations.This makes us acknowledge the possibility of creating the leadership personality from a combination of material, moral, genetic and practical factors as well, and this in turn confirms that the accumulated experience represents an important factor in the success of leaders in making the appropriate decision, and that leadership talent is not absent in crises and urgent decisions, especially since the internal reality is witnessing semi-crises. daily throughout The country, some of which may be very dangerous and complex, which calls for a unique presence of the leadership personality capable of decisiveness, direction and moving forward, and I see that the true vision of the reformist base of the revolutionary personality and which is marked by faith and morals and their connection with them and their manifestation is the first thing. It was presented that there is a direct relationship between faith and morals, so whenever the faith is true and strong, it produces good morals, and in this he says the most complete believers in faith are the best in morals</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2023-08-20T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 The position of the Jews and Christians on the Umayyad state in Andalusia (138-366 AH) 2023-07-20T09:57:10+03:00 Aqeel Muhammad Salih Al-Asadi <div> <p>The Muslims conquered Andalusia in the year (92 AH / 711 AD) and it became part of the Islamic state, as it is an Islamic region that has its own life, which is characterized by being rich in its various aspects. An independent state after it was just a wilaya belonging to the central authority in Damascus, as the Andalusian society consisted of several groups that all met on the land of Andalusia, including Arabs, Berbers, Mawali, Muslim and Mawlid, as well as the Saqalaba element, and religions mixed with Muslims and non-Islamic elements of Christians and Jews, and the country is almost unique Andalusia, with its demographic composition, is among the countries of the Islamic world as a whole, and human groups of Christians and Jews were subject to the rule of Islam, and Muslims dealt with them in accordance with the provisions of Islam and its tolerant law, as these elements were linked to Muslims by a covenant that protects their rights, and the freedom to practice their rituals and their own religion without forcing them to enter into Islam. The Islamic religion, in exchange for their respect for the teachings of the Islamic religion and not to prejudice its beliefs and respect for the laws of the state, and the Jews and Christians formed an important part of Andalusian society and occupied a great position in the way the state dealt with and applied the teachings of the Islamic religion, so their position towards the ruling Umayyad state was the position of the cooperator and the coexistence of the community with friendliness and respect to build a civilization Ancient, influenced by Islamic civilization and Islamic thought to enlighten Europe for many centuries, although there were some whose private interests were affected, so they revolted against the state and took advantage of the name of religion to declare their disobedience and rebellion, as they were cooperating with the Islamic revolutions that were emerging against the ruling Umayyad authority, and some of them felt that Islam had destroyed their religious status They tried to undermine Islam by distorting it and trying to stir up Christians and Jews in an attempt to restore the religious status that they enjoyed. Despite this, the Umayyad state treated them after eliminating the revolutions that broke out against it with a spirit of tolerance and leniency.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2023-08-20T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 The predicate style in the protests of Imam al-Rida (peace be upon him) The negation style is a model 2023-07-20T10:03:29+03:00 Muhammad Hassan Keitan Ali Hassouni Sharifi <div> <p>The research sheds light on the news smethod, which is one of the pillars of protest upon which it is based in establishing a conversational communicative relationship between two parties, one of whom is the addressee (the speaker) and the other is the addressee (the receiver), and by various synthetic linguistic methods to build argumentative arguments with a purpose in which the speaker expresses his evidence and proofs in order to influence The recipient and his persuasion, we find the speaker enriches his argumentative discourse with news methods consistent with the mental and psychological nature of the recipient, as well as looking at the status of the situation and the circumstances surrounding the conversational process Among these declarative methods is the negation method, in which it generates a state of direct influence on the mind of the intended listener in the argumentative process as well as the listeners, resulting in doubt and hesitation in the soul of the listener. The listener is in confusion, resulting in responses that the speaker aspires to in order to convince the listener, influence his evidence, weaken it, and raise doubts about it. You notice in the protests of Imam al-Ridha (peace be upon him) in the Council of al-Ma’mun the diversity of the recipients’ religions, and the presence of ideological orientations that deviate from the path of truth. Within a linguistic structure and with expressive literary and rhetorical methods aimed at understanding and understanding the recipients, and we will show this in the contents of our research And we find that Imam Al-Reza (peace be upon him) took the negation as a door in proving the true beliefs and nullifying the deviant beliefs and in ways that are very accurate and sober, plot and sobriety, and in a moral and educational manner that has the highest levels of persuasive influence and with rational and logical evidence supported by the heavenly books, and the sayings of the prophets and guardians, so his speech (upon him be peace) was Al-Salam) is an argumentative discourse based on affirmative negation and definitive reporting with certainty that there is no doubt or doubt about it, and we will explain this in the contents of our research</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2023-08-20T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 The end of brevity By Muhammad bin Al-Hassan Al-Husseini Al-Khorasani study and realization 2023-07-20T10:09:43+03:00 Qassem Rahim Hassan Jawad Kazem Abed <div> <p>This grammatical poem tagged with (Nihayat al-Ijaz) was written by Sayyid Muhammad Ibn al-Sayyid , the scholar Hassan al-Hindi al-Khorasani, written in the year (1278 AH), in a hundred verses. It was mentioned by the student of Sheikh Ali bin Muhammad bin Hasan al-Kunabadi with his explanation.This poem has its importance, as his student explained it, and Sheikh Agha Buzurk mentioned that when he said: “Explanation of the end of the brief) in grammar by Sheikh Ali bin Muhammad bin Hassan bin Sheikh Ali Naqi Al-Kanabadi (Al-Janabadi) Al-Khorasani and the text of the professor of the commentator, according to what appears from the introduction to its printing in the year 1300 AH, which The Shariah died in it. The grammatical systems represented an educational pattern that our advanced scholars took care of . To facilitate understanding of the grammar of the language , and to facilitate what is ambiguous.They employed poetry systems in formulating those systems that would facilitate the teaching of grammar rules, facilitate their memorization, and quickly recall them in time of need . Because memorizing the rule is a way to move away from melody, expression in classical language, and the diversity of grammatical systems between a poem on one rhyme to a multi-rhymed poem, and between systems in one issue of grammar issues to Urjouzah that includes all issues of grammar and its sections.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2023-08-20T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Ibrahim Harkat's resources through his book Politics and Society In the prophetic era 2023-07-20T10:17:27+03:00 Salwa Hassan Idan Hisham Nadhim Ziad <div> <p>Through our study and our knowledge of the subject, we found that the Arab modern historians and others, including the Moroccan historian Ibrahim Harkat, depend on a different method in transmitting his resources in their writings, and this is clear because they are transmitters from primary historical sources. Therefore, we find that most of the resources are divided into two parts, authorized resources and unauthorized resources. And the authorized ones are also divided into two parts: -The first section:They are the narrators, including the interpreters and the hadith scholars (the owners of the hadith), who are considered the first source in transmitting the narration or the origin of the resourceAnd the second section: The Holy Qur’an may be a resource for the author when he returns to the Qur’anic verses during the analysis of the historical novel or criticism of the historical novel, that is, the Qur’anic verse is outside the historical narrative transmitted from historical books or others. The resource may be manuscripts, which are documents written in the author’s handwriting or books as we find them. Professor Ibrahim has movements in writing politics and society in the Prophet’s era, and these books are divided according to specialization, including books of interpretation, hadith, jurisprudence, and general history, including biographies and translations, as well as linguistic and administrative books, and others As we find that the third part of the second section, which is (the books), is the most general among the hadith scholars, as they differed with the ancient historians (authors of the primary historical sources), and here we find that the resource is transmitted either in the text or in the margin, and little of what we find among the hadith scholars in the text as we find it among the ancient historians As for the thing in which I do not find a difference, it is the mention of unauthorized sources, that is, not mentioning the resource in the text or in the margin, just mentioning the historical narrative or the hadith of the Prophet and other information in the book without any mention of the source or narrator from whom the information was taken, and here we find that there is a similarity Among the authors of the sources and references in it</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2023-08-20T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 The impact of legal protection of the environment on the values of society in Iraq 2023-07-20T10:26:19+03:00 Rajah Matroud Mazal Al-Aboudi Mohsen Qadeer Nasser Karimish Al-Jourani <div> <p>The environment and its preservation from pollution have become at the forefront of the issues that countries and international organizations attach great importance to at this time because of their harm to human health and the environment together, and before that. The efforts of those countries and international organizations have emerged in protecting the environment in general and the air environment in particular. Islamic law considers preserving the environment a religious duty. As one of the necessities of human life itself. There is no doubt that the legal protection of the environment, according to its modern concept in Iraq, is very important and occupies the thinking of many researchers and thinkers, as well as occupies the time of many legislative, executive and judicial state institutions. higher and entrenched in the hearts of individuals, which helps to develop a criminal policy to protect the environment and that this legal protection becomes one of the beliefs that are characterized by its relative continuity, and these values are what direct people towards goals or means to achieve them. This protection is based on deeply rooted values in the hearts of individuals, so it has a preventive and important aspect in confronting environmental crime Thus, following a preventive criminal policy to confront environmental crime and the use of administrative and social control methods to protect the Iraqi environment has a clear role in consolidating those values in the hearts of individuals and the community, which reflects this on their behavior. Applying this principle such as environmental impact assessment and administrative authorization, there is a big difference between the use of preventive methods and remedial methods</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2023-08-20T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 The Urban Scope Of The City Of Baghdad Was In The Writings Of Andalusians 2023-07-20T10:45:30+03:00 Marjoussin Saleh Assadi Noal Turki Musa Al-Moussawi <div> <p>The textbooks or Andalusian sources that speak of Baghdad have been characterized by a few And that is because Andalusian writings are territorial writings that speak of Andalusia, In addition, the majority of Andalusia's heritage has been lost with the loss of Islam. But in our research, we have been able to collect not a few Andalusian writings written by the Andalusians and their inhabitants or writers who have come to Andalusia and settled in them. Or a book that they are not originally from Andalusians or residents in, but they wrote about Andalusia and specialized in writing about it and knew about it.The study on the urban scope of the city of Baghdad was in the writings of Andalusians and included: First: The motives of choosing the city of Baghdad, the most important of which was the presence of the Abbasid caliphate. This is one of the oldest cities in the world, especially in the Islamic world. Second: The form and dimension of Baghdad City was the form of the City of Baghdad Maduro, with a turnover of 20 miles and on the right bank of the Tigris River. The construction of Baghdad City began in Baghdad in 145 A.D. After the land was divided into four sections, each of which was supervised by a man from the army commanders, a man from the loyalists and a man from the engineers. After the completion of the construction, Mansur Al-Abbasi transferred the coffers, downs and money houses, fourth: The West and East sides of Baghdad have built the Old City of Baghdad on two sides: the West Side, which has become a ruin over time, and the East Side, where palaces and mosques have been built and the objects divided, Fifth: Baghdad city bridges built in Baghdad are three bridges linking the cities of Baghdad and Russafa, but one of these bridges collapsed due to time factors. The doors of Baghdad City had internal and external doors. The interior had four doors and the exterior also had four doors. Each door had its own name, seventh: Baghdad City graves are a Baghdad City whale on many graves. And from the habits of the people of Baghdad and their tradition of visiting cemeteries, they had a day every Friday to visit a sheikh from these elders and a day for another sheikh, and so to the end of the week, In addition, the conclusion contained a number of findings, including that Baghdad had a distinct place in sources and studies. s cultural impact in Andalusia has been clear and comprehensive in all areas of public life, the list of sources and references</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2023-08-20T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 The motives of pain in the play (Bells and Trains) by Yehuda Amichai 2023-07-20T10:55:44+03:00 Ali Mohamed Rasheed <div> <p>The upbringing of Yehuda Amichai and the conditions he lived in had a great influence on his deep sense of pain, which made him think of death and suicide. Especially after the Nazis came to power in Germany, and his emigration with his family. Amichai searched for love throughout his life, and his failure was one of the most important factors affecting his psyche, which is A deep influence that made him live in harsh and painful pains that broke him, and prevented her from achieving his ambitions in life.Dramatic texts are characterized by repetition in writing and presentation. It is a textual discourse that has two advantages, first, that it can be read as a literary text like all other literary texts, and second, that it can be considered an acting performance on the stage and it distances the recipient from reading the word until it is heard and seen by real characters.Amichai was able, through his long life and the painful events that accompanied it, to portray many aspects of the social and political life of the Jews, so his literary productions celebrate the writing of pain as an attention-grabbing celebration, so this study aims to search for the motives of pain and employ them in his writing and take from the play "Bells and Trains" Typical of Israeli Holocaust remembrance is a ritual memorial ceremony in which the dead are allowed to speak to the living. This well-known play, which has received many translations on a large scale, is considered as one of the first dramatic attempts in general and radio in particular to address the subject of the Holocaust (the Nazi catastrophe) and its accompanying tragedies and sad memories. The study reached a set of results, the most important of which are: that writing pain is an incentive to act, write, and be free from it, just as remembering and writing painful memories means action, confrontation, and freedom from fear, and pain, in turn, here becomes an incentive to break the restrictions of imposed taboos. Patriarchy through the act of writing</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2023-08-20T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 The city of Fas in the writings of historians (192 AH) 2023-07-20T11:08:15+03:00 Jehan Saleh Assi Al-Asadi Nawal Turki Musa Al-Moussawi <div> <p>The study was devoted to the city of Fas, the capital of the school, in the writings of Muslim historians, and on the reasons for the construction of the city, the most important of which was the narrow old city of the State of the school, which is And Lily. The study first included: The name Fas was named with Fas for several reasons, including the name of the Old City that before Fas was in its place. The city also had several meanings, including Fas cutting trees, and finding a large amount of gold inscribed on it the name Fas and other reasons for naming, secondly: Choosing the location of the city of Fas. The choice of this place had several reasons, including the abundance of fresh eyes, many trees and moderate air, as well as the natural immunity of the city. It was on a plateau so that the enemy could not reach it. Its founder sought to achieve safety and protection for people, ease, benefit and prosperity for them. The planning of the city was based on the bases on which Baghdad was built, the most important of which was the economic, strategic and commercial location, i.e., its location on the roads and commercial tracks. City Building Includes: Building (Adwan Al-Karawi, Adwan Al-Andalisi) The city was built by Idriss to remind God of it and read his book and urged its people to adhere to the Book and the Prophet's Sunnah. Idriss also got people involved in building Fas in order to speed up the task of completing the construction The construction included a neighbourhood of villagers and a neighbourhood of Andalusians, novels about the construction of the city of Fas in the writings of historians The city's community consisted of Arabs coming with the Adrisi family. The Berbers were people of the region, Jews and Christ, joined by two categories coming from Córdoba and the second came from Kairouan. Everyone had a great impact on the establishment, advancement and development of the city of Fas in all aspects. They understood the thousand lives of the Islamic city, as well as the conclusion and list of sources and references</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2023-08-20T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Mechanism for referring the international crime of genocide against minorities to the International Criminal Court For researcher 2023-07-20T11:28:45+03:00 Hussein Saad Mohsen Mohsen Hassan Qadir <div> <p>The principles of the Islamic religion are a religion of peace, love, and tolerance, and that these principles are the basis for peaceful coexistence and basic human rights, in addition to the human rights principles endorsed by all contemporary international and national laws.From here, the idea of the study is based on delving into the criminal law of this crime and knowing the possibility of prosecuting the criminals and the perpetrators, starting from the national laws and leading to identifying the ways and obstacles to conduct their trial in the International Criminal Court.The most prominent research necessity is to indicate the extents of international criminal justice represented by the International Criminal Court or not, as well as to establish the legal foundations that guarantee the right of minorities who are subjected to genocide by international terrorist ideology in the event that those minorities are located in countries that have not signed the Rome law The foundation upon which the International Criminal Court was formedThe main objective of the research is to show the paths of the criminal law related to the crime of genocide against minorities at the national and international levels through researching the obstacles and ways of criminalizing them in accordance with the Rome Statute on which the International Criminal Court relied.One of the most important features of this study is its focus on genocide crimes against minorities, as it is, according to the researcher’s knowledge, one of the rare studies that dealt with this aspect, if not the first</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2023-08-20T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Al-Dhal Chapter of Muthana Al-Munshi's Book by Muhammad bin Badr Al-Din Al-Munshi (died in 1001 A.H): A Study and Investigation 2023-07-20T13:10:04+03:00 Rana Abdul Majeed Mansour Mustafa Kamil Ahmed <div> <p>The Arabic language included various linguistic phenomena, and among these phenomena: the phenomenon of the Muthanna (the duble-face), and I do not mean by it the grammatical duality, nor the Taghlibi Muthanna, but what is meant by it: what has two sides (two faces) in pronunciation, and Muhammad bin Badr Al-Din Al-Manshi (D. The linguistic phenomenon is in a special dictionary that he named: Muthanna Al-Manshi, in which he was confined to the collection of dichotomy of different meanings. The study included three sections, the first section included the definition of Al-Muthanna and its dictionary, the second section dealt with the study of the section of humiliation from the dictionary, and the third section dealt with the description of the written copies and the method of investigation. As for the second section, it included the investigated text (Chapter of Humiliation), and I concluded the research with a conclusion in which I mentioned the most important findings of the research, and appended the research with the sources and references that I benefited from. This research studies and investigates the chapter of Al-Dhal. It is a part of Al-Munshi’s book. It is written by Muhammad bin Badr Al-Din Al-Munshi who died in 1001 A.H. The book is considered a special lexicon that Al-Manshi dedicated to collecting the linguistic phenomenon of Duality. It was limited to collecting various meanings of Duality</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2023-08-20T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Interception is a Stylistic Controller in the Poetry of Jameel Buthaina 2023-07-20T13:22:52+03:00 Essam Mahmoud Kreikesh <div> <p>Researching the characteristics of the literary text leads us in one way or another to the concept of stylistic study, which lies in the element of choice that depends on the element of distribution. They are governed by the motives inherent in the soul and that formed the language in the unconscious. Sciences divine grants, and specialized talents, in a continuous product. The linguistic and literary heritage that we have confirms that this task was not limited to the ancients, but the late after them continued to be active in the construction and perpetuation of this construction.Here lies the importance of this study, which sheds light on the field of interception of Jameel Buthaina and his approach and its impact on his poetry from a linguistic point of view.The interception is only one stage of the stages of ruling and difference and it is a natural result of mental development of Arabic scientists, therefore, no one deals with it except those who owned the corner of the language and its rules. Thus, this study required to be divided into two sections:The first section: deals with a theoretical aspect about the concept of interception, or more precisely interceptive sentences, and exposing their positions and connotations in the context of speech.The second section: deals with the applied aspect in the poetry of Jameel Buthaina, which is dominant by a stylistic interception with a clear impact. He employed it to give connotations and poetic images that had an impact on the soul and touches human feelings.The research concluded with the most important results reached by the researcher with a list of dependable sources</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2023-08-20T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 The pragmatic discourse mechanisms of conversational implication in Alfyat Ibn Muti 2023-07-20T13:28:32+03:00 Ashwaq Muhammad Ismail Al-Najjar Showbo Faraj Hamed <div> <p>The research aims to study the conversational involvement; because It is one of the most important mechanisms that pragmatic discourse focuses on; to efficiency the communication, as a pragmatic linguistic mechanism and one of the most closely related mechanisms to the nature of analytical procedural research in the pragmatic discourse, and apply it to one of the educational systems, which is Alfyat Ibn Muti, trying to show the explicit meanings in it, that can be generated by violating one of the basic rules of dialog, the speaker violates one of these rules, and pleads to understand the meaning for the purpose of an indirect linguistic context and performance intended by the speaker. And Its meaning is dependent on the specifics of the propositional context, the intentions of the speakers, and the ability of supposed dialogical principles to contain or define the necessary communication for the linguistic process. The nature of this research required that it be issued with an introduction that focused on the pragmatics of the dialogue imperative and the principle of cooperation, And then the research refers to two types of Conversational involvement, then it moves to the applied side; to show the explicit meanings which is generated by the violation of the four rules of dialogue in the verses of Alfyat Ibn Muti; intended to reach a conclusion means that the language of educational systems is characterized as a pragmatic and communicative language; because it is about the use and circulation of language between the speaker and the addressee in a specific context, through the language The speaker seeks to convey a meaning to the addressee, and prove it, and the conversational involvement specializes in how to linguistic uses, and changes according to the conditions of production of linguistic phrases, it is based on the assumption of a set of rules emanating from mental considerations that makes linguistic behavior a successful act, It works to draw the necessary procedures that must be taken by the speaker and the the addressee in conducting the communication process.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2023-08-20T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Accumulation of modernity values in the media 2023-07-20T13:37:27+03:00 Bader Nasser Hussein <div> <p>The media represents one of the most important social functions, as a form of social organization for any country, and it is capable of creating interaction with various institutions and other organizations in society. The extent to which the media can become the only window for everything that is published, broadcast, or heard that the media allows will be These means are the only way to confront the torrent of counter messages. The media images presented through the media contribute to shaping the attitudes of individuals and draw mental pictures for them of the features of lived reality. The importance of the need to organize the media is highlighted as it is linked to the nature of public order in all its changes, and thus the importance of control and control over Its outputs. Between two types of media (objective media style - misleading media style) Where the public is exposed to conflicting waves of opinions and ideas, and with the development of technology, the work of the media faces complex technological and cultural challenges. The effects of the means of communication turn into strange forces and indirectly affect society, and it tries to create intellectual fears related to hidden control or creating anxiety in societies, and this concern has its justifications and its clear history. The media phenomenon is like information that hides other information behind it. introductory And behind it hides a vision and biases that predict a materialistic vision in which values disappear under the pretext of their rationality. Therefore, media who have the tools to confront facts reveal a flood of obfuscation, war, interpretation and penalties. The interest of this research extends to linking the manifestations of modernity with the media, and how contemporary media respond to the discourse of modernity and manufacture Its own values, the research consists of an introduction and a methodological framework, and two chapters, the first of which is related to contemporary media, and the second is the overlap of modernity with the media.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2023-08-20T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 The Effectiveness of Teaching Social Material according to the Infographic Technique in Achieving and Developing Visual Culture of Second-Grade Students 2023-07-20T13:42:06+03:00 Mahdi Jadir Habeeb <div> <p>The aim of the current study is to find out (The Effectiveness of Teaching Social Material according to the Infographic Technique in Achieving and Developing Visual Culture of Second-Grade Students).The researcher used the experimental design with partial control, with two equal experimental and control groups. Represented (intermediate and secondary governmental day schools in the center of Karbala Governorate associated with the General Directorate of Education of Karbala) and it was (Al-Thuraya middle school for girls), the researcher equalized the two groups in the following variables: chronological age calculated in months, intelligence, previous information test, parental achievement, previous achievement in Sociology subject, and the pretest visual culture test. The scientific subject identified the first three chapters of the Sociology book for the second intermediate grade, 1st edition, 1439 AH / 2018 AD. The behavioral objectives of these chapters were formulated, as their final form reached (160) behavioral goals, and with regard to the two research tools, the researcher deliberately To build two research tools, which was an achievement test in the subject of social studies, consisting of (50) objective items of the multiple choice type with four alternatives. The second tool was represented by the visual culture test, which is in its final form from (25) items. After applying the two search tools and statistically analyzing the results obtained by the researcher using the (Microsoft Excel) program and the ((SPSS) system, the results showed that the students of the experimental group who studied the social subject according to the infographic technique excelled over the students of the control group who studied according to the usual method in the achievement test and the culture test. In the light of the results of the research, the researcher recommended the necessity of using the infographic technique in teaching social studies because of its impact on increasing achievement and developing visual culture. It includes a set of infographic designs that help teachers of social studies in presenting the subject. It works to reduce effort, shorten time and costs, and move away from the traditional style of teaching. Others such as (direction, motivation, visual intelligence, reflective thinking).</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2023-08-20T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Aspects of luxury in the urban side of the city of Samarra 2023-07-23T12:40:23+03:00 Nofal Hamid Abdel Rahman Ahmed Mohamed Salem <div> <p>Praise be to God, Lord of the worlds, and the best of prayers and peace be upon our master Muhammad and his family and companions and those who follow him until the Day of Judgment. The city of Samarra was of great historical importance. This importance came through its being the capital of the Abbasid caliphate. For nearly six decades, a number of caliphs alternated in the period of rule of the Islamic state. The city of Samarra, and at the end of his rule he moved to Baghdad. The Abbasid caliphs cared in Samarra clearly and greatly in the field of urbanization, and we find a large number of palaces built during the period between (221-279 AH), Which exceeded in building the limit of the state’s need for palaces, so the matter reached that the life of luxury and extravagance entered the field of urbanization in a very large way, which made historians, as well as other buildings from the large mosques, and other facilities of the city, in addition to paying attention to the issue of irrigation through the incision Many canals and short rivers. The first topic dealt with the manifestations of luxury in the dwelling and the role, while the second topic came under the title of the manifestations of luxury in building palaces, canals and water canals, in which the researcher mentioned the construction of all the palaces that were built during this period</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2023-08-20T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 The image of the Abbasid caliphs (132 AH / 247 AH) in the books of the latecomers: The History of the Caliphs by Al-Suyuti as an example 2023-07-23T12:49:30+03:00 Ayad Saleh Assi Hamdaoui <div> <p>This research dealt with the study of the image of the Abbasid caliphs (132 AH - 344 AH) through the book History of the Caliphs, by Al-Suyuti, who is considered one of the prominent personalities that appeared during the tenth century AH (the fifteenth century AD), which combined the sciences of the Qur’an, the hadith of the Prophet, jurisprudence, mysticism, and fundamentals Language sciences, literature, history, translations, medicine and other sciences, as the book contained a clear depiction of the Abbasid caliphs from various political, economic and social aspects , and accurate details about their lives and their role in building the Abbasid state. The research has tried to clarify the position of Al-Suyuti - who is one of the late historians - towards the Abbasid caliphs through what he drew from a picture of the Abbasids and it was shown through a narration of the historical accounts of the history of the Abbasid caliphs (132 AH - 344 AH) Al-Suyuti did not criticize the narrations, nor analyze them, nor comment on them, and he contented himself with quoting them from their narrators, and he did not analyze the historical narrations that were transmitted to make sure of their validity, as Al-Suyuti did not bother to search and investigate the historical narrations that he narrated from the Abbasid caliphs, and we did not find him a special comment about the pictures. which he mentioned, which were often contradictory, The research came in an introduction and eight titles followed by the conclusion and an inventory of sources and secondary references. After the introduction, I dealt with the definition of his name, his nickname and his life, and then the pictures he drew in the passion of the Abbasid caliphs and their immersion in fun, play, competition and struggle over the king and their use of bloodshed as a means to reach power and what he presented. Contradictory pictures of those caliphs. Al-Suyuti presented a contradictory picture of the Abbasid caliphs, as he depicted fun, play, extravagance, extravagance, and the red nights that the Abbasid caliphs lived. And the rivalry between the sons of the Abbasid house, as these pictures took a large margin from the book of the history of the caliphs, which was considered an approach to the Abbasid policy that the Abbasid successors followed, and since the early establishment of their state in the issue of who reaches power</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2023-08-20T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Religious beliefs in the kingdom of Sami 2023-07-23T12:55:53+03:00 Kawthar Hassan Hindi Al-Tamimi <div> <p>The kingdom of Sami was considered one of the small kingdoms about which we did not have a detailed history of its origin or formation, like the rest of the kingdoms of Yemen. After (Bataleb Riyam), from here the study began by shedding light on the history ofWhat helped the strength of this kingdom is the weakness of the Kingdom of Sheba, with which the Kingdom of Sami had friendly relations, and stood by its side in its wars with the Kingdom of Sheba and Dhi Raidan, as well as its geographical location, which helped in the difficulty of accessing it because it is located in the mountainous regions.Aqeel Sami had a role in the history of the kingdom of Saba, so (Yarim Ayman) Al-Hamdani, one of the Qils of the Sami kingdom, usurped the throne of Saba in the year 145 BC.Over time, the gods Sama or Sami became known as Taleb Riyam, who is considered the national and official deity of the Sami people, as well as the union of the three tribes from which they formed (the union of the third lambs), as they consisted of Sami the lambs, Sami Hashid, and Sami Hajar, where these tribes presented to the god Taleb Riyam offerings and vows in connection with their conquests And their worship of it, in addition to the donations, lands and money presented by the kings of Semei to this god in the region of Mount Riam, and just as the god Taleb Riam Baal Sharam was worshiped by the tribes of Semei Lamb, as well as the god Taleb Riam bin Baal Qadman, who is located in the land of Damhan</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2023-08-20T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Addressing semiotics In the poetry of Abdul Amir Khalil Murad 2023-07-23T13:02:06+03:00 Hassan Ghanem Al-Janabi <div> <p>The title part has received the attention of scholars and researchers in the signs of creative texts of all kinds, in view of the various signs and connotations that these titles carry. Despite the fact that the title represents a sign that enjoys relative independence from the structure of the text, it (the title) plays a major role - when it is a parallel text that contributes to its structure and location in the text - in being an important entry point for the study of the creative text, especially the literary one, as it is a key foundation. It helps the analyst to penetrate the deep depths of the text, in order to interrogate and interpret it. In view of the foregoing, these sheets represent a research paper in (the semiotics of addressing in the poetry of Abd al-Amir Khalil Murad), as it came as an attempt at dialogue with the titles of the poet (Abd al-Amir Khalil) .. in his four collections of poetry that we have in our hands, the aim of which is to question its signs And shedding light on its dimensions semiotically, and here it must be noted that we will stand on the main headings of the four collections and then the view from their balconies to the sub-headings related to them, i.e. the titles of the texts that are within the poetic collections, which represent internal intertexts with the main title of this or that group, Let us see the nature of the relationship between the main heading and the sub-headings related to it in a certain way, as well as discussing the panels of the covers of the collections and trying to interpret them and interrogate their signs, if we take into account that these panels can represent pictorial reading horizons or reveal a color of the relationship between the cover panel - which is In the four aggregates, it was a schematic image, and between the contents and contents of those aggregates.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2023-08-20T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Larnaca Airport Crisis and the British Stance on It 2023-07-23T13:07:27+03:00 Aras Hussein Alfat <p>The topics of British policy in the Middle East have attracted the attention of researchers, but there are important topics that have not been highlighted clearly and sufficiently, and they remain a link in the missing episodes of history, including the topic of research marked (Larnaca Airport crisis and the British position on it. The Larnaca airport crisis is one of the historical events that took place in the late seventies of the twentieth century, as it caused a major political crisis between Egypt and Cyprus, and the resulting reaction on the Arab and international levels, especially Britain - the country in question - on the eighteenth of February 1978, Youssef Al-Sibai was assassinated in Nicosia The capital of Cyprus while he was present to deliver a speech before the African-Asian Peoples Solidarity Organization and the kidnapping of a number of hostages. The Cypriot government had taken countermeasures and considered the Egyptian move a violation of its sovereignty. Therefore, violent clashes erupted at Larnaca Airport, which sparked Arab and international reactions, led by Britain. Its role was on two tracks, the first official and the second unofficial, but the two tracks did not put immediate and radical solutions to resolve the crisis, but rather Some doubts have been raised about fabricating the crisis and Britain's position on its developments</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2023-08-20T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 The effect of the five fingers strategies and the group of experts on the achievement and high-ranking thinking of the fifth grade biology students in the subject of literature and text 2023-07-23T13:13:06+03:00 Zaid Badr Muhammad Al-Attar <div> <p>The current research aims to identify the effect of the strategies of the five fingers and the group of experts on the achievement and high-ranking thinking of the fifth grade biology students in the subject of literature and texts. The researcher randomly chose (Al-Zarqa Preparatory School for Girls) located in Shubar neighborhood, the center of Babylon Governorate, and in the same way, Division (A) was chosen to represent the first experimental group, which includes (35) students, and Division (E) was chosen to represent the second experimental group, which includes (37) students. As for the control group, it was for Division (B), which includes (36) students. The researcher formulated (92) behavioral goals and prepared daily plans for teaching the research groups. Its validity and reliability, preparing a test for high-ranking thinking consisting of (40) test items that represent nine skills of high-ranking thinking skills. The two experimental groups beat the students of the control group in the achievement test and the high-rank thinking test, and in the light of these results, the researcher concluded that the strategies of the five fingers and the group of experts contribute to increasing the effectiveness of teaching and raising its efficiency, by increasing the students' vitality and activity as two modern strategies in teaching, and recommended increasing the attention of the Directorate The General Directorate of Preparation and Training in the Ministry of Education and the General Directorates of Education train male and female teachers on the optimal use of teaching methods and modern methods, especially the strategies of the five fingers and the group of experts to achieve the desired educational goals</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2023-08-20T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 The independence of the national judiciary between international law and human rights 2023-07-23T13:19:10+03:00 Khudair Abbas Hadi Al-Aidi Hassanein Jassim Kazem Al-Khafaji Mustafa Fadayli <div> <p>Human rights exist with the existence of man, and these rights, including the basic ones for him, are not possible, whether the right to life, the right to freedom, the right to equality, democracy, and other human rights. Positive laws and legislation are those rights that existed, some of which are related to the existence of man, and then came positive legislation to regulate what concerns human rights in international conventions and covenants, and there became international organizations concerned with human rights, regardless of the date these organizations or covenants began, whose texts were deficient Especially since it was developed during periods when the world was going through a lot of hardships, wars and hunger, so these charters and declarations were of special sizes, unfortunately, but these rights have what is protected within the internal system of each country, whether legislatively through the constitution and laws or through the judiciary that protects human rights From this point of view, it is not possible to interfere in the internal affairs of the country if it has an independent judiciary established according to its constitution, in addition to that the international covenants stress the principle of the independence of the judiciary and non-interference in it and from this standpoint there must be no contradiction between what is contained in those covenants and what You aspire to him to intervene in the internal affairs of the country, especially in the field of the judiciary, and in order to shed light on this aspect, so our study shows whether international laws and conventions concerned with human rights have the right to intervene in the protection of human rights that are among the concerns and sovereignty of the state, including the judiciary or It does not have the right to interfere in the internal affairs of the most important institutions, including the judiciary in Iraq</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2023-08-20T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Syntax and its impact on Arabic poetry 2023-07-24T09:06:41+03:00 Mustafa Abdullah Helal Salahuddin Abdel Khalaf <div> <p>The emergence of Arabic grammar in the history of our Arab culture was linked to that attraction and symbolic development between the grammarians who codified the rules of the language based on Arabic poetry, on the one hand, and the poets and their sayings that violated some of the rules of grammar on the other hand, which the poets called the poetic necessity that provided the opportunity for many poets By bypassing some rules in order to fit the poetic weight of the verses and the technical structure of the poem, they abused many of the rules and called them poems, as we will notice, as poetry relies on speech using its own music, which is called poetry music. Poetry, also known as the type of discourse, which is based on accurate metering, aims to describe and clarify the main idea of poetry as a general idea. The dispute marries the relationship between the grammarian and the poet after the narrator of the language searches for evidence and classifies the poets and takes some of them and leaves the late ones behind their purposeful actions, but the poets see in this criticism a restriction on their creative freedom, so they deviate from the laws of language. And after that, it all comes to breaking the stereotypical expressive horizons in order to reach poetic and aesthetic patterns with far horizons . This historical and cultural analytical study attempts to shed light on the differences of this escalation. The importance of the study stems from its being rooted in the roots of Arabic literature, as well as its grammatical evidence dating back to the two eras; Pre-Islamic, and Islamic, and to highlight the status of poetry and poetics among the early linguists and grammarians in particular, and in our cultural heritage in general, and to remove the view entrenched in the minds of the people of Arabia that the science of grammar is a science characterized by stagnation</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2023-08-20T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Unanimity in Arabic Syntax and Morphology 2023-07-24T09:14:20+03:00 Heba Mohamed Ali Ahmed Mohamed Ali <div> <p><strong>Research abstract in Arabic</strong></p> <p><strong>Research title</strong>: Consensus in Arabic grammar and morphology.</p> <p>Consensus is one of the important evidences on which the language revolves, as the language is transmitted by hearing from the pure Arabs, and imams and scholars who have knowledge of the arts and sciences of language have heard about them, so when their sayings colluded in an issue, this made this important evidence on the issue in question, this does not negate the existence of sayings There are others on this issue, but the consensus of the likes of these is a strong indication of what the eloquent Arabs were.</p> <p>This research aims to: collect issues of consensus in grammar and morphology and put consensus in its rightful place among the evidences of language. There are eight morphological issues that are unanimously agreed upon. In this research, I followed the inductive approach, and at the end of the research, I reached a number of results and recommendations. Consensus is one of the important evidences on which the language revolves, so the language is transmitted by hearing from the pure Arabs, and the imams and scholars who have sold in the arts and sciences of language have heard about them, so when their sayings colluded in an issue, this made this an important evidence for the issue in question. Yes, this does not negate the existence of Other sayings on this issue, but the consensus of the likes of these is a strong indication of what the eloquent Arabs were. Therefore, we attached great importance to this research, from which we conclude that the consensus is placed in its rightful place among the evidences of the language, with mention of some issues on which the consensus was transmitted in grammar and morphology, and God is the conciliator and the helper.</p> </div> <div> </div> 2023-08-20T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Hadiths of Heaven and Hell in the Two Sahihs 2023-07-24T09:19:57+03:00 Nof Mohammed Saleh Al-Othaim <div> <p>The Sunnah of the Prophet has a high position in Islam, as it is the second source of legislation, and studying the statement of the Messenger of God is one of the requirements of his love, and standing on one of the pillars of faith that relates to the Last Day and reward and punishment is an unseen matter that no one knows about except through the Book and the Sunnah, and we are required to believe in this matter The unseen, and the texts of the Sunnah, in which various artistic images were drawn, showing scenes of heaven and hell, and they are stylistic systems that teach and direct, and an exquisite rhythm that adds beauty and elegance. It motivates us towards diligence in seeking Paradise, and makes us renounce everything that keeps us away from it. Therefore, I chose to study the words of Paradise and Hell in the Two Sahihs, and I based the research on an introduction, two chapters, and a conclusion.In the preamble, I talked about the eloquence of the Messenger and its superiority over human eloquence, the characteristics of the Prophet’s hadith, and the characteristics of his style. I also talked about the qualities of its meanings, then in the first chapter I dealt with the singular in the hadiths of Heaven and Hell, and it was in two chapters, the first in which I talked about choosing the singular word in terms of its substance In the second topic, I studied the single word in terms of its form.This educational discourse was a turning point in the history of all mankind, and it is worth mentioning that we should be aware that the impact of his call and his discourse does not stop at uniting God, reforming society and morals, and establishing the rituals of religion. The good and the good, the hadith of the Prophet came according to the usual style of the Arabs in communication, and if it had ascended in the ladder of eloquence and eloquence to the highest layers of human eloquence, then the eloquence of the Prophet, may God’s prayers and peace be upon him, lies on the bridge between the miraculousness of the Qur’an and the eloquence of the eloquent.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2023-08-20T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 The expansion of Assyrian influence in Anatolia during the Old Assyrian Period 2000-1500 B.C 2023-07-24T09:26:05+03:00 Numan Jumha Ibrahim Rukhsar Abdulghafoor Taha <div> <p>Commercial activity is one of the main aspects of civilization in ancient and modern times, poverty and lack of certain raw meterials in Mesopotamia have affected the rise of trade and the development of foreign relations with the region and neighboring countries, it’s oldest relation were with Anatolia, Which imported some minerals and stones from Anatolia to meet the needs of the population. This relationship began in ancient times and reached its peak in the early second millennium B.C, as inscriptions show that Assyrian merchents made organized trips to import thes raw materials. Assyrian trade is considered important and the most influential factor in strengthening civilizational relations with the cities and regions of Anatolia, Similarly, these trade voyages reflected the out come of various civilizations during the Second millennium B.C, including economics, beliefs, concepts, Social traditions, languge and writing. Trade relations between Mesopotamia and Anatolia were interrupted during the regin of the Assyrian king (Shamshi Adad I), but the reason of the interruption is still unclear, but archaeological excavations in the third layer in the (Kansh) indicate the presence of fire, suggesting that this area was destroyed by fire or war, but later rebuilt by its inhabitants. The Assyrian Empire established the first rules for international relations and links in the field of trade exchange with many countries and regions, especially Anatolia, after it established many commercial stations, where it witnessed manifestations of sophistication and progress in this field. In this research, we try to shed light on the active and important role of trade in the emergence and development of the cultural relations and connections of the Assyrians with Anatolia through commercial activities</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2023-08-20T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 The Bulgarian crisis of 1886 between the liberal and conservative thought of the British government 2023-07-24T09:39:42+03:00 Sadeq Jaafar Oudah Al Saegh <div> <p>If we trace in this research the dialectic of the formation of the Bulgarian emirate in 1878 after the Ottoman Empire took control of it for nearly 482 years, and between its political transformation and the most important events that Bulgaria witnessed in 1886, and the study of this event with its results and not with its structural engines, then we stand before a strange political phenomenon in Bulgaria causes bewilderment and questioning, as the international interests in this country cannot easily depart from its bonds, unless its role is embodied in political practices that reflect the strength of its strength, the aspiration that its foreign policy can reach, and the political body that it intends to appear before international public opinion, and perhaps that All, what applies to the political role of the British government in Bulgaria in 1886, this political role that must be considered, and the most important competing factors for it in Bulgaria must be studied, at a time when the major international powers at the time did not decide their centers of influence there, and if competition was necessary The international community is to activate its influence in Bulgaria, so it must take place on a basis different from direct intervention, consistent with the laws of political crises that those countries fabricate with their tools to open the door for political interference to its death. international interventions</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2023-08-20T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Self-wall and its Relation to Mental Health Among University Students 2023-07-24T09:44:54+03:00 Ahmed hamzah kadhim Attia ALfatlawi <div> <p>The current research aims to identify: -Self-worth and its relationship to mental health among university students, and to achieve the objectives of the research, the descriptive approach was followed, and this required the provision of two tools, the first to measure self-worth and the second to measure mental health. University of Babylon in the scientific and humanities colleges, whose number reached (21869) students in the morning study, with (9721) males, at a rate of (44%), while the number of females was (12148). male and female students, and used the following statistical methods: (Pearson correlation coefficient, t-test, Cronbach's alpha coefficient, percentage, discrimination coefficient). The researcher reached several results, including:1-University students enjoy self-worth2-University students enjoy mental health3-There is a correlation between self-worth and mental health among university studentsAccording to the results of the research, the researcher came out with a set of recommendations1-Specialists in the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research should reconsider curricula and courses that encourage interest in self-worth.2- The need for teachers in colleges to enhance students' selfconfidence and their abilities to achieve achievement and avoid failure in the goals they seek, and this leads to the development of self-worth.3- The need to pay attention to mental health in the research of workers in the fields of psychology, education and social service.4-The Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research should develop and implement programs to promote mental health among students.Suggestions:Complementing the results of the research, the researcher suggested several proposals:1- Conducting a study similar to the current study on students of the other educational stages of the preparatory stage.2- Conducting a study on self-worth and its relationship to cognitive-emotional regulation.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2023-08-20T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Methods of artistic portrayal in the hadith of the worldly conditions of the believer and the unbeliever 2023-07-24T09:50:17+03:00 Zohreh Babaahmadi Milani khairiya Echresh Adnan Mahdi Jahil AlJayashi <div> <p>The artistic depiction in the noble hadith is an artistic phenomenon in the honorable hadiths of the Prophet and they took it as a means to express the purposes of religion, so beauty was associated with belief, history, and literature. In this study, we deal with “the function of the artistic image of the worldly conditions of the believer and the unbeliever”, which is one of the important topics that we dealt with in the noble hadiths through research and excavation. Its purpose is to clarify the image in the honorable hadith, a purposeful image, that carries an Islamic vision of life, the universe, and the human being in this world, and a statement of all that is related to the conditions of the believer and the unbeliever in this world, and other issues that branch out from it, all of which are related to the artistic image in its rhetorical significance, so the artistic image in the honorable hadith It seeks to build human thought, reason and feeling And behavior. The main research question will be, what is the image of the believer and the unbeliever in the world in the hadith and what are the methods of portraying it? This study uses the descriptive-analytical method to identify and explain human models, and we mentioned in it the most prominent models of the believer and the unbeliever, by drawing an artistic picture of both of them, defining their outward features and features in the world. And when the artistic image draws these models, it aims at diversifying its functions, to achieve the religious effect, which is the main goal of photography, because human nature is affected by human models One of the results of the study is that the artistic image in the hadiths of the Prophet is based on embodying meanings and highlighting them in a tangible image. And it is not an assignment, nor complication, nor ambiguity in its words and phrases, as it is clear and characterized by the usual course, along with the distance from strangeness and confusion. Then it remains for us to refer to the methods of artistic depiction, in the believer and the unbeliever, such as the symbolic method, the analogy method, the sarcastic metaphor method and sensory style.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2023-08-20T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Political assassinations in the Islamic Middle Ages - the Ismaili state in Iran as a model ( Historical Study ) 2023-07-24T09:59:25+03:00 Hind Abdul-Haq Abdul-Sattar Al-Obaidi <div> <p>When we read Islamic history, we see that the hand of assassinations affected most of the caliphs of Islam and the leaders of the Islamic army, but worse than that, those who carry out most of the assassinations are the sons of the same religion or tribe. This reflects the unstable political situation in Islamic political history, in fact the makers of death have taken frightening forms of assassination such as ignoring the person or luring him or to lie for him and kill him deliberately by surprise, the liquidation may be to remove a danger, whether the declaration of hostility is public or secret. It is worth mentioning that the resort to assassination was a prominent feature in the pages of the history of Islamic rule during the Middle Ages, used by the ruling authority and its opponents with their justifications, whether political, religious and others. The history of assassinations in Islam began with the establishment of the Islamic state during the era of the Prophet, may God bless him and grant him peace, and will continue in the successive Umayyad, Abbasid and Fatimid states, as for the most dangerous assassinations and political liquidations that prevailed during the era of the Ismaili state in Iran. It is worth mentioning that most of the assassinations were for political purposes carried out under a religious cover applied outside the legal provisions and then turned into a semi-habit for the ruling Islamic regimes. The Ismailis constituted the second largest Shiite Muslim sect after the Twelver Imamiyya sect, and today they are distributed as religious minorities in more than twenty-five countries of Asia (especially India, where they are called Bohras), Africa, Europe and North America</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2023-08-20T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Criminal liability for incitement to suicide in criminal legislation 2023-07-24T10:45:57+03:00 Adil Sarikhani Mounir Odeh Saadi Arnaouti <div> <p>This study, represented by the legal position on the crime of incitement to suicide and ways to reduce it in criminal legislation, aims to shed light on what the crime of incitement to suicide is and to indicate ways to reduce it, explaining the position of the Iraqi criminal law and the comparative criminal laws and their role in addressing them, which are included in the text of Article (408) of the Law Iraqi Penalties No. 111 of 1969, the current rate, and thus the issue of the phenomenon of suicide has become an increasingly important element in the support programs for mental health and psychological and social support of the International Organization for Migration in Iraq and the comparative penal legislation. During recent years, there has been an increase in the number ofReports of suicides in some of the IDP camps in which IOM operates, increased interest in the issue among governmental entities as well as increased formal requests for support from the Iraqi Ministry of Health and Environment and local NGOs led to the development of a training module, materials and SOPs on prevention suicide..Therefore, the phenomenon of suicide today is a complex phenomenon of dimensions and manifold elements, with causes, motives and interrelated factors. Suicide until recently was seen as a local problem located within an environmental scope, a specific society, and certain circumstances, without being affected by factors outside this environment, until what the world is witnessing today. A revolution in the field of communication and information has made this problem a global dimension, and accordingly, interest has increased in recent years in studying suicide cases that are remarkably rampant in social life, because suicide and its attempts are among the most important and dangerous problems in our current era</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2023-08-20T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Addressing the crime of money laundering in Iraqi law and international attribution 2023-07-24T10:54:13+03:00 Mohammad Nozari Ferdowsieh Rafid Ali tabur Al-Atwani <div> <p>Technological and economic developments have sought to increase the complexities of life and the spread of the phenomenon of money laundering crime in a large way in many countries, until the international community has a priority to confront this phenomenon through legislations to control and hold conferences and agreements. Thus, as the phenomenon of money laundering is considered one of the most dangerous phenomena that have emerged in the current era of the economy (the era of globalization and economic governance), it has been observed during the past twenty years that there is a global interest in this subject through holding seminars and conferences with international institutions that have set international standards to combat money laundering. He also put in place severe punitive measures by the international community against countries that do not cooperate in adopting the standards in whole or in part.Accordingly, banking and financial institutions are among the most targeted by money launderers and terrorists, in order to conceal their identity and sources of their funds, so it is binding on all units subject to a perception controlled by the Central Bank of Iraq of the risks associated with money laundering. and terrorist financing. And the real that can negatively affect the national and global economy, and the level and seriousness of this crime varies from one country to another, and this is due to the efficiency of financial institutions, in this or that country and its levels, but it can be said that it does not exist at this particular time and we live in the third millennium, A country that has not been affected by this crime in any way, and the crime of money laundering, is one of the white-collar crimes, which is defined as (crimes that are committed by people who have a high position in society, through their</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2023-08-20T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Evaluation of the Arabic language grammar book for the sixth scientific grade In light of linguistic reasoning skills 2023-07-24T11:01:36+03:00 Haider Abdel Zaid Jabr Al Mansouri <div> <p>This study aims to evaluate the Arabic language grammar book for the sixth scientific grade in the light of the linguistic reasoning skills. And a questionnaire for analyzing the activities and exercises of the "Arabic Language" book for the sixth scientific grade to see the extent to which they include linguistic reasoning skills, which are eight skills. Its validity was confirmed by presenting it to a group of experts and arbitrators, and they agreed on the appropriateness and validity of these paragraphs with some modifications and additions that they referred to, and its stability was also confirmed, and thus the tool became ready to measure what it was prepared for, and the researcher relied on emptying and quantifying the data on The form of numbers and tables for the repetitions contained in the Arabic Language Grammar Book according to the main skills of (8) skills, and after the analysis and evaluation process was completed, and a set of statistical methods were used to reach the results of the research, using the statistical package (spss) and the use of percentages and repetitions equation and chi-square. In light of the results of the research, the researcher concluded that the theory of linguistic inference is a general framework in the educational process. As it takes into account the individual differences between the learners, each according to his ability, and the researcher believes that the distribution of these skills in the book "Arabic Language" for the sixth scientific grade was not balanced; The reason for this is due to the fact that the authors of these books did not adopt this theory as a declared educational theory in order to rely on its principles, and the indications provided for inference may not have been intended by the same theory. In the light of the results and conclusions of the research, the researcher recommends the need to take care of the neglected linguistic reasoning indicators and include them in Arabic language books, and to inform those in charge of the authors of the latest research and its results; With the aim of benefiting from them in composing solid curricula that take into account the individual differences among learners, and holding seminars and scientific conferences for those in charge of authoring the curricula and teachers of the Arabic language; To show the importance of linguistic reasoning, and the need to include it in the different educational stages. In order to complete this study, the researcher suggested several proposals: 1.Conducting a similar study to evaluate the Arabic language books for the intermediate stage. 2. Conducting a study that seeks to identify the obstacles to the use of teaching strategies that rely on linguistic reasoning for male and female teachers of the Arabic language in the different educational stages</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2023-08-20T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 The European Union role in post-Cold War arms control 2023-07-24T11:07:46+03:00 Hala Mahdi kayri Al-Dulaimi <div> <p>At the beginning of the 20th century, many attempts began to establish international rules on arms control and work to regulate the military conduct of states, as well as to restrict their material capabilities for the purpose of regulating the course of war, defining the rights of both high-war and non-military states, as well as strengthening restrictions on the course of war, and following the end of World War I (1914-1918), weapons reduction standards were established within the Charter of the League of Nations, and the victorious force imposed in the The war is a severe measure to extract weapons from the defeated parties, and years after the development of the strategic objectives of the European Union, there has been no change in those goals despite changes in the scope of deliberations and negotiations resulting from the development of political matters and the international situation as well as increased rates of scientific and technical progress, which positively affected the increase in the proportion of weapons in terms of large and diverse. The leading role of the European Union in post-Cold War arms controls is a vital subject that must be detailed in terms of the methods used in disarmament and the positive results of its implementation, so it was necessary to mention the beginnings of international arms control processes and work to create an international balance that does not depend on discrimination and preference but focuses on agreements and cooperation between states before the Cold War, international treaties fought by The European Union, while continuing its tireless work in uniting international societies and making them equal in terms of conventional weapons for fear of riots and destruction resulting from the breakdown of weapons during the Cold War period, concluded treaties, agreements and instruments between multiple international parties and under direct supervision of the European Union and was written under confidential documents reserved and reliable to reduce the proliferation and peaceful disarmament of weapons and reduce their risk, among the most important treaties, the Non-Proliferation Treaty and the Convention on the Control of Mines Anti-personnel ground as well as agreements on conventional weapons</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2023-08-20T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 A proposed strategy for secondary education in the Arab Gulf states for the post - covid 19 pandemic 2023-07-25T09:18:11+03:00 Ekram Bakr Saeed Mona Hamad Brahim Al askar Haya Saad Al-Rawaf <div> <p>The study aimed to build up a proposed strategy for secondary education in the Arab Gulf states for the post - covid 19 pandemic, by identifying the challenges faced by both teachers and students in education during the pandemic. To achieve the objectives of the study, the descriptive approach with the mixed, sequencial and interpretative design was adopted, which combines quantitative and qualitative methods of data collection. To build up the strategy, SWOT analysis was used to analyze the field results. The questionnaire was applied to high school male and female teachers in public education, as well as high school male and female students in public education for the academic year 1442/1443 AH. A random sample of male and female teachers has been chosen, which reached (384) male and female teachers while a stratified simple random sample from the male and female community was chosen, of which (589) students were male, and (1300) students were female to apply the questionnaire tool. A purposive sample of (20) male and female teachers from high school teachers was chosen; the rolling snowball sample was used in the interviews.The study concluded that one of the most prominent challenges that teachers and students faced is the capability to understand the English language to deal with electronic applications. Moreover, teachers also faced the challenge of students' interaction with digital enrichments in the platform, as well as their participation in designing tasks and educational content, to say nothing of other technical and educational challenges</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2023-08-20T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 The political role of Queen Amani Renas in the Kingdom of Meroe and her role in confronting the Roman ambitions towards the Kingdom of Meroe during the period (10-40 BC) 2023-07-25T09:27:08+03:00 Dhafar Nima Aylan <div> <p>The research touched on the political role of the Queen in the Kingdom of Meroe and her role in confronting the Roman ambitions towards the Kingdom of Meroe during the period (10-40 BC). She is one of the great queens in the history of the Kingdom of Meroe and was the wife of King Tertiqas, who succeeded him on the throne of the Kingdom of Meroe after his death, and she is the warrior queen who ruled the Kingdom of Meroe (10-40 BC). That is, the queen. As for her royal insignia in the Kingdom of Meroe, they are the crowns, the sceptre, and the one snake on the forehead. As for her role in the Kingdom of Meroe, it was represented by building temples, establishing truth and justice, and eliminating the elements of evil from the enemies of gods and humans. The second axis is entitled (Arrival of Amani Rinas to The authority of the throne and the rule of the Kingdom of Meroe) The feminine monarchy gradually developed in the ancient Sudan until women in the Meroitic era achieved the advantage of sitting on the throne and ruling either alone or in partnership with their husbands, as is the case in “Amani Rinas”; This type of rule appeared in the first century BC and was represented by the partnership between the king and his first wife; And perhaps their eldest son, and this type of participation in governance indicates that the wife who lives after the death of her husband automatically becomes the ruling Kandaka, the third axis entitled (The Romans’ threat to the lands in the Kingdom of Meroe and their encroachment on it) The Romans directed towards the south of the country of Nubia for several reasons, including the wealth of the country of Nubia , in order not to disturb the Roman rule in Egypt by threatening the southern borders of Egypt, and not to be exposed to the Red Sea trade, as well as Meroe’s control of the most important trade routes linking between Meroe and the Mediterranean basin; Therefore, the Romans wanted to control the Kingdom of Meroe and subject it to their control, the fourth axis entitled (The leadership role of Queen Amani Renas in leading the Meroitic army and confronting it against the Romans) and she played an important role in securing the Kingdom of Meroe for several centuries after that and its struggle against the Roman forces distinguished it as one of the few historical figures that She resisted the Roman rule and was able to confront it and defeat its progress until it was described as the one-eyed tomboy woman who lost her eye in one of these raids on the Romans; This queen is also depicted in a victorious position and ten of the bound prostrate before her, as this description coincides in terms of shyness and physical strength completely with the scenes of the great queens of Meroe, which were represented by the queen "Amani Renas", the fifth axis entitled (The peace treaty between the queen of Meroe Amani Renas and the Romans) was held. This treaty after Queen Amani Reinas saw a lack of equality between the two parties, and Emperor Augustus welcomed this treaty, and the Roman forces withdrew from Meroe to the old borders, and the “incinerator” became a fixed point for the borders between the empire and the Meroitic kingdom, as well as exempting the Meroites from tribute, the sixth axis entitled ( The death of Amani Rinas after thirty years in the rule of the Kingdom of Meroe) and she died in (10 BC. M) and researchers differed about the location of her burial; She may have been buried in Al-Bajrawiyah due to the transition of the burials in Meroe to Al-Bajrawiyyeh.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2023-08-20T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Sharia for human life and Interests 2023-07-25T09:33:24+03:00 Mohammed Hamza Al-Shaibani Naqaa Ali Hassan <div> <p>Islamic legislation is necessary to reform people in terms of life and time. It is the legislation of truth and justice in the judiciary and the application of what was brought by the Book of God Almighty and evidence of the power of Sharia. The Almighty said: {There has come to you from God a light and a clear book}, It also preserves the rights of the individual to the fullest extent due to the existence of laws and penalties that apply to everyone without exception. Her country, in their view, oppresses the individual and limits his freedom, and this is wrong. Therefore, Islamic legislation is considered a means of teaching people the constitution of heaven, including doctrine, worship, morals, and transactions, and a political, social, economic, educational, jihadist and educational system, and then the necessity of working with what they have learned and applying it fully in all facilities. Life, and that arbitrating other than that in the field of individual, family, and group relations is blasphemy, injustice and immorality. The Islamic Sharia does not limit people’s needs and new developments in their conditions and affairs, and achieves their legitimate interests by adopting the method of ijtihad and innovation. These are all indications that Islamic legislation is fertile and flexible, keeping pace with temporal interests and differences in data.The Islamic religion is balanced and moderate, taking into account all aspects of life and controlling them in a rhythm that is consistent with the human instinct of love for learning, ownership and creativity. It pertains to him without restricting freedoms in a way that kills creativity, but rather preserves the balance of society and controls its affairs and activity. The whole society did not harness the building of temples or glorify people, but rather set a general goal, which is the establishment of this religion, and everyone has to work on this from his position. The doctor, engineer and teacher all innovate in their fields for the sake of their religion And in order to establish it, but as we said, without absolute identification and shackled controls for creativity. The Islamic legislation is a comprehensive legislation concerned with all aspects of life and intervenes in its smallest details to organize and rule in any dispute, no matter how small or large.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2023-08-20T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Nouns in Semitic languages (A comparative semantic study of examples of common utterances in Semitic languages)) 2023-07-25T09:41:00+03:00 Mazin Muhammed Husain <div> <p>The research is one of the linguistic researches in the group of Semitic languages, and it is a lexical study of the words and names that have a common meaning within this language group. Whether these dictionaries are Arabic, Aramaic, Syriac, Akkadian and Hebrew, the vocabulary was distributed in the form of tables to be more clear to the reader. Also, the selection of vocabulary in the form of selected models for each semantic field, and not all vocabulary in the one semantic field, due to its abundance and the research’s lack of understanding of it. Our research mission is In finding the convergence elements of these languages in one linguistic group and searching for their common root, we have helped in this by several factors, including the common root of these terms, and the common use of these names in most of the Semitic languages, as well as the similarity of the pronunciation in them, and the unchanged pronunciation of these names since they existed It remained preserved in its pronunciation, use, and meaning. The researcher found himself in front of a number of names with different connotations that preserved their meanings, such as the names of kinship, the names of the members of the human body, the names of months and days, and other names of different significance. And the pronunciation and writing were used for each language separately, with the writing of the pronunciation in Arabic to clarify for the reader and facilitate reading to him for non-specialists. Sometimes we use the Aramaic letter, and sometimes the Syriac or Hebrew letter. The researcher did not use in his research the methodology and division of the research into chapters, because the research is divided according to the tables established by us into semantic titles according to each group of words under study. We thought that these tables shown in the text of the induction should be in this way so that the reader can see the meaning and the way of writing for one word and for the different languages under study. Likewise, for the reader to be aware of the extent of the semantic development of these names and their meanings through the factors of time and from one language to another, and how these languages have preserved the reason for the originality of these words or names of common significance in the group of Semitic languages and through thousands of years until now, the same letter and the same meaning have remained distributed over the languages of this group Linguistic.</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2023-08-20T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 The image of the hero between Antara and Don Quixot 2023-07-25T09:46:48+03:00 Salma Ghazi Al -Shuaib <div> <p>The research aims to study a typical image of the hero in each of the poet Antarah bin Shaddad and Don Quixote, through the manifestations of heroism in two literary genres, namely poetry and the novel. This research also tries to stand at the origin of the heroism of Antara and Don Quixote in terms of realistic formation on the one hand, and the artistic embodiments of heroism on the other hand. For the data and life conditions that he faced, and made his life an equation based on challenge and valiant struggle for self-preservation, as he is in defiance of the forces of nature and what the life of the desert imposes on the one hand, as he is in a challenge that may have been more important, and we mean his confrontation with the values and norms of the society at the time, which made him His slavery and his black color make him overcome them, and therefore we are facing a very complex personality, as her suffering goes beyond the natural realm of people like her, and enters into another realm of conflict, so Antara does not seek life in the biological sense, but rather wants to be free, meaning that his suffering is a kind of existential struggle In the face of slavery, and his constant struggle to obtain freedom. While the concept of heroism in Don Quixote is based on imaginary tripods.In both cases, we are facing two creative achievements, both of which try to embody an aspect of the philosophy of heroism, and we will show in the research the dialogue of both personalities of both types (internal and external). In the end, the research shows that heroism at Antara mixed realism and fantasy, while Don Quixote's heroism is a figment of imagination</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2023-08-20T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Dialogue and carnival aesthetics in digital literature The interactive poem of abandonment by Souad Aoun As a Model 2023-07-25T09:53:24+03:00 Mahmoud Khalif Khudair Al-Hayani <div> <p>The transformation that took place in the transformation of literature from a paper medium to an electronic medium, or what is called digital literature, was not a transgression of the origins or the nature of literature only, but this advanced shift brought about fundamental changes and effects in the form and content, as digital literature is one of the literary genres that cannot be To operate away from cross-fertilization and overlap with other artistic genres that took from the dynamic side a state embodied in the moving image or painting and music, which gave it a kinetic dimension, and a state of impulse and flow in the poetic movement and diversity, which formed an aesthetic paradox that the recipient responds to and creates a carnival effect that restores To our minds, the harmony and overlap of music, dance and singing in ancient ceremonies that had a mythical dimension, the influence aspect played a major role in digital literature; Because it searches for a recipient to interact with, which represents the advertising, persuasive and graphic aspect that combines various audio and visual senses, which the research tries to reveal by sorting the most important of these races that accompanied the complex transformation of literature from the written blog to the electronic blog, and its openness to genders . The flexibility and ability of the electronic mediator to carry out the strategy of absorption, modification, and rumination on other artistic genres in favor of influencing and responding to the audience of recipients and the carnival effect on it, which we can see in the poem (that of abandonment) by Souad Aoun</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2023-08-20T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 The structure of coalition and difference in selectors a collection of poems by Abu Zaydal-Qurashi 2023-07-25T09:58:18+03:00 Sahar Kazem Hamza Al Mansouri <div> <p>This study falls within the field of modern critical studies of ancient Arabic literary texts, as it is directed towards the heritage texts using modern tools, concepts and visions, believing in the richness of these texts, artistically and cognitively, on the one hand, and the importance of the impact they have in shaping the knowledge system and the artistic taste of its recipients.This study chose to turn towards pre-Islamic poetic texts collected and edited by one of the ancient Arab authors, Abu Zaid al-Qurashi. It was collected here by its Qurashi author.The study also hopes to explore the depths of these poems through some of the paths that have been planned to achieve this goal. Among those paths is to go towards defining the collection of these poems, then introducing the book that included these poems, and then getting to know the authors of the poems, the poets who organized them, and then stopping at Those seven poems (the selected ones), and the clarification of the critical tool on which this study is based, and the tracking of the terms that denote those tools and the fields and semantic fields belonging to them. On the structures and patterns of coalition and dissent according to a path that I chose, as the text reveals itself in terms of paths, some of which are related to the structure of the poem, i.e. the form of the poems.The seven technically selected ones include the structure of the poem, and another aspect, which is the content structure represented by some of the highly present content units in terms of the substantive and content composition of those pre-Islamic poems</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2023-08-20T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 The role of Sharif Barakat in managing the country of Hijaz during the era of the Circassians (903-923 AH) 2023-07-25T10:02:55+03:00 Jawad kazem odeh wrood noore Hussein <div> <p>The country of the Hijaz has acquired a poiiteaI and reIigious Position since the advent of isiam and the estabIishment efIsIamic states in fact the competition for power contributed to The emergence of many events that preceded this period(784-923-1392-1517 AD)which contributed greatIy to the events of a struggIe between the ruIing parties for controI of the country of the Hijaz,whether with internaI or externaI infhuence, incIuding Sharif Barakat, who assumed power despite the great difficuIties and chaIIenges Because of the disagreement that occurs from time to time between the members of the same household, whether by internal or external influence, which weakened their position, the external influence, and the relations between Egypt and the Hijaz took a new development, in which the escalation of internal unrest prevailed. Which led to competition between the rulers of the Hijaz cities by sending money and gifts to external powers, which is an approach followed by the princes and became a condition of the tutelage, so that Ibn Taghri Bardi indicated that providing money to the Circassian sultans was an important factor of the tutelage, but that this extended later to include the followers of the sultan And each of them had a share of everything presented to him .Until the situation reached the violation of the sanctity of the Grand Mosque in Mecca, due to the amount of rebellion, fighting and bloodshed, in which some tribes living in several regions participated. A number of administrative and political matters to tighten the siege on external and internal influence until Qutb al-Din mentioned that among the strife that took place in the land of Hijaz is a long explanation. Each individual has dominance over power, which extends ambitions to the rest of the other regions. We infer from that that Sharif Barakat strived hard to gain the affection of the people of the Hijaz in order to extend his influenceover other regions .</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2023-08-20T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Treaty of Paris in 1783 and its impact on the settlement of the American War of Independence 2023-07-25T10:09:19+03:00 Aqeel Jaiz Shamkhi Al-Sahlany <div> <p>The Treaty of Paris in 1783 is considered one of the most important treaties concluded in the era of modern history, as it established the establishment of a strong state in the western hemisphere, namely (the United States of America), and it also represented the victory of effective diplomacy for American negotiators such as (Benjamin Franklin) with the British side in Paris proved the inevitability of the diplomatic victory, and it is considered a decisive historical turning point through which most European countries were forced to recognize the new state, and it clearly charted the steps of European policy towards the British colonies in North America, and this was thanks to the successes achieved by the American revolutionaries on the battle fronts against the army The British, and the diplomatic success achieved by American diplomatic negotiators in France and the Netherlands, all contributed to Britain's submission, surrender, and entry into negotiations with the American revolutionaries in Paris, negotiations that ended the American War of Independence, and led to Britain's departure from its colonies in North America. Thus, this treaty is considered one of the most important official documents in the history of the United States of America, as it marked its official entry into the family of independent states, and because, with its provisions, it paved the way for the United States of America to be the greatest country in the world politically, economically, and militarily</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2023-08-20T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 The Thresholds in Sabaru's Novel 2023-07-25T10:18:19+03:00 Asawer Naji Hussein Saleh Al-Hasnawi <div> <p>The study deals with the thresholds of Shaker Al-Mayah's novel (Sabaro), especially since the thresholds have suffered from neglect and marginalization and did not mean much; because some of them believe that they do not constitute a main pillar in the focal text (the body), but the reality we find many thresholds that contribute to determining the features of the creative text as We wondered whether their thresholds constitute a key to reading the text or not, and then we searched for the intertwined relationships that occur with the Metn and approach it and discover its depths. We also tried to identify the common points with the original text. We questioned the interpretation dimension in analyzing the dialectical relationship between the threshold and the focal text by following Interpretive descriptive; to discover and interpret the threshold in itself and through its relationships, this reading provides us with flexible mechanisms that allow us to probe the Valley, especially as it is an approach that describes the phenomenon and goes beyond that to try to extrapolate, identify, analyze, interpret and link. Our approaches aim to analyze that reveals the most prominent features and relationships on the one</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2023-08-20T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Informational evaluation and its role in measuring the level of satisfaction with the performance of specialists in medical scientific branches 2023-07-25T10:25:26+03:00 Afaf Sami Hassan alkaraghuli <div> <p>The aim of the current research is to reveal the level of evaluation of the performance of teachers by students, and to achieve this, the researcher prepared a scale for informational evaluation and measurement of performance consisting of (35) items distributed over the areas of performance evaluation for teachers and within the level of students' knowledge of them. Five paragraphs were excluded in the light of the experts’ opinions, and the informational scale, which consists of 30 items, was reorganized and subjected to the steps of constructive validity in the light of two indicators: (internal consistency) and (discriminatory power). The value of stability was (89.0) and is considered acceptable. The research sample was chosen with the size of 100 male and female students distributed in two phases, namely (the third and the fifth), as well as including the gender variable (males - females).1- The level of performance in light of the total score on the scale and its comparison with the hypothetical mean of the scale was above the average with an arithmetic mean (110, 67), (and a standard deviation of 6, 82).2-The most frequent level of performance was between (65-69), with a rate of 30%, and it gives an indication that the general level is above average.3-There is a significant difference in favor of females between the averages of the two calculations for the total scores according to (the variable of sex).4-There is a significant difference in favor of the fifth stage between the averages of the two accounts for the total scores according to the variable of the stageThe researcher concluded some conclusions, including:The importance of the learners (students) feeling their positive role in evaluating the performance of their teachers, and among the recommendations is to train students on the requirements of the informational assessment of the performance of teachers and evaluate their performance, and suggested some complementary research</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2023-08-20T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Sociocultural transformations in the Iraqi theatrical text (Good bye, General, as an example) 2023-07-25T10:29:39+03:00 Jamal Ghazi Hussein Al Sultani Moatmed Majeed Hameed <div> <p>Sociocultural transformations constitute an important part of the lives of Iraqi playwrights, as they have a clear significance that was evident in most of their writings, as they constitute the largest part of their knowledge stock of political, social, cultural and economic changes and variables that remained engraved in their memory and affected them and what they created from their theatrical texts. The life of the playwright remains with him as a self-recovery that he recalls every moment in order to finally be reflected in what he writes. Thus, most of their writings include those variables, changes and developments that took place in their mother society and in their lived reality. They remain repeated in front of them, like the theatrical scenes that they write, so their pens remain rich in their creative giving under the weight of the occupation and the oppression of the ruling authorities. Injustice, oppression, hunger, deprivation, and expulsion from their homelands, so their memory kept bringing them back always to those successive events on their homeland and their environment through the succession of generations, irritating their feelings, reminding them of every abhorrent event and every difficult moment, so these writers broadcast these transformations through their theatrical texts that they wrote in every historical era, archived Therefore, the event that took place in that time period in several ways, hiding behind their lines and phrases symbols by which they tried to change their reality for the better, hiding behind those symbols. From here, the role of the playwright appears, who tries to breathe new life into these texts, charging them with human, intellectual and emotional values and contents in a dramatic form covered by the template of contemporary intellectually, that is, conveying his ideas and the values they bear on the lived reality. From this standpoint, the researcher sought to study his tagged subject (Sociocultural transformations in the Iraqi theatrical text)The research was divided into four chapters, the first of which concerned the methodological framework, the research problem centered on the following question: What are the sociocultural transformations in the Iraqi theatrical text?While its importance and need for it was evident as it studies the socio-cultural transformations of the Iraqi theatrical text since the year (1968-2020 AD), each period of time shaped its living time at the time and the dramatic treatment of it at the present time, especially in the texts of the Iraqi writer, given that he remained preserving those social, political, economic and religious transformations. In his mind, smashing every barrier of past and present time. As for the goal of the research, it was limited to (knowing the socio-cultural transformations in the Iraqi theatrical text). As for its limits, it included the texts authored (1968-2020 AD) in line with the purposefully selected research sample and the justifications mentioned in the third chapter, while the chapter concluded by defining the main terms mentioned in the title. As for the second chapter, it included the theoretical framework and previous studies, as it was divided into three sections. The theoretical framework reached by the researcher and previous studies.As for the third chapter, it included the research procedures, the research community according to the spatial boundaries specified in the first chapter. As for its samples, it was limited, according to the title, to one play, which is a play (Farewell, General to Qasim Fanjan) as it is the model taken in this research and according to what is indicated in the main title of the research as well as Research tool and methodology.In the fourth chapter, the researcher reached a set of results, conclusions, recommendations, and proposals. Among the most important findings of the researcher are:1. Inspiration of the folklore and the historical legacy through the presence of characters (One Thousand and One Nights) such as (Shaherazade) in more than one theatrical text as a sociocultural transformation in the Iraqi theatrical text.2. The Iraqi theatrical text expresses the loss of the cultural identity of the Iraqi and Arab individual. This is represented by the existence of a sense of (social alienation) represented by a group of dialogues in these texts, i.e. the issue of belonging to the homeland and its Iraqi society, i.e. the loss of its human self, which is one of the important transformations in the Iraqi theatrical text</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2023-08-20T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 The intellectual and urban movement in the era of Al- Mansur Nasrallah, a historical study 2023-07-25T10:37:19+03:00 Aqheel Musa Khattar Wassim Abboud Attia <div> <p>This research dealt with the intellectual movement that flourished greatly in the countries of the Islamic Maghreb, where it reached a degree of sophistication and great development due to the presence of many scholars and jurists in various aspects of the country, in addition to the existence of a lot of authorship and translation of various types of science and knowledge, as well as the construction facilities in the Fatimid state in The countries of the Maghreb, especially the construction of the city of Al-Mansuriya, which was founded by the Fatimid Caliph Al-Mansour with Nasrallah, which constituted a distinct historical event in the history of the Islamic Maghreb. Nations and their civilized progress. From this point of view, the Fatimid caliphs established many urban achievements similar to the caliphs who preceded them, where the Caliph Al-Mansour worked to establish a city for him after the victory he achieved over Abi Yazid Al-Khairi and in the places where the war raged, in addition to the construction of Al-Mansuriyah revealed How dangerous is this revolution. . With regard to the scientific and intellectual movement, the research showed that the reign of Al-Mansur, Nasrallah, witnessed the turnout of many poets, writers, and scholars in various fields of specialization, who enriched the history of the state with a great cultural heritage. - The research revealed that the Moroccans had a share in their many contributions in codifying historical news since (the second century AH / the eighth century AD). - The research emphasized the interest of the Fatimid caliphs in astronomy and the stars and their patronage because they are an effective pillar of their religious doctrine</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2023-08-20T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Banks and banking activity in Egypt until 1967 (A historical study) 2023-07-25T12:10:46+03:00 Razzaq hachim Sultan Al-Hasnawi <div> <p>It is inevitable to say that the studies and research that dealt in detail with the contemporary political and economic history of Egypt were characterized by serious activity and impact. The activities of banking and banking activity in Egypt, and accordingly, addressing the study of an important aspect of economic studies and revealing its impact on the formulation and clarification of the historical event is an important element in the formation of the infrastructure of society, and until the Egyptian government guarantees the work and mastery of governmental and private banks working in the field of banking and exchange within and in accordance with The construction of the Egyptian economy sought seriously to divide banks and banks into specialized banks, with which it contributes to the development of various other sectors. The first of these banks was the Agricultural Bank, which contributed greatly to the supply of farmers and farmers with financial loans that contributed effectively to the improvement and development of the Egyptian agricultural sector, and then Followed by the Industrial Bank, which helped many industrialists and owners of capital by granting them loans to develop their nascent industries inside Egypt, to complete the economic renaissance. The Egyptian government established the Real Estate and Commercial Bank, which was credited with establishing hundreds of housing projects and others. It carries out banking operations that have served a specific type of economic activity, in accordance with the decisions and laws issued on the basis of its establishment, and in which the acceptance of demand deposits is not among the aspects of its main activities</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2023-08-20T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Initiating a criminal case for the crime of aggression in the International Criminal Court and the responsibility arising it 2023-07-25T12:22:28+03:00 Majid Naim Khashman Ghala Moaly Ghasemi <div> <p>The International Criminal Court is a historic achievement for humanity, as it is the first permanent international court, with jurisdiction to prosecute persons who committed criminal violations of international humanitarian law, and then initiate criminal proceedings, especially the crime of aggression and the rest of the crimes specified in the Charter of the International Criminal Court, unlike the International Court of Justice, which restricts The case is before the states, the International Criminal Court considers the complaints of individuals, and then builds its rulings on the basis of individual responsibility, and accordingly the court exercises its jurisdiction over the crime of aggression according to a decision taken by a majority of states parties equal to the required majority to adopt amendments to the Statute, after the first of January In 2017, the court may also exercise its jurisdiction over the crime of aggression in accordance with Articles (13) (a) and (c). In addition, the court may, in accordance with Article (12), exercise its jurisdiction related to the crime of aggression that arises from an act of aggression, if it is committed by A State Party, unless the State Party has notified in advance by filing a declaration with the Registrar that it does not accept jurisdiction, such declaration can be withdrawn at any time and must be considered by the State Party within (three) years, with respect to a State not party to this system, The court cannot exercise its jurisdiction related to the crime of aggression when it is committed by the citizens of that country or committed on its territory. On the other hand, the right of referral to this court is by the states parties, given that these states are the main parties to the permanent international criminal court, or by the council International security, within the conditions set by the statute of the court</p> </div> <div>&nbsp;</div> 2023-08-20T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023