Journal Of Babylon Center for Humanities Studies <p style="direction: ltr;">The journal is devoted to the publication of subjects of various human and linguistic specialties for the purpose of scientific and cultural publication as well as for the purposes of scientific promotions for academic staff. The journal publishes researches or articles in both Arabic and English and the journal aims to publish in other languages.</p> <p style="direction: ltr;">Journal Of Babylon Center for Humanities Studies is a official Journal issued by the Babylon Center for cultural and historical studies at the University of Babylon, and specializes in the deployment of research and academic articles in the fields of humanities and historical and cultural, Journal is published Quarterly, four times each year which it been edited by a panel scientific works on research Assessment sent where each search is sent to the management of the Journal is working on at least two experts in the evaluation of every aspect of it, and according to form designed for this purpose and we do not publish any articles or research without authorize of the deployment by our experts. </p> <p> </p> en-US (Editor-in-chief) (Amjed) Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 OJS 60 Differential reinforcement methods for students with learning difficulties and slow learners <p><strong>The current research aims to identify</strong></p> <ol> <li class="show">The percentage of students with learning difficulties in special education classes.</li> <li class="show">The percentage of students with slow learning in special education classes.</li> <li class="show">The level of differential reinforcement methods among students with learning disabilities.</li> <li class="show">The level of differential reinforcement methods among slow learning students.</li> <li class="show">Identify the statistical significance of the differences in differential reinforcement methods for people with learning difficulties and slow learners.</li> </ol> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; To achieve the objectives of the research, the researcher used the descriptive-relational method as an approach for her research procedures, and the researcher followed the scientific steps adopted in psychological measurement to build a measure of differential reinforcement methods, which consisted of (4) fields and (26) paragraphs, and after extracting the psychometric characteristics of it from sincerity and stability, it was applied The scale is based on the main research sample, and the results of the research showed the following:</p> <ol> <li class="show">It was found that the number of students with learning difficulties reached 147</li> <li class="show">It was found that the number of slow learners reached 198</li> <li class="show">The students with learning difficulties do not have differential reinforcement methods</li> <li class="show">The slow learners enjoy differential reinforcement methods</li> <li class="show">The slow learners enjoy differential reinforcement methods more than those with learning disabilities.</li> </ol> Zahraa Muwaffaq Rasool, Nagham Abdel-Reda Copyright (c) 0 Dr. Abdul Sattar Mutlaq Al-Darwish And his efforts in writing the history of the Islamic East <p>&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;There is no doubt that the study of scientific personalities who left an impact on the life of the nation is one of the necessary studies because it is an essential link that contributes to understanding the history of the nation and its civilizational achievement and what it presented to humanity through its various knowledge effects. The research dealt with the biography and upbringing of Dr. In his historical writings on the Islamic East, the topic is one of the important topics that must be studied and defined, especially since it contributed to the production of a large group of literature, research and articles on Islamic history. On the life of Darwish briefly about his lineage, birth, and upbringing, with a focus on the importance of his historical writings and writings, and describing the book of the immediate emirate in the Islamic East. Darwish is also considered one of the first historians who wrote down the events of the Ghurid emirate in the East in all its details. He adopted an eloquent approach in which he relied on Persian books and manuscripts that he was not familiar with. One of his contemporaries, so he received wide attention from my contemporaries in their writings through his blogging of the Ghurid emirate and the Indian subcontinent</p> Badie Muhammad Ibrahim Al-Karbouli, Ahmed Muhammad Aboud Al-Janabi Copyright (c) 0 Relations between the Sassanid state and Byzantium and their influence on the Arab tribes <p>The Arabs became an important element in the plans of the great powers in the conflict between the Sassanians and the Byzantines. The Arab tribes had a distinct position on the Byzantine-Sasanian borders, and the participation of the Arab tribes in the wars taking place between the two countries was limited to extending a helping hand or rejecting it to this or that party. Likewise, both sought to The Sassanian and Byzantine state extended political and economic influence over some regions in the Arab countries. The Byzantine-Sasanian conflict also formed different aspects over the long centuries. The Byzantine-Sasanian conflict and the entry of the Arabs as a third party in this conflict led to continuous wars between the two parties, in which the Arabs were partners. Both the Sassanians and Byzantines realized the benefits they gained from their alliance with the Arab tribes in securing the borders of their state from Bedouin raids, It is possible to benefit from them in their wars with each other.</p> <p>One of the features of the conflict between the two major countries is also that conflict in places far from their borders. If it reaches the limit, those countries are forced to stand firmly and firmly in front of it, if they have the resolve and strength due to the difficulty of their regular armies pursuing it, so they intend to appease the masters of the large Arab tribes, with gifts. And tempting financial grants, privileges and titles to guard and monitor the borders, and track down the tribes that might dare to invade the borders, taking advantage of weaknesses and loopholes. The Sassanids resorted to the Manadhirs, and the Byzantines resorted to the Ghassanids later to carry out this task.</p> Abbas Fadhil Mblat, Muhammad Samih Estanbouli Copyright (c) 0 Analysis of the narratology examination of the novel "Al-ferdos Al-yabab" by Lili Al Johani based on the theory of Gérard Genet <p>Among the theories of narratology, Gérard Genet's view is more popular among critics due to having a coherent framework in narrative analysis. Gérard Genet analyzes the narrative based on three characteristics of time, aspect and tone. Due to the importance and necessity of criticizing the literary works of the world and introducing these works to Iranian researchers and audiences, this research, with a descriptive-analytical method and with an emphasis on the theory of narratology of Gerard Genet, analyzed the narratology analysis of the novel Al-Ferdos Alyabab written by Mrs. Lili Al-Johani - one of the most successful novels of the lesser-known literature of Saudi Arabia. The purpose of this research is to introduce the novel of Al-Ferdos Alyabab and to analyze the narrative features of this novel based on the criteria of Gérard Genet's narratology. The results of this research indicate that the type of narration in the novel of Al-Fardos Aliabab is an interwoven narrative and the narrator in this novel reports the events in a purposeful manner and with appropriate context, relying on layers of speech and by concretely and realistically showing the events and considering the audience in the story, he has used the monologue narration method.</p> Ensiye Azizzadeh, Sobhan Kavosi, Omid Izanlo Copyright (c) 2024 (The economic life in the province of Sijistan during the era of its governor, Khalaf bin Ahmad al-Sijistani) <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; During the reign of Prince Khalaf bin Ahmed al-Sijistani, who dates back to the Saffarid Emirate that appeared in the Islamic East, and whose rule was ruled by many princes until Prince Khalaf took over the rule of Sijistan, and Sijistan at that time was suffering from many internal rebellions that directly affected economic life, especially the conflict Among the members of the same family as well as the external conflict such as the Samanid Emirate, which was in constant conflict with the province of Sijistan. Despite that, however, Prince Khalaf bin Ahmed was one of those who cared about agriculture, industry and trade in the province of Sijistan and strived hard to preserve it by encouraging the people of the region to diversify the sources of income In Sijistan, agriculture was continuous in its cities, as well as industry, as the cities of the region were famous for many handicrafts The cities of the Sijistan region were rich in agricultural resources, including trees, fruits, jujubes, and palm trees, in addition to the cultivation of wheat and barley. The presence of rivers in them is one of the factors that favor the growth of agriculture. As for the second point, we talked about industry in the Sijistan region, as many of the people of Sijistan excelled in industries, especially industry. Hand-made mats, zanabils, and drums. The cities of Sijistan were more famous than other cities of the bright provincesThey excelled in manufacturing mills, and they were also famous for manufacturing some medicines from snake venom. This was helped by the presence of raw materials that enabled the people of Sijistan to pay attention to this important economic aspect, while the third point was devoted to talking about trade, and we divided it into two types: internal trade and foreign trade, as it is Trade is the backbone of economic life in Sijistan, especially as it was a crossroads for internal and external trade routes As it is considered a crossing point for the countries of Sindh and India, the cities of Sijistan were also famous for the presence of many markets in which goods were exchanged between them and other cities. The presence of the Hindmand River greatly helped in the movement of ships, which facilitated the process of transporting goods to other regions. The Sijistan region had important trade relations with Islamic cities. The princes of the region were keen to continue these relations because of their financial returns that contribute to the growth and development of economic life.</p> Alaa Matar Tayeh Shihab Al-Dulaimi, Nazim Kamel Hamad Abdel-Dulaimi Copyright (c) 2024 The position of the British Colonial Office on the Central African Union 1953-1963 <p>The British Ministry of Colonies managed its colonies around the world, especially since it extended from the east to the west of the world, to become the empire on which the sun never sets, especially as the Ministry of Colonies went through historical stages due to the importance of its role since Britain began establishing the colonies, as the royal authority was exercised through advice And the guidance of the King’s Consultative Council, and it was introduced at the beginning of the seventeenth century, and in continuation of the slow degrees of development and many short-lived experiences until the eighteenth century, and it became a separate ministry for managing colonial affairs after the loss of the American colonies, and the independence of the United States of America, and for the developments that occurred in the twentieth century and the expansion of its tasks It was divided into departments and according to specialization (internal services departments - departments of senior and general staff - departments of establishments or institutions - divisions of individuals - immigration departments / overseas settlement department). Britain continued to maintain excellent positions in the colonies, trade and navigation of the two countries. With regard to the colonies, we notice that Britain was able to expand the area of what it was acquiring, and work to tighten and exploit what it had. This prompted the British to support investment and trade companies and follow the policy of customs protection to seize gold mines And the rich diamonds in the African colonies, and the realization of their plan, which was aimed at establishing an African empire belonging to them, starting from Cairo in the north and ending in Cape Town in the south, especially the project of the Union of Central Africa, which included the regions (Southern Rhodesia - Northern Rhodesia - Protectorate Nyasaland), in 1953 to complete The economic goal and exploitation of each other, and with the passage of time and colonial pressure and exploitation, and at the same level was the cultural enlightenment of the African peoples who rejected colonialism, the emergence of parties and associations, the translation of rejection into protests and unrest, and the expansion of their fateful cause on the world stage. As a result, some African countries gained independence.</p> Ali Jalil Jassim Mansour Copyright (c) 2024 Indication of lrregular plural forms in Al-Khurami,s poem (Sedition of Baghdad) <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Morphological significance has an important impact in enriching the lexical balance by transforming the used word and giving it a new meaning other than its original meaning without affecting its morphological structure. This feature distinguishes Arabic language through the relationship of linguistic exchange, and the irregular plural causes a change in the structure of the word when it moves from the singular to the plural. So this change occurs in the letters and vowels. Its rhythms were many and divided to the two parts auditory and regular.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; This study addressed a poem by the poet “Abu Ya’qub Ishaq Hassan Qawhi Al-Khuraimi” ( 214AH), in which he describes the fire of Baghdad, during the strife between Al-Amin and Al-Ma’mun in the year (197 AH). It is a long poem with more than 130 poetic verses. Its idea was based on describing the situation in Baghdad. In which, he poet resorted to linguistic, grammatical, rhetorical, and morphological methods. All of which he employed to draw connotations that he excelled in conveying, as we see in them the use of plural forms expressing certain connotations that the poet wanted in the compositions of his poem. This difference in structure from the singular to the plural must entail a change in meaning, which the predecessors did not neglect to point out, as the significance of the plural forms is the basic criterion for its classification.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The approach I followed it was descriptive-analytical to collects the morphological forms and analyzing them morphologically and semantically, by relying on books of morphology, dictionaries, and semantics. For this reason, the research was built on three points, and introduction that revealed the morphological significance and the irregular plural in the theoretical framework.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The first framework examined the significance of the forms of the plural of the few, and this plural has four special forms whose nouns range from the number three to ten. The second request was concerned with the title of the significance of the multiplicity plural forms, which applies to the number ten to infinity, and it has many rhythms. The research was limited to the examples mentioned in the poem. The third requirement is concerned with the significance of the formulas of the finite plurals, and its formulas are specific to the plural that is not followed by a plural if it reaches one of these rhythms. The conclusion was the most important results of the research and a list of research sources and references.</p> Khalid Ismaeel Saheb Copyright (c) 2024 The effect of reality on understanding the foundational texts in relation to the religious other <p>Reality has a great impact on understanding the Qur’anic verses and the texts of the purified Sunnah that are related to clarifying the foundations of the relationship with non-Muslims. Each era has its own characteristics and requirements, so the religious discourse must be appropriate to its era</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Contemporary jurists have taken care of this in their elicitation of the legal ruling that is appropriate and applicable in our time, as well as interpreters and those interested in Islamic thought in presenting an interpretation of the Holy Qur’an that meets renewed human needs and contributes to providing solutions to the problems facing them, including what is related to the relationship with non-Muslims, as it has become Communicating with them and strengthening human relations and trade exchange are among the necessary needs of our time. It is necessary to emphasize the human dimensions in the relationship with them and to distinguish between peaceful and hostile dealings, in a way that contributes to the promotion of peaceful coexistence between different religions and sects.</p> <p>Hence, the research was divided into an introduction and three demands followed by a conclusion. In the first requirement, it dealt with the concept of reality and its importance in understanding legal texts. As for the second requirement, it talked about the impact of reality in understanding religious texts among Islamic jurists and thinkers. As for the third requirement, it showed the impact of reality in explanatory blogs And I concluded the research with the most important findings of the study, and our last prayer is that praise be to God, Lord of the Worlds.</p> Zainab Hakim Obaid, Duraid Musa Dakhil Copyright (c) 2024 Treatments of abstract form in contemporary art <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Coming to an understanding of abstraction requires a type of contemplation, whether the meditator is a scientific or artistic subject, and contemplation itself may be dominated by the intellectual or sensory side, as the inherent characteristic of this contemplation is the characteristic of development that calls for treatment, i.e. change procedures, that is, in the sense of a continuous investigation of other qualities. The basic qualities and clarity of the basic characteristics of the form, and thus the abstract form is a process of moving up the ladder of development. Abstraction can also be defined as the process of revealing a hidden point in several points. The idea of treating the artistic form came through continuous and interconnected work as a series of the apparent abstract image, as the new methods are a summary of the life efforts of hundreds of philosophers intellectually and artists practically until the treatment of form reaches this historical series to reach its truth or transcendence from the visible appearance to reach in the end any deficiency that ascends the evolutionary ladder to change. The form affects the subject and performs it, meaning that one revelation leads us to another revelation in the treatment process and to a third revelation, and so on. At each stage, you reach a more precise process of abstraction than the previous one. Not only that, but every revelation through that has its roots in history and is built on more than one head. One notebook. The importance and need for the current research is evident through the following: The current topic, according to the researcher’s knowledge, is important for knowing the basis of treatments of abstract form in contemporary art. Through this, the problem of her current research crystallized for the researcher with the following question: What are the treatments of abstract form in contemporary art?</p> Rania Hamid Masir Abaas Al-rizgawi, Amer Abdul Redha Al-husseini Copyright (c) 2024 Aesthetics of the design structure of Persian jewelry <p>The research tagged (aesthetics of the design structure of Persian jewelry) is an important scientific effort that reviews the aesthetics of the design structure of Persian jewelry, by reading some of the selected artistic productions within the Achaemenid and Sasanian eras of Persian civilization. Aesthetics of the design structure of Persian jewelry ,As for the aim of the research, it was embodied in knowing the aesthetics of the design structure of Persian jewelry, while the importance of the research and the need for it was embodied in that it presents a knowledge achievement and an adequate review of jewelry within a time period that studies did not adequately and sufficiently address, as the research provides a review of ancient Persian wealth (jewelry) as well as knowledge of the mechanism&nbsp; The ancient design used and metals such as gold, silver, etc. in jewelry during the era (Achaemenid and Sasanian), and thus the research benefits scholars in the field of art, design and philosophy.&nbsp; As for the limits of the research, the researcher reviewed the term aesthetic, structure and design linguistically and idiomatically as well as the procedural definition.&nbsp; It dealt with the research procedures from the research community consisting of (34) models and the research sample consisting of (4) models and the analytical descriptive research methodology and the research tool represented by the researcher’s reliance on the indicators of the theoretical framework as well as the analysis, while the fourth chapter included the research results, conclusions and recommendations and concluded the research with margins&nbsp; Then the sources.</p> Naba Hameed Jasim, Dheyaa Hammood Mohammed Copyright (c) 2024 The function structure in the poetry of Ahmed Matar <p>This research is interested in focusing on the basic structures that shaped Ahmed Matar’s poetic speech, which is based on the concept of semantic structure, which is a concept that is considered one of the most important procedural concepts that form the theoretical basis for Lucian Goldman’s theses on compositional structuralism. This concept is based on the central idea that literary works include semantic structures. Totality, as we find in any literary work a general idea that is constantly recurring whenever we move from one paragraph to another, and this structure varies from one literary work to another. Totality is considered one of the distinctive characteristics of the structures of literary works. Therefore, the literary phenomenon - from the perspective of compositional structuralism - must be studied in its comprehensiveness, as for every An element in the structure of the literary text and its assigned function. Therefore, neglecting any of these elements leads to breaking the unity of the literary text. This suggests to us - implicitly - that the concept of function structure, as Goldman viewed it, seeks to create an internal unity between the components of the text. Goldman focused on Structure based on the functions it performs in a literary work. He pointed out how to discover the significant structure, from Goldman's point of view, the researcher must. In order to understand the work that he is about to study, he must adhere primarily to searching for the structure that almost includes the entirety of the text, based on a basic rule that specialists in literature rarely respect, which is that the researcher must encompass the entirety of the text, not add anything to it, and explain its composition. Deducing the significant structure in the literary work in general, and the novel in particular, can only be done by reading the text particles in light of the totality of the text itself, focusing on its essential functional significance in the world. Goldman left the field of searching for the significant structure in the novel work dependent on the critic’s sensory abilities. The concept of the functional structure not only assumes the unity of the parts within the totality of the text and the internal relationship between the elements, but at the same time it assumes the transition between a static vision to a dynamic vision, that is, the unity of origin with function.</p> Muhammad Shaker Al-Rubaie, الاء عهد عبد عمران Copyright (c) 2024 Quranic intertextuality in praises of the Prophet (PBUH) and Ahl al-Bayt (PBUH) according to Al-Sahib bin Abbad. <p>Intertextuality is the critical term that was first proposed by the Bulgarian linguist Julia Kristeva, and that was in the late sixties of the last century. Researchers dealt with it with multiple and different definitions and descriptions, until it became widely used in contemporary Arab criticism. The theory of intertextuality has been applied to many of the works of poets in different eras. Literary, this research aims, relying on the descriptive analytical approach, to study Qur’anic intertextuality in the praises of the Prophet (PBUH) and his honorable family (PBUH) according to Al-Sahib Ibn Abbad, through the rules of modern intertextual research according to the perspective of the critic Muhammad Bannis and its three levels (reflexive, absorbing, and dialogical) and so on. It is matched by the levels of critic Julia Kristeva, which are (parallel, partial, and total negation). The results of this research indicate a high level of repetitive intertextuality from the Qur’anic texts, but through creativity and new depiction. The poet repeats the Qur’anic sentences, words, and meanings with creativity that is harmonious and consistent with its intentional significance in the poetic text. The Qur’anic text was closely intertwined with the poet’s texts in particular, and with the religious text in general, as his poetry collection was tinged with a purely religious character, taking the Shiite doctrinal aspect as a path and starting point for these praises. The research also showed a high rate of internal intertextuality of the Qur’anic texts, as the poet repeatedly ruminates. Multiple and in different creative poetic forms, this indicates a true and sincere belief and a firm approach to follow according to Quranic argument and reasoning. Praise be to God, Lord of the Worlds, He is the Conciliator and Helper</p> Haider Moneim Yahya Al-Jaafari, Hamid Reza Mashaikhi, Mahdi Shahrokh Copyright (c) 2024 Problems of scientific supervision of postgraduate students in light of the increasing number of students beyond the capacity in Iraqi universities (University of Babylon as a model) <p>The current study aimed to identify the problems of scientific supervision of postgraduate students in light of the increasing number of students beyond the capacity in Iraqi universities (University of Babylon as a model), The sample of this study consisted of (156) male and female teachers, including (54) males, (102) female, (They were chosen randomly), and from the various scientific and humanities faculties at the University of Babylon, who hold the title (Professor, Assistant Professor),To achieve the goals of the study, the researcher used the descriptive approach and through a questionnaire to find out the problems of scientific supervision of postgraduate students, and after verifying its validity and stability, it consisted of (31) paragraphs, and the study reached the presence of postgraduate students in light of the increasing number of students, with a general arithmetic mean of (3.256823), females, with an arithmetic mean of (3.30), and the results showed that there were no statistically significant differences at the level of significance (0.05), depending on the variable of experience, specialization, and academic title. Postgraduate studies based on scientific foundations and within the capacity of universities. The importance of the study comes from the benefit it will provide to researchers in the field of scientific research, especially Iraqi universities and postgraduate students, as it addresses an academic problem that scientific supervision and postgraduate students suffer from, and leads to confusion that reflects negatively on the student and the higher educational institution, and knowledge of the reasons affecting scientific supervision.</p> Maan Abdul Kadhim Naji Al-owaidy Copyright (c) 2024 The Verb Structures and their lmplycations for Abdullah Binq Al-Mubarak's Diwan <p>The study investigated the subject of the verb structures in Abdullah bin Al-Mubarak's Diwan, and the study of these structures in the morphological verbs. The researcher conduced the verbs in terms of detachment and addition, the transitive verb and the imperative verb, In terms of passive and active. That Ibn Mubarak's Diwan constitutes an application of morphological topics in general, and that he used most of the abstract triple verb structures, and the abstract structures were more frequent than the addition, and that the abstract triangular verbs are more frequent, and the quadrilateral verbs were not used, and the active verbs are more frequent than passive verbs, and transitive verbs are more frequent than the intransitive verb Dion Abdullah bin Al-Mubarak formed most of the structures of abstract verbs, except for Chapter Six, which is the form (a verb to act), which was not mentioned in his collection.</p> <p>- He did not mention in his collections all the forms of the tripartite, such as (Afa’al, Afa’o’al, Af’aal, Afa’a’al)</p> <p>He did not mention in his collection of abstract quadrilateral verb forms or more.</p> <p>Most of the verbs mentioned in his collection are transitive verbs.</p> <p>Most of the verbs mentioned in his poetry are active verbs.</p> <p>-Diversity in the connotations of verbs: sometimes movement and standing are used, sometimes seeking the truth, and so on..</p> Riyam Ibrahim Kiser Copyright (c) 2024 The effect of the Japanese entrance strategy on acquiring historical concepts among first-grade intermediate students in sociology <p>The current research aims to find out the impact of the Japanese approach strategy on developing historical concepts among first-grade students average in the subject of social studies.&nbsp; The experimental group who study the subject according to the Japanese entrance strategy and the average grades of the students of the control group who study the same subject according to the traditional method in the post-concepts test.&nbsp; According to the strategy of the Japanese entrance and Division (B), so that the control group, which studies according to the usual method, consisted of 62 students in the two groups, 31 for each group. Equivalence was conducted between the two groups in a number of variables, which included the academic achievement of the mother and father, the chronological age calculated in months for students, the intelligence test, and the grades of the first course of the subject&nbsp; Sociology for the academic year 2021-2022, the researcher applied the experiment in the second course, and prepared for that a conceptual test consisting of 46 objective test items of multiple choice type.&nbsp; Conducting a post-test and subjecting the results to statistical processes, the results showed that there are statistically significant differences in favor of the experimental group. Based on the above results, the researcher came out with a number of conclusions, recommendations and suggestions</p> Yahya Karim Ahmed Copyright (c) 2024 The Aural Image in the Apologies of Al-Nabigha Al-Dhubyani <p>Our primary goal in this research is to memorize the sense of hearing in the creative fabric of the apologies of the genius Al-Dhubiani, so we seek - technically - to study the audio image and how the image was drawn in the apologies of the genius through the sounds of words and their impact in the poetic performance to evoke the sense of hearing alone or with the participation of other senses. They divided the research into an introduction and two sections, and a conclusion containing the results of the research. As for the introduction, it deals - with some brevity - with the idiomatic definition of the concept of the audio image, then the definition of apologies - how and how - and how the urgent desire of the genius to apologize to Al-Numan Ibn Al-Mundhir, and remove the barrier of estrangement between them was a motive Technically, due to the prevalence of the audio image - as a phenomenon - artistic in his poetic texture, his urgency in apologizing made the poetic stance To evoke the sense of hearing alone or with the participation of other senses, and they divided the research into an introduction and two sections, and a conclusion that contains the results of the research. For Al-Nu’man Ibn Al-Mundhir, and removing the barrier of apathy between them was an artistic motive for the prevalence of the audio image - as an artistic - phenomenon in his poetic texture.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; And the first topic we divided it into two axes: the first: readings with an auditory tendency, which are the readings that have an auditory character, either through the audio outlets that represent purely auditory foci (such as the words of pronunciation, hearing, saying, interrogation, supplication, prohibition, call, order ... and other audio outlets with which it began The poet reads his apologies), or through explicit audio images, such as the image of war, or some moral audio clips in which he addresses the genius Al-Numan bin Al-Mundhir. Appeasement, which gathered under the auditory umbrella of the genius's apologies&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The second topic: We divided it - as well - into two axes: the first: we monitored the sources of the audio image in the apologies of the genius, which the research invoked in three patterns (environmental sources - social sources - psychological sources), the second axis, in which we monitored the graphic formation of the audio image in the apologies of the genius Starting with the analogy that rises on the sense of hearing, then the metaphor that performs auditory functions, then the metaphor that forms the auditory image.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; At the conclusion of the research, we list the most important results that he reached.</p> Hussien KZAR SALLAL Copyright (c) 2024 The water-climatic budget of the Kirkuk climate station for the period (2010-2022) <p>The importance of studying the climatic water balance lies through knowledge of the water surplus and deficit in Kirkuk Governorate, because of its significant impact on the various environmental and human activities. Climate water budget. And then analyze the climatic water budget and know the values ​​of the water deficit and surplus and its negative and positive impact on the German situation in the province, as the German surplus can be exploited in agriculture since the soil is saturated with water that nourishes the plant for the longest possible period, but in the case of German scarcity and deficit, solutions and alternatives must be developed Which would reduce the severity of the water deficit and reduce the amount of evaporation and evapotranspiration in the study area. Knowing the values ​​of water deficit and surplus and their negative and positive impact on the water situation in the governorate, as the water surplus can be exploited in agriculture, since the soil is saturated with water that nourishes the plant for the longest possible period. In the case of water scarcity and deficit, solutions and alternatives must be developed that will reduce the severity of the water deficit and reduce the amount of evaporation and evaporation / transpiration in the study area.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;The research relied on climatic data from (2010-2022 AD). And through the application of statistical methods, it became clear that the best results appeared in Najib Kharofa’s method, as it is suitable for arid and semi-arid environments. It also showed that there is a water deficit in most months of the year except for the winter months (December, January, February). The water surplus (real evaporation) in Kirkuk station is (8.6, 30.2, and 6.9) mm, respectively, and the total water deficit in Kirkuk station is (-533.4) mm. The rate of temperature that resulted in an increase in the amount of evaporation in a way that exceeds the amount of precipitation.</p> Jassim Mohammed Ahmed Mohammed Al-Hamdani Copyright (c) 2024 Deletion of sentences according to Ibn al-Atheer (d. 637 AH) in the common proverb in the literature of the writer and poet A semantic grammatical study <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The phenomenon of deletion is a feature of our Arabic language, as it tends towards brevity, which gives the phrase strength and richness in meaning, but rather makes it far from being heavy. By extrapolating literature books, we stopped at the book (The Walking Proverb) by Ibn al-Atheer, who died (637 AH); As it presented various sciences, including those related to grammar, and because we wanted to deal with issues that contradict the origin of the grammatical structure based on the process of attribution, we chose to deal with deleting sentences. Due to for being less studied, and after After extrapolation, we found Placements&nbsp; suitable for study. Ibn al-Atheer mentioned them in the omission of the vocabulary, citing - mostly - Qur’anic evidence. The task of the research lies in studying the deletion of the compound according to what our author dealt with in a grammatical study, with an indication of the semantic effect of this deletion, and then standing on the opinions of the commentators; Based on their statements and examining what was presented in this work, Because it is one of the works of literature, with a preface to every type of deletion with what the grammarians said.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; And because the deletion occurs in the compound methods of two sentences - in most cases - the study necessitated dividing it into three investigations. We devoted the first to deleting the sentence in the conditional style; It was widely, It included two requirements, one of which was: deleting the conditional sentence, whether it was deleted with the tool&nbsp; and some of the answer, or whether it، Or was it deleted, with the tool and&nbsp; the object remaining indicative of it، As well as deleting it with the tool (if) and the tool were deleted with a substitute for it. As for the second requirement, it concerned deleting the conditional response sentence after the non-assertive conditional articles - which is the predominant one - and included (if), (either), (when), (if), and if not), and after the assertive conditional article represented by (that). and we made the second topic to delete the sentence in the oath and command styles, and we marked the third topic with (deleting the sentence in other contexts) referred to by Ibn Al-Atheer, and that included deletion with the survival of some elements of the sentence and deletion in view of the appropriateness of speech.</p> Zahraa Saad Al-Din Sheet Copyright (c) 2024 Onomatopoeia in the Prophet's Speech <p>This study investigated the phenomenon of "onomatopoeia" in the sayings (hadiths) of the Prophet's speeches. The phenomenon of onomatopoeia is manifested by choosing words whose timbre suggests simulating an event. The phonemic connotation derives from the nature of the sounds and how the meaning is portrayed by the timbre of the sounds in the pronunciation. That one of the basics of the beauty of the language of the Prophet’s hadith is how to select the appropriate sounds in the performance of the meaning, in pursuit of accuracy in depiction in proportion to the context and situation, success is achieved in employing the vocal structure that indicates meaning with its rhythm, timbre, and gestures.</p> <p>Based on the mentioned above, the present study came to shed the light on the concept of onomatopoeia and its impact on the embodiment the meaning in the sayings (hadiths) of the Prophet's speeches, by using the descriptive method. The Onomatopoeia came in the Prophet’s hadith, represented by four manners: the first is the appropriateness of the word for the meaning; the second: simulating the sound of the event; the third: the names of the sounds; and the fourth: mentioning the sounds of animals.</p> Taghreed gubair Aref, Adel Hadi Hammadi Al-Obaidi Copyright (c) 2024 (International protection of the right to vote in Iraq ) <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The rights that are among the rights of peoples according to their constitutions is the right to choose their representatives or who heads the state. Either the system of government is presidential, parliamentary, or semi-parliamentary, and as a result, it is a right as long as the state is moving towards building democratic constitutional institutions, and this happened in Iraq after 2003 and with the advent of A system of government based on the constitution of 2005 despite the many observations on the Iraqi constitution, and thus the protection of this right is entrusted to the laws of the state from the legislation as well as the laws inferior to it, but if the state has requested to monitor the elections according to what it wants, then this is by entering international law including There are international rules that allow such monitoring or protection, but this protection cannot be imposed by international law or by someone who represents international law. Therefore, in this research, we examined the aspects through which the right to vote in Iraq can be protected internationally, and is this possible legally, and does Iraqi legislation allow With that protection, and what is the international legal basis for that protection in Iraq.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Haider Khudair Hamza, Mustafa Fadayli Copyright (c) 2024 point ofView Rotation and its functions in a Narrative from Ghassan Kanfani, Stability Literature Writer <p>The Literature in every language is usually divided into two parts: poetry and prose, and Arabic literature as world literature is no exception to this matter. Poetry enjoyed the utmost importance among the Arabs because of the strength of its statement and the sharpness of its memory, and it lived with it, but the importance of prose was not less than it, especially after the emergence of the story and narrative literature, which includes the novel, the short story, and the very short story.</p> <p>The factor of point of Viewis one of the most important elements of story that overshadows all other elements including characterization, plot, scene … and that is the form and the way of providing story information to reader.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Using content to analysis all kind of point of Viewand their functions in the short story of “ Alofogh Varae Albavabe” from Ghassan Kanfani, the combatant writer and Palestinian martyr by the method of content analysis to show how the writer uses all kinds of point of Viewfor effecting on the other elements of his narrative and realizing his expected purposes and he makes proportion among the kinds of point of View, the time of narrative, the mood of its characters and reader’s mood by&nbsp; rotations of point of Viewand narrator rotation in the time and his presence in the trend of narrative and shows some manifestations of postmodern narrative purposes and he makes proportion among the kinds of point of View, the time of narrative, the mood of its characters and reader’s mood by&nbsp; rotations of point of Viewand narrator rotation in the time and his presence in the trend of narrative and shows some manifestations of postmodern narratives.s.</p> hasan goodarzi lemraski, Ali babapoor rishan Copyright (c) 2024 The rhetorical question in the novel The Quail and the Autumn by Naguib Mahfouz <p>The Arabic language is distinguished from all other languages by its multiplicity of methods and diversity of purposes, which makes the speech reach the recipient with the simplest words and the most precise expressions, making it attractive to every person who desires it. One of these methods is the interrogative method, which is considered one of the interesting and wonderful methods in Arabic rhetoric, and it is one of the demanding constructional methods that rhetoricians search for, because of its importance for the speaker to express the feelings and desires he wants that indicate knowledge and his search for the thing hidden within him.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The aesthetics of the interrogative appeared clear in the novels of Naguib Mahfouz, who is considered one of the most prominent Arab writers in the twentieth century, and which constituted a milestone in his artistic production and his treatment of societal issues. Despite the many studies related to the interrogative style, there is no study that dealt with the rhetorical interrogative in novels. Naguib Mahfouz.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;Therefore, the study sought, through the descriptive and analytical approach, to study the rhetorical question in the novel The Quail and the Autumn, to shed light on the most prominent aesthetics of the metaphorical question and its analysis, and to demonstrate its use and benefit from it in promoting its idea and communicating it to society.</p> <p>The study found that the writer was able to employ interrogations in a way that helped him attract the addressee and convey his idea through metaphorical interrogations. The writer here did not intend, by asking these questions, to search for something unknown to him, or a fact that had escaped his mind. Rather, he intended many meanings behind it. It is carried by the general context of the novel, especially since he wrote the novel with symbolic connotations. The picture that the writer revealed is about what happened in Egypt in the 1952 revolution. These questions that he mentioned were about the state of society and the harsh conditions of the country and the emphasis on dealing with reality after the events. The questioning carried within it many purposes. It was divided into exclamation, sarcasm, rebuke, regret, denial, report, bewilderment, and confusion, and many of the purposes mentioned in the novel, and we found in the novel an overlap between these purposes, so there was report with rebuke and report with exclamation. The writer was seeking to achieve his goal in the most appropriate and quickest way to achieve his goal.</p> Hossam Hamid Obaid, Mustafa Kamaljo, Hussein Yousfi Copyright (c) 2024 President Gerald ford Anti – Drug policy 1967-1974. <p>Ford directed the policy of the United States of America according to the principle of limiting communist activity and confronting domestic opposition to foreign policy, And the opponents of the Vietnam War, therefore, were in a very difficult test, and he had to preserve, at the very least, the gains of President Nixon, who made tangible progress towards Turkey, Iran, and East Asia. Providing economic aid in return for providing aid to the United States, and the Ford administration represented a political extension of the Republican Party's ideology, despite some differences in visions.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;Therefore, Ford's first step in drug policy was to limit the federal demand for drugs within American territory, and thus provided an appropriate opportunity that perfectly matched the wing in favor of linking countries hostile to the United States with the drug trade. Thus, the countries of East Asia represented Ford's first political stations to contain them for fear of communist expansion. The theory of modernization had a method identical to American policy and had a major impact in bartering with developing countries and third world countries, limiting the drug trade in exchange for American aid, especially since those countries were suffering from economic and political problems that made them submit to the American will. For example, Thailand and Burma had achieved progress. It was tangible in his favoritism for the rebellious tribes in the mountains, and on the internal level, Ford inherited from his predecessor Nixon a conflict between the American administration and Congress, as the latter sought to abide by the American president and continue his work in foreign policy, specifically on the issue of drugs, which disturbed Ford and stood in the way. In front of the establishment of the Special Action Office for the Prevention of Drug Abuse, which would monitor the implementation of the provisions of any agreement or law related to drugs, and it carried out its work by following flexible diplomacy towards the allies of the United States of America, both France and Turkey and even with Mexico.</p> Fahd Awaid Al-Baiji, Fadel R. Al Aide Copyright (c) 2024 Toward a Postmodern Cultural Criticism (The Question of Implicit Frameworks) <p>The cultural criticism approach is considered one of the ‎most significant approaches that has brought together several trends in postmodern ‎criticism under its umbrella. Its emergence in the Arab world has given rise ‎to many exaggerations, questions, and arguments about ‎the possible death of the literary question and its replacement by the cultural ‎question, and about establishing its theoretical foundations as an ‎approach that aims at revealing the flaws of systematicity ‎and the cultural tricks carried by discourses and encrusted ‎stealthily into collective ‎consciousness. These implicit systems are carefully examined by ‎the researcher Abdullah Al Ghathami, who has ‎recognized hidden and artful structures within ‎discourses; these are subtle structures that stem from the ideological, cultural, and ‎tribal heritage ingrained in the memory and convictions of the discourse producer that eventually impose ‎authority on the said discourse through their unconscious ‎but touching rhythm. ‎</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Despite the importance of this approach, it has poured ‎all its efforts into revealing the negative implicit ‎systematicity and eliminated other considerations ‎inside and outside discourse.&nbsp; Therefore, this study ‎aims to propose a multilevel harmonization to analyze ‎and study discourse (literary discourse in particular) to understand it internally and externally and ‎examine the implicit systems in it in both their positive and ‎negative aspects. It also suggests expanding the definition of systematicity as well as extending the scope and applicability of cultural criticism. This expansion will not take the theory ‎out of its cultural framework. It will rather make it more ‎inclusive and at liberty to become a focused tool that ‎can respond to variables and can analyze all the aspects of discourse.</p> Banan Muhammad Salah Aldeen, Mohanad Thwaib Copyright (c) 2024 The economic role of Cordell Hull in US Congress (1914-1918) <p>&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;During the First World War (1914-1918), the United States of America tended to follow the policy of avoiding wars because it was proceeding what was stipulated in the Monroe Doctrine, which includes non-interference in wars while preserving its interests in all countries of the world, but when its security and its country are endangered, then , it will certainly intend to use another method that obliges it to take a different position&nbsp; from Monroe stipulation, and after the outbreak of the war it adhered to its neutrality in it, but after the submarine war that forced the United States to enter the war in 1917 AD, and what is meant by our study here is that how did US President Thomas Woodrow Wilson benefit from the war in&nbsp; The economic aspect, and how to conclude trade agreements with the warring countries and earn profits for the benefit of the United States of America, and this did not come out of nowhere, but rather through ideas and proposals that were put forward by members of the US Congress, most of which was in the economic aspect ran by the member of the US Congress Cordell Hull, who worked hard to convey his ideas that he adopted years before the outbreak of World War I, and applied them on the ground during that period of war to mock trade agreements, income tax law, inheritance tax, and navigation in the Cumberland River for the benefit of his country, which brought profits to the state treasury, as well as&nbsp; The war that broke out between the center bloc, which was represented by (Germany, Austria-Hungary, and the Ottoman Empire) and the allies (Britain, France, Russia, and the United States of America), from which the United States of America came out as the biggest winner in the war, from the military point of view, it did not provide losses&nbsp; The large size if compared to other parties, in addition to selling a lot of military and commercial materials, which enabled it to take an important role after the end of the war, as well as studying it by not entering the war early, making it the country that gave the least losses in lives, and equipments&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Salah Khalf Mashay, Alaa Khmees Alwan Abd Al.Hamery Copyright (c) 2024 The Importance of the Role of the Temples of the God Ra' During the Fifth Dynasty 2531-2374 BC <p>The Egyptian ancient kingdom represents the pick of its civilization especially in relation to huge and great architectural monuments which include pyramids, mortuary temples and sun temples.&nbsp; The sun temples strongly related with the fifth dynasty, where this dynasty united to important position in ancient Egypt, the king and great priest of Heliopolis. This unification leads to merge of cult and kingship. This strongly reflects on the structure and function of the sun temples which represent the sun cult and king divine nature.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The scholars differ about both the number and the function of sun temples where the evidences indicate to presence of six temples where the discovered is only two temples. In addition to analyzing different opinions about nature of these temples in terms of function and purpose of their construction, where archaeologists disagreed greatly about the purpose of building these temples, especially since the two kings who built the two discovered temples had also built a pyramid and a funerary temple. This sparked great controversy about the role of these temples and the purpose of their existence.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;We concluded that the sun temples shall be a part of a wider architectural structure include sun temple and king pyramid. This collection represents, in general, sun cult and creation legend which represents Atum (sun God) as creator and shepherded of the cosmos. Therefore, the temples and pyramids, in terms of location and design, remained linked to this belief and this land, as if they symbolized the emergence of the universe around the god who stands on the top of “Ben Ben” in Heliopolis. The research also reviewed the extent to which the sun temples were linked in their design and location to the doctrine of the sun, the sanctification of the city of Heliopolis, and clarified the different opinions regarding the possibility of the existence of other temples. So we conducted an aerial survey of the areas where they might be found.</p> Fatin Muwafaq Fadel Al-Shaker Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Contents of sports programs on Al-Sharqiya satellite channel (An analytical study of the third half program) For the period from 2022/8/7 to 2022/10/27 <p>Specialized sports media plays an important role in the life of modern societies, as it has become, after the growth and development of the role of the media, an important pillar for the success of any local or international sports tournament or competition, and sporting events have become an integral part of the lives of the people of society.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The sports programs offered by satellite television channels have a wide and varied audience, as it attracts various segments of society. The current research aims to shed light on the contents of one of the programs that deal with the sports field, which is the weekly program The Third Round presented by Al-Sharqiya satellite channel.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; As the research seeks to achieve several objectives, including: monitoring and analyzing the most prominent topics dealt with in the contents of the sports program, the third half, and identifying the methods of persuasion used by the channel in question, identifying the types of sports news coverage, and standing on the most prominent television editorial arts used by Al-Sharqiya channel.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; This research is considered a descriptive research, as the researcher used the survey method, and relied on the content analysis form as a tool for collecting basic information and data From the period (7/8 to 27/10/2020).&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The research reached a set of results, including: the emergence of seven main topics that the editorial policy of the channel under study was keen to include in the contents of the third half program, and the topic of support in the sports field ranked first, and the method of presenting opinion as the truth ranked first among the sub-categories of methods of persuasion, and this category won the titles The written one ranks first among all categories of image processors used by the program.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Rafi Abdel Qader Saudi Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Special exploits in the Umayyad era (a study in the book Uyun al-Akhbar) <p>The Umayyad state (41-132 AH/661-749 AD) played a significant role in the history of the Arab Islamic state after the establishment of the Prophet Muhammad (may Allah bless him) and the Rightly Guided Caliphate. Despite the short period of its rule, which did not exceed one hundred years compared to the length of the periods of rule of other states, such as the Abbasid state, for example, it was a period of time in which major events took place related to its particular caliphs and other governors. Due to the importance of this time period in history, I presented this study, which aims to know the special impact through the book “Ouyun Al-Akhbar” by the great historian Abu Muhammad Abdullah bin Muslim bin Qutaybah Al-Dinawari, who died in the year (276 AH/1325 AD).</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; What is meant by “Dignitaries” is the caliphs, their governors, their covenant governors, their workers, the commanders of their armies, and their children. And the “Influence” is everything that these people mentioned, including sayings, sermons, wisdom, advice, and opinions.</p> <p>As Al-Dinawari mentioned, this influence came in narrations through sermons in mosques or speaking in private or public gatherings, and the intention of all of this was the desire of these dignitaries to send signals to others, the goal of which was to achieve what they aspire to, in implementing the official orders and decisions of the state or other requests. These signals and demands varied between political, administrative, social and other topics.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Due to the inability to cover the topic regarding the caliphs, as their number reached fourteen caliphs and a large number of governors, workers, and the rest of the dignitaries, I decided to focus on a model of the caliphs and governors. Regarding the caliphs, Caliph Abd Al-Malik ibn Marwan advised his brother Abd Al-Aziz when he assumed power over Egypt, saying to him: You must watch your scribe, your chamberlain, and your companion, for the absent person will be told about you by your scribe, the one who is present will know you by your chamberlain, and the one who is visiting you will know you by your companion.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The transmission of commandments, consultations, or rulings was not done through direct conversation, but rather it was done by sending letters, and as happened with Caliph Omar bin Abdul Aziz, he sent letters to his governors advising them to treat people well and not to exploit the position to harm people by saying, “If your ability makes you oppress people, then remember Allah’s power over you”. As for the governors, their situation was like the caliphs’ in giving advice, wisdom, commandments, and other influences to others, whether they were public or private, and as was reported from Al-Dinawari, the will of the governor of Medina, Utbah bin Abi Sufyan, to the teacher of his children, his saying to him: Let your dreams be your own, for their eyes are fixed on your eyes, for what is good to them is what you like and what is bad is what you find bad. Teach them the conduct of the wise and the morals of writers, guide them to me, discipline them, and be to them like a doctor who does not use medicine until he knows the disease.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; This situation was also applied by the Umayyad governors in sending letters, as Qutaybah ibn Muslim Al-Bahili did and sent letters to Caliph Suleiman ibn Abd Al-Malik blaming him because of the caliph’s desire to remove him from Khurasan and appoint Al-Muhallab ibn Abi Sufra in his place. The content of the letters was Qutaybah’s reminder to the Caliph of his obedience and the obedience of his father Abd Al-Malik before, Suleiman doubted Qutaybah’s trust, and as a result, the Caliph decided to remain in his position.</p> Abdel Sattar Ismail Abdel Rahman Al Tai Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 The Hadith " Safin eye Noah's " in Sunni narrative and commentary sources <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Hadith is the main source after the Holy Quran for receiving religious knowledge and Islamic culture, in all fields and at various levels, whether in the intellectual and doctrinal field, or in the scientific and jurisprudential field, and whether in the individual fields, or the social fields and mutual relations between members of society. There is many evidence in the hadiths of the Prophet (PBUH) that indicate the authority of the Sunnah of the Imams (PBUH). Knowledge of the imamate and religious authority of the pure Ahl al-Bayt (peace be upon them), and commitment to it, can be proven by observing the Sunnah of the Prophet, especially the hadith about “Safin eye&nbsp;&nbsp; Noah's.” This extensive and widespread use of the hadith indicates the authenticity of its origin from the Prophet (PBUH), because as we have seen, this hadith has been used repeatedly throughout the ancient history of narration and interpretation, in narrative and interpretive sources. The hadith comparing the Ahle&nbsp; al-Beyt of the Prophet (PBUH) to Safin aye&nbsp;&nbsp; Noah is one of the best hadiths that Muslim scholars have narrated in their works and books. Safin a hadith, after Ghadeer hadith and Saqalein hadith, is one of the hadiths that has a great reputation among hadith scholars. This hadith, which is one of the famous hadiths, emphatically states the need for people to follow Ali (pbuh) and the family of the Prophet (pbuh) after his death. In studying and investigating this topic, I have relied on the descriptive and analytical inductive approach using the library method that has studied this research. In this article, an attempt is made to extract and explain the extent of the hadith of Safin a in narrative and exegetical books of Sunnis, its various forms and words, as well as the coexistence of this hadith with other important hadiths, and finally it is shown that such a hadith - which not only Among the Shias, but also among the Sunnis, it has had a special reputation - it can be used as proof of the Imamate of the Ahle al-Beyt (AS).</p> Mina Shamkhi Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Objections of Ibn Al-Fakhar Al-Nahwi (d. 754 AH) in his book Explanation of sentences )letters as a model( <p>This is a study in the most important grammatical objections of Ibn al-Fukhar in his book (Explanation of the sentences). grammatical rules, and the aim of this study is to reach the grammatical base and the safest grammatical origin of the Arabic language for the purpose of building solid grammatical rules to which all grammatical adoptions refer in order to reach the ultimate goal (Preserving the Arabic language from error, melody, and pronunciation of classical Arabic as it was mentioned in the Holy Qur’an) according to the original rules and regulations that were laid down on it. These objections included various grammatical doctrines and collective and individual opinions, and thus this movement and academic attraction contributed to giving flexibility and dynamism in the field of grammatical research. It is chosen by Him, Glory be to Him, as the language of His Glorious Book (the Holy Qur’an), just as it is the language of poetry that our fathers sang with, which is considered (the collection of the Arabs), conveying their exploits and describing their days. Grammatical issues involved various schools of thought that met and conflicted, and many grammatical schools emerged that contributed to the expansion and spread of this linguistic heritage and the stabilization of its rules. The grammatical issues that were agreed upon by most of the public or grammar sheikhs were called choices, and those in which they disagreed were called objections, and we will come to some of those. Grammatical models and then adopting the opinions of its greatest scholars. The purpose of the research is to determine the most sound grammatical opinion on which the grammatical rule can be based.</p> Haider Mohsen Fahd Hammoud, Wael Abdel-Amir Khalil Al-Harbi Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 The Quranic in the speech of the Lady Al-Zahra (peace be upon her) <p>God Almighty has favored His Messenger, the believers, and all people to make his pure progeny equal to the Book of God and bound by it until God inherits the earth and those on it (I am leaving among you something that if you cling to it, you will not go astray, the Book of God Almighty is a stretched rope, and my progeny are my household, and they will not separate until they respond to me Al-Hawd) and (will not) in Al-Mawrid&nbsp; dictionary indicate the permanence of the non-separation between the Qur’an and the Progeny, and the eternal non-misguidance of those who adhere to them.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; And because al-Zahra (Fatima) is the pole of the millstone between prophecy and the progeny, and because she is the mother of her father, his progeny, and his kawthar, which the Lord of Glory gave to him in reply to his disgrace. God endowed them with blessings that were unique to her without his creation, so it was an introduction to what she had become of the Qur’an in her words and actions, including the tenderness of two hearts that have no similarity: the heart of the Prophet, whom God made a container for the greatest Book (for He revealed it to your heart, by His willing) and the heart of the mother of the believers, Khadija, and that she heard the Noble Qur’an from the Prophet And she heard it from the prince of believers; Ali, and that she connected with him and understood the rulings of his obligations, and that she learned everything that an Arab girl of pure race and lineage can learn, and she added to it what no one else could understand.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; It can be said that Al-Zahraa had an upbringing that no one else had, for she grew up in the cradle of faith, and she learned in her parents’ house what no other child learned from the verses of the Qur’an.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; So she heard God’s revelation descending upon her father, and she saw and aware His words in her insight, so her flesh and blood mixed with it, rather the verses of the Qur’an mixed with every cell of her, so her spirit heard the verses of God, so the Qur’an in its language, style, and meanings was her intellectual nourishment. So how does it not appear in her speech? Because of what is in it of realizing the truth, refuting falsehood, and revealing the truths, so the position&nbsp; of Al-Zahraa was like the position of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) from the Qur’an and the family. The Qur'anic speech was not confined to citing the verses of the Qur'an, but rather included the use of a passage from a verse, or a word from it, or the employment of a meaning or character. So Her thoughts crossed with its words and meanings, producing an integrated intellectual fabric, as if it was the hand of divine power that created it and formulated what is in it.</p> Majid Mehdi Deyab Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Mental evidence of the Imamate <p>At the end of what my research reached, I concluded that kindness is a rational rule, and the content of the hadith revolves around two premises, the first is the imam's kindness, and the second is that kindness is obligatory on God. The door of kindness to His servants and raising them towards righteousness and prosperity), the Most High said: ﴾ Your Lord has ordained mercy for Himself﴿ (Al-An’am 54)</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;Kindness</strong>: It is everything that feeds and raises the need of human society towards righteousness and prosperity, so appointing an imam among people after the Messenger is obligatory on God. Because it is kindness, as we said, that feeds the needs of human society. It is not the mind that obliges kindness to God Almighty, God forbid - but rather, God Almighty is the one who obliges kindness to himself, and it is said kindness out of politeness. or being obligatory; Because God knows the human community needs the presence of a just imam who enjoins what is right and forbids what is wrong. If we suppose that the responsible person knows the costs of perfecting the rulings, then he must have an imam who establishes justice, supports the oppressed, and reprimands the oppressor. Thus, people will be closer to obedience and farther from disobedience</p> Bushra Yas Khudair Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Interactive Thinking for outstanding students and their peers Research extracted from a master's thesis <p><strong>The aim of the current research is to identify:</strong></p> <ul> <li>Interactive thinking among outstanding middle school students and their ordinary peers.</li> <li>Statistically significant differences in the level of interactive thinking among outstanding middle school students and their ordinary peers, according to gender (male - female).</li> </ul> <p>In order to achieve the goals, it was necessary to prepare a tool for measuring interactive thinking, and after reviewing the literature and studies, the researcher prepared a scale consisting of (24) items distributed over (4) fields, and after verifying the psychometric properties of the research scale and its paragraphs, it was applied to the basic research sample of ( 400) male and female students from the outstanding students in Babylon Governorate for the academic year (2021_2022), they were chosen randomly with a proportional distribution, so that choosing the sample in this way makes it more representative of the original community, and after analyzing the data statistically using the Statistical Bag for Social Sciences (SPSS), the results were produced the following:</p> <ul> <li>Outstanding students generally have a high level of interactive thinking, and this represents a positive indicator and confirms the proper preparation process for this class.</li> <li>The level of interactive thinking among the outstanding students is affected by the gender variable because it is the result of the outstanding students' perceptions, the environmental conditions they are subjected to and their unique characteristics.</li> </ul> Shahd Haider, Hawra Abbas Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Dayfa Khatun and Her Policy Toward the Ayyubid Governors <p>&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Dayfah Khatun is the most prominent lady of the Ayyubid House. She is the daughter of&nbsp; Al-Adil bin Ayyub, and the wife of Al-Zahir bin Saladin. She ruled for a time (634 - 640 A.H. / 1236 - 1242 A.D. ) the city of Aleppo as a regent to her grandson, King Al-Nasir. She demonstrated political skill and shrewdness in the midst of a heated atmosphere of conflict between the rulers of The Ayyubid family, especially among her two brothers, Al-Kamil of Egypt and&nbsp; Al-Ashraf, the governor of Damascus and those who sided this or that party from the rest of the members of the Ayyubid family. Her brother Al-Kamil refused to&nbsp; acknowledge her regency to grand-son, denying that a woman had ever assumed power from the Ayyubid house. This hostility continued and threatened Dayfa position in Aleppo, and nothing save her from the only the sudden death of Al-Kamil in the year 635 A.H./1237 A.D. Then the whole Ayyubid rulers shifted towards her considering her as the&nbsp; head of the Ayyubid House, and they&nbsp; sought to gain her favor until her death in the year 640 A.H./1142 A.D.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;This research aims to highlights about Dayfa rule and her political relation with the kings of the Ayyubid house and her struggle to defend Aleppo against the outside and demotic threats during her regency between 634 A.H. / 1236 A.D. and 640 A.H./ 1242 A.D. The main issue is her relations with the other branches of the Ayybid dynasty, mostly her brothers Al-Kamil and Al-Ashraf.</p> Najla Sufyan Ahmed Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Features of schizophrenia in the artistic and literary product (Mad doves play as a model) <p>Schizophrenia is a functional mental disorder that causes an imbalance in the aspects of the human personality (physical, social and psychological). This disorder and disturbances appear in various forms on the behavior of the affected personality. And since the artistic and literary expression was linked to the psychological aspect of the artist and the surrounding society, which is the honest expression of what goes on in the mind of man, and from here came the current research entitled (Manifestations of schizophrenia in the artistic and literary product) in four chapters, the first chapter included the research problem represented by the question (What are the manifestations of schizophrenia in the artistic and literary product?), the importance of the research and the need for it, the research objective, the temporal, spatial and objective limits, and the definition of the search terms.</p> <p>The second chapter included a study of the manifestations of schizophrenia in the plastic and applied arts, as well as in literature, and the most important findings of the theoretical framework of indications, and the researcher did not find a previous study on the same subject.</p> <p>The third chapter was concerned with the research procedures, which included the research community, the research sample and the research method. The researcher adopted the descriptive analytical approach in analyzing the research sample form.</p> <p>As for the appropriate chapter, it included the most important results and conclusions reached by the researcher, and the research concluded with the sources.</p> Amer Muhammad Hussain Al-Shabib, Marwa Abdul-Karim Hamad Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 The Egyptian-Turkish dispute in light of Turkey's accession to the Middle East leadership project in 1951 <p>The research aims to shed light on the Middle East leadership project and to explain its role and the extent of its impact on the political situation between Egypt and Turkey. In 1951 Turkey joined the Middle East leadership project. At a time when the four countries submitted a proposal represented by (the United States of America, Britain, France and Turkey) to choose Egypt as the headquarters for this project. Hence, the differences between Egypt and Turkey began, and the Egyptian response came by refusing or allying with the West and adhering to its historical position against this project, stressing that Egypt's accession to it would lead to strengthening the British presence inside Egyptian lands, especially the Suez Canal, as Turkey defended it in a major defense against Britain and called it British rights. In the Suez Canal without taking into account the Egyptian rights, these positions provoked clear Arab reactions against Turkey, embodied in the burning of the Turkish flag in Syria on the fifteenth of November 1951, and after failing to persuade Egypt to join the project, the Prime Minister of Turkey, Adnan Menderes, hurried to go to London On the sixteenth of October 1952, requesting that the name of the Middle East Leadership project be changed to the Middle East Defense Organization, and we may conclude from this conflict tension in Egyptian-Turkish relations.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Oday Najim Abdulallah, Jaseem Mohamme Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Now I Could Tell My Story: A Postcolonial-Feminist Study in Eavan Boland's "Mother Ireland" <p>Ireland was unjust to its women. For many years, Irish women were marginalized and their voices were silenced; they were absent from history, culture, and even literary works<strong>.</strong> Ireland is viewed as a woman not only by colonialists, but also by the Irish themselves, the nationalists. Ireland has become feminized and is referred to as "Mother Ireland". Women have lost all humanity through the association of both Ireland and women with the legend of Mother Ireland. Boland revolts against this despised depiction of women's dignity. Therefore, she, in her " Mother Ireland", attempts to present a new Mother Ireland, distinct from the old and traditional one. Unlike the original Mother Ireland, this new image embodies the true Irish woman and her daily experiences, which have long been excluded from the literary world. The researcher is going to use the theory of Postcolonial Feminism to approach Boland's works. This paper shows how Irish women are victimized by the masculine misrepresentation and how Boland challenges the stereotypical male images of Irish women.&nbsp; Ireland has become feminized and is referred to as "Mother Ireland". According to Catherine Nash, a professor of Human Geography at the University of London, depicting the Irish woman as Virgin Mary and connecting her to the concepts of perfection, idealism, and motherhood implies that women's lives are limited to their homes, husbands.</p> Hawraa Abdel-Kadim Rehiema, Basim Neshmy Al-Ghizawi Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Student Attitudes of Art Education Department towards E-learning <p>The tagged research deals with (the attitudes of students of the Department of Art Education towards e-learning) with the development of human life and its transmission from the past to the present and its interest in technological development is tremendous، which I urge to evolve in receiving information practiced by the learner according to his abilities، speed، level and its dependence on his possessions of expertise and skills previously owned in spite of The benefits are many، but there are difficulties that the student faces، which hinders his learning</p> <p><strong>The researcher discussed in the first chapter:</strong></p> <p>Research problem: What are the attitudes of students of the Department of Art Education towards e-learning? Likewise، what are the attitudes of students of the Department of Art Education towards e-learning in terms of gender، male and female?</p> <p><strong>The importance of research</strong>: Research makes the learner learns self-reliance، i.e. self-reliance، and also solves many problems including saving time and effort and avoids crowded places in the classroom</p> <p>The research objective: To identify the attitudes of students of the Department of Art Education towards e-learning, It also includes searching on the limits of the search as well as defining terms</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; In the second chapter، the researcher discussed the theoretical framework: the first topic، e-learning، and the second topic، psychological (psychological) trends for students of the Department of Art Education</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; As for the third chapter، the research procedures: the research methodology: The current study took the descriptive survey method describing the current reality regarding the attitudes of students of the Department of Art Education towards e-learning.</p> <p>Research Society: The current research community included students of the Department of Art Education / University of Kufa / College of Education for the academic year / (2019-2020) for the morning study of 197 students</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;The research sample: The researcher chose a random sample and the percentage was chosen (20%). Thus، the number of the study sample individuals reached (41) students، so the total number of males reached (8) and the total number of females (33)</p> <p>The research tool: A questionnaire was used to achieve the goal of the research، which consists of (40) paragraphs according to the scale of the five-core card (strongly agree - agree - not sure - not agree - strongly disagree) The research includes the validity of the tool and the stability and the tool and statistical methods used and hypotheses And study variables</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Chapter four search results related to the first question What are the attitudes of students of the Department of Art Education towards e-learning? Despite the advantages of e-learning، but there are difficulties faced by the student، which led to his lack of acceptance and I refuse to this method of education in general، indicating negative trends towards e-learning applications، where the number of paragraphs that were arithmetic average was less than the default average (3) is (31) Paragraph، while the number of items that are greater than the default average (3) is (10)، where the results clearly indicate that the attitudes of students of the Department of Art Education - morning in the College of Education، University of Kufa towards this type of education were of a negative nature</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Results related to the second question: Attitudes of students of the Department of Art Education towards e-learning in terms of gender، male and female? As many of the results indicate that there were no significant differences with statistical significance at the level of significance (0.05 = α) in the attitudes of students of the Department of Art Education towards e-learning due to male and female gender variables، i.e. we accept the null hypothesis</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The differences between males and females appeared in paragraphs (19) (e-learning reduces the interaction between teacher and learner)، and paragraph (40) (I see that e-learning increases the learner's appreciation of learning) where at those two paragraphs sig was less than the level of the function (α) in These two paragraphs reject the complacency of nothingness and accept the alternative hypothesis</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Conclusions that This clearly and clearly indicates the attitudes of the students of the Department of Art Education towards negative e-learning due to the difficulty of students in the beginning of their journey with electronic means and programs، even though some of them do not have sufficient experience in this field، poor infrastructure، and students' inability to self-learn and rely on The same means that they do not have skills in e-learning، and difficulty in using electronic programs due to their poor ability to speak English</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The researcher recommends the following: Increasing awareness among students of the Art Education Department about e-learning and skills development among students and an increase in their knowledge acquisition، program designers should provide an online platform with advanced programs and technologies in use.</p> Ali Hamoud Tawij, Banin Adnan Wahab Al-Muzaffar Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 THE QURANIC QUOTATION OF THE BLIND POETS IN ANDALUSIAN LITERATURE <p>The researcher here attempts to address the phenomenon of Quranic quotations in the poetry of blind poets in Andalusian literature. Among the collections of blind poets are the collection of Yahya ibn Huthayl al-Qurtubi, Abu al-Hasan al-Hasri al-Qairawani, al-A'ma al-Tatili, Ibn Jabir al-Andalusi al-Dhiri and others. These blind poets in Andalusia realize and infer this phenomenon in their poetry, and the extent of their influence, attachment, and connection to the words of the Holy Quran, which they invoked in their poems to enrich their poetic texts with beauty and meaning. Therefore, this research came to identify different patterns of quotation, where this identification comes through several axes that the poet takes as a means to express what is going on in his mind. The quotation is divided into: textual quotation, indicative quotation, transformational quotation, and referential quotation.</p> <p> The researcher also concluded the extent of their influence by this great heritage (the Holy Quran), which is considered the basic pillar for establishing intertextual relationships. It is also an important source of literary inspiration for poets. Therefore, religious texts represent the most sacred reference among other references, because the religious heritage is a tributary of the literary tributaries that accompany the poet on the long journey in the field of creativity. The poet enhances his memory with innovative connotations and meanings from the religious heritage, as contained in the Holy Quran, with its fertility, generosity, stories, ideas, and lessons, and its eloquence and miraculous style, as it is the word of God Almighty. Therefore, its meanings have become a legacy for the Arab poet, in addition to the literary and artistic quality that distinguishes the religious and Quranic discourse.</p> Husam Mahmoud Jasim, Sedeeq Battal Houran Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 The displacement of the first Falasha Jews to (Israel) and Operation Moses (1981-1985) <p>The research aims to shed light on the process of displacement of the first Falasha Jews to Israel and the Moses process, which took place in coordination between Sudan on the one hand and Israel and the United States of America on the other hand, which took place in stages that extended from 1981 to 1985, as the International Jewish Agency was able to contribute Effective in the process of displacement through financial, logistical and propaganda support, from facilitating the process of displacing Ethiopian Jews to Israel via Sudan, and the first stages of the process was to bring the Falashas to camps in Sudan and then transport them by sea in the beginning, and by planes in a major operation launched It has Operation Moses, which succeeded in transferring thousands of Ethiopian Jews (Falashas) from Sudan to Israel With the complicity of the Sudanese government in return for providing huge financial and military aid to Sudan, which amounted to millions of dollars, the operation was preceded by stages of preparation for it, with small and small-scale displacement of the Falasha to Israel by sea and through relief organizations, as well as by concluding individual deals with the Sudanese government Then he made big deals represented by Operation Moses, on which Israel spent huge amounts of money to implement it. The United States of America played a major role in preparing and coordinating the operation, by putting pressure on Sudanese President Jaafar al-Numeiri. To agree to the deal and threaten to cut off American aid to Sudan, that is to reject the process of displacing the Falasha through Sudan to Israel. After Sudan’s approval, the major operation to displace the Falasha began at the end of 1984 and the beginning of 1985, as nearly eight thousand Falasha Jews were transferred from Sudan To Israel, after the operation was exposed, Arab and Islamic criticism aroused Sudan and its role in the operation</p> Muhammad Abdullah Mahdi Al-Fahdawi, Ali Hussein Ali Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 The artistic structure in the novel (Inhabitants of the Four Houses) By the writer Ghanem Aziz Al-Akidi <p>It is known that any social systematic study of literature requires familiarity and understanding of the nature of this literature and its laws, while being aware of the social reality that frames it. Perhaps our study of the artistic aspects of the novel is directed in one way or another towards the artistic style that shows and highlights the elements that establish the artistic structure of the novel work as a state of behavior. In the living reality of an individual or social self and in a specific situation.</p> <p>The novel (Inhabitants of the Four Houses) by the great Mosul novelist Ghanem Aziz Al-Aqidi is one of the Mosul novels that is full of many interconnected artistic elements, especially (description, dialogue, and characters), and this is what encouraged us to make it a field for accurate and sociable research.</p> <p>The novelist made the city of Mosul a place for fictional events, during which he presented veiled messages scattered between its lines, and he (the narrator) kept its secrets in order to address through them an intelligent reader who seeks to know its secrets. At the same time, the novelist does not seek for his novel to have a historical and documentary orientation stemming from his knowledge. It is deeply rooted in the geography of Mosul, starting from the city center and passing through the villages and surrounding areas alike, but he wanted it to be valid for all times as long as the homeland is one and the popular and national concern is one , The writer's personal circumstances played a role in the emergence of the novel in its mature form, which relates to the nature of social affiliation and its cultural level, which prompted the writer, like his fellow novelists, to whom the new contemporary novel of living reality was revealed after their extrapolation of it, coupled with the revelations of their promising past, to look at man's present and future. In a spirit of optimism and confidence, his literature becomes humane through revealing negative and positive phenomena and analyzing them socially and aesthetically, agreeing between the two methods of condemning the negatives and trying to evaluate them, and highlighting the positives, And working to deepen it, employing their artistic tools through new forms that balance the artistic facts of this literary genre, and the objective facts that constitute its intellectual material and its human world through diverse artistic visions with depth, honesty and clarity.</p> Fanar Khalil Majeed Al-Hamid Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 The legal basis for the executive, legislative, judicial and administrative institutions in the Omani legal system <p>The system of government in the Sultanate of Oman is a hereditary monarchy, as the Sultan is the one who receives the rule and is hereditary. He is also, at the same time, the head of state, as well as the head of government. He also leads the three governmental authorities, the legislative, executive, and judicial. He is considered the basic system of the Sultanate, and is considered the system The basic law of the Sultanate is its supreme law, and thus it is equivalent to this constitutional system, and it is the most important aspect of the Omani legal system. The people who want to join the ranks of development and stability must change the course of their lives through laws and legislation that make this path legal at the same time. It helps them to obtain their legitimate and legal rights and thus stabilize the country politically, socially and economically. Through the experiences that people have had, they always strive for this, and at the beginning of every path there are difficulties facing the country in order to reach political, social and economic stability. Therefore, constitutions were an important stage in the life of Peoples in order to clarify the basic and philosophical structures of political systems. Hence, our research shed light on the political experience that the Sultanate of Oman went through after its tribal conflicts. The first signs of moving towards a political system were the issuance of the Basic Law of 1996 and the beginning of the modern state, as well as organizing the work of institutions. In it, although the existing system in it, in terms of governance and in accordance with the Basic Law, is a legitimate hereditary system that blends Islam and heredity, it is not without being useful in its beginning to the Omani people for the sake of continuous changes to the Basic Law to achieve the stability that the Omani people desire, and that The legal system must have a basis in order to achieve its goal, and this basis is the constitution through which state institutions must be established, and thus the ruler and the ruled are subject to this constitution and its application is actual and not formal, because there are many constitutions that are suspended because of the rulers and not because of the constitution. The same, what is important in the matter is that constitutional laws are what show the true face of institutions and their work if there is something that supports them or enables them to develop, despite the fact that the region contains constitutions, the majority of which may be formal. Therefore, we explained the importance of these constitutions in the Sultanate of Oman and the importance of this to them and the important aspects of authority. Executive, judicial and legislative.</p> Haider Khudair Hamza, Ibrahim Musazadeh Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Bandung Conference and its importance in international politics and the Non-Aligned Movement 1955 <p>&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;The convening of the Bandung Conference, which is the main pillar on which the Afro-Asian bloc was built, constituted an important event on the international and regional levels and a challenge to the will of the major countries. What the Afro-Asian countries called for is supporting liberation movements and calling for the independence of states and not exploiting their national wealth by the greed of colonialism, as well as strengthening and cementing relations between Asian and African countries by concluding equal treaties and agreements, despite the strong opposition of Western powers that worked to disrupt the path of liberation movements under The cover of non-interference in the internal affairs of the countries that manage these colonies or under ideological formulations and justifications, but the conference came out with points in which it emphasized moving forward in order to achieve independence and national stability for its country.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The holding of this conference was linked to the political, economic, social and military developments that permeated the international community and crystallized in the following manifestations:</p> <p>1- The emergence of manifestations of division in the international community into two camps, eastern and western, and the emergence of military, economic, and political alliances and blocs. The international competition turned into a cold war between the two camps and a manifestation of conflict in the international community.</p> <p>2- The expansion of global liberation movements that oppose colonialism and control, and aim for liberation and independence.</p> <p>3- The emergence of manifestations of cooperation and coordination between the countries that gained independence at that stage with the aim of preserving independence, complementing political independence with economic and social independence, providing support and assistance to countries and peoples struggling for their freedom and independence, and finding an effective place and role within the framework of international relations and the international community.</p> <p>The Bandung Conference was preceded by several coordination meetings between Indonesia, Burma, Ceylon, India, and Pakistan, which were held in the city of Colombo in Ceylon, between April 28 and May 2, 1954, and in the city of Bogor in Indonesia (December 28-29, 1954). It was agreed to hold the Bandung Conference. The five countries also adopted the call for it.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Ali Hussein Muhammad Al-Issawi Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 The concept of state philosophy among some Western philosophers <p>with incommunicative process between two party the es, as well as studying the social distance between them, in terms of proximity and distance, and indicating the degree of social relationship. concerned with the social relations between speakers It is also interested in studying the degrees of friendliness and endearment that have a great impact in revealing the extent of polite behavior And the emotional behavior between the two parties to produce the discourse in the communicative process, and pragmatics is concerned with studying the language in terms of use. The communicative communication that produces that discourse, as these social relations are influential in explaining the characteristics of the context and its significance in terms of the proximity and distance of the distance, hence</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; It expresses the speaker's intent, hence the interlocutors' relationship emerges within and outside the context in which it was mentioned</p> <p>And outside it, that is, what the recipient knows about the other, and what the two speakers know about the place in terms of the distance and its distance, and what they want to talk about, whether it is from the speaker and the receiver, so this knowledge is shared.</p> <p>It helps in producing the communicative process in its different degrees, and the sender seeks to find levels of degree this relationship</p> <p><em>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </em>The Sahifa Al-Sajjadiyyah is a treasure of moral, educational and social knowledge, as Imam Al-Sajjad resorted to employing these social relations in an educational, ethical, emotional, and devotional manner.</p> <p>It is based in all its concepts on the Qur’an and the noble Sunnah of the Prophet, and the legacy he inherited from his forefathers And teach them the Qur’an and the Sunnah by employing the indicative elements, which refer to the parents and their importance in education The Qur’an and the Sunnah and the necessity of doing good to them, honoring them and thanking them. Imam Al-Sajjad resorted to employing these social signs (parents, parents, his son, his neighbors, his relatives, his wombs), and here the rank of those relationships is evident, as some of them are in an ascending position, in terms of&nbsp; The proximity of the distance and its degree between the sender and the addressee, or the speaker and the recipient, as the relationship is evident through the context in which its formal or informal degree was mentioned. The deliberative research classified the social relations between the speakers or the interlocutors into two parts: Formal relations and informal relations.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Official social relations: These are relations that have their status and degree according to the speakers and the addressees. They are characterized by reverence, glorification, and reverence. They are specific to kings, princes, and presidents, such as: His Majesty the King, Mr.</p> <p>For those who are older. And informal relations characterized by a relationship of affection and passion between a man, a girlfriend, a woman, and her husband, as well as greetings, and peace, between people. In this research, we try to monitor the social signs mentioned in the supplications of Imam Al-Sajjad, which are specific to parents, or to his parents, neighbors and relatives.</p> Star Hussein Mohi, Hassan Abdulahi, Kazem Jassim Mansour Al-Azzawi Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Analysis of the style of the ode " On the anniversary of the birth of the Prophet (PBUH)" by Ahmed Ahmed Qanabeh <p>Arabic poetry from the era of Jahiliyyah to today was familiar with different types of praise. When the Messenger of God was sent as a prophet, attention was directed to him. It was here that prophetic praise was formed to express religious emotions that arose from sincere hearts. Among the contemporary poets who wrote odes in praise of the Messenger of God (PBUH), Ahmed Ahmed Qanabeh is a prominent Libyan poet who wrote many religious, national and social poems. In this research, the authors aim to identify the stylistic structures of the poem " On the anniversary of the birth of the Prophet (PBUH) " which is written in praise and praise of the Messenger of God (PBUH) and by using the descriptive, analytical and statistical method, the most important features and analyze and analyze its stylistic and aesthetic characteristics. One of the most important findings of the article is that the poet mentioned the Prophet as a symbol for expressing national issues and a symbol of unity between Muslims and different nations. The ode in question is written based on vertical poetry and has unity and rhyme. Nominal sentences and nominal structures dominate the texture of the poem. The contribution of simile is very small and the poet has used two types of diagnostic and visual metaphors, and in general, the artistic images of the poem are taken from his past heritage.</p> Abdolvahid Navidi, Mohammad Hassan Foadian Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 the Noble Qur’an according to Sheikh Yusuf al-Bahrani (d. 1186)(Reading the Holy Qur’an for the narrator of the minor and major event, an inferential methodological study) <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; In this research, we focused on the jurisprudential rulings of the Holy Qur’an with Sheikh Yusuf al-Bahrani (d. As this topic is considered one of the important topics that we have taken upon ourselves to study these rulings and study them in a jurisprudential study. It has an echo in reality, and it interacts with events and developments, which deals with many issues that necessitated a clarification of the legal aspect, which is how to deal and deal with the Holy Qur’an, in the chapter on purity, and here the verses of rulings come out of the circle of research We stand before the greatness of this book, and although it has dimensions and horizons that no other book possesses, it is distinguished by jurisprudential rulings that are specific to its sacred essence in terms of reading, as this topic is considered one of the topics that took it upon itself to study those rulings as a jurisprudential study. Because it resonates in reality, and it interacts with events and developments, which addresses many issues that necessitate clarifying the legal aspect. I divided this research into two sections. The first was: reading the Holy Qur’an to the hadith narrator with the minor event, while the second came: reading the Holy Qur’an to the hadith narrator with the major event..</p> Zain Al Abdeen-Amir Tulumh Al-Daami, Moayad Nasser Hussein Hassoun Al-Fatlawi Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Reasons for appointment and dismissal in higher political positions in Iraq during the Seljuk era (447 AH-590 AD) - the ministry - a model <p>The Seljuk era is considered one of the important eras in Islamic history, and the Seljuk era continued in Iraq for more than a century and a half, in which the Seljuks established their sultanate and made Baghdad one of their three important capitals, Isfahan, Al-Ray, and Hamadhan. They appointed a civil servant linked to them and called him (the dean of Iraq) and another soldier they called him (the shipment), taking advantage of the weakness of the Abbasid caliphate at the end of the fourth century AH, when the conditions of the caliphate were turbulent and witnessed a deterioration in various aspects of political, cultural and social life... etc Which prepared the conditions for the Seljuks to enter Baghdad and take control of the caliphate and the reins of Abbasid rule in Iraq, and made the Khiva a figurehead for religious, political and cultural considerations. The study of appointment and dismissal in the higher political positions in Iraq, including the ministry as a model during the Seljuk era; aims to show the holders of the highest positions in Iraq during the Seljuk era, and these positions include all the higher positions, and in our research we will shed light on the appointment and dismissal in the Abbasid ministry in the Seljuk era from 447 AH to 590 AH, we will divide the study into two sections. In the first section, we will deal with the definitions of the topic, the statement of job appointment and its causes, the definition of the ministry and the types of ministries. In the second chapter, we will deal with isolation in language and terminology, and a statement of the reasons for dismissal. As for the research methodology: The research in this study will be according to the descriptive approach. Analytical (descriptive) after a thorough review of the subject particles.</p> Muhammad Taher Yaqoubi, Maytham Sherkesh, Maryam Marei Salman Al-Taie Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Accent and intonation in the Musnad of Imam al-Baqir (peace be upon him) Stylistic study <p>Emphasis is the pronouncement of a sound or syllable with relative clarity that is clearer than the sounds around it when compared to it. The accent has its functional importance that serves the morphological and semantic aspect. When we stand on a stressed, disturbed, or vocalized letter, it may help us either to explain a morphological phenomenon or to differentiate between two meanings. As for intonation, it is a term that indicates the highness and lowness of the voice in speech, and it is also called the music of speech, and it is a result of the degree of tension of the two vocal cords, which leads to a difference in the auditory impact. The phonetic level is one of the most important compositional levels in the text. Because of its function of revealing the semantic meanings contained in the text, in addition to the rhythm that works on the recipient’s pleasure and excitement to read the text and decode and dismantle it in order to contribute to the mechanism of interpreting the text. We notice that the alliteration rhythm consisting of two or more words in the number of letters, their structure and movements, generates a distinctive vocal rhythm in the text. This is not devoid of a declarative function in the text, and the functions of alliteration in the Musnad of Imam al-Baqir were numerous, sometimes emphasizing gentleness, gentleness, and rejection of violence, and sometimes warning, and it may indicate psychological meanings, expressing everything that is deep and hidden in the soul, which the soul cannot. To express it.</p> Abeer Hashem Muhammad Hussein, Muthanna Abd al-Rasul al-Shukri, Amal Abdel Ajbar Al-Shara Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Time and place in the narrations of Imam Hussein, peace be upon him, moving to Mecca <p>The writing about the events of the incident of tuff is of great importance to researchers, especially the renewal of ideas and visions put forward by contemporary studies, when reading the contents of the novels in terms of time and place have an important role in confirming the validity of the news or not, the critical study of the narratives has an important role in reaching an objective vision because it needs an analytical approach to the novels to know the difference in time and place of the narrator of the event as well, and this period of time is of great importance in the continuation of the Husseini renaissance, which lasted Four months, which are the month of Sha'ban, Ramadan, Shawwal and Dhu al-Qa'dah. As Imam Hussein, peace be upon him, came out of Mecca on Tuesday, corresponding to the eighth of Dhu al-Hijjah in the year 60 AH, and his arrival in Karbala was on Thursday, corresponding to the second of the month of Muharram in the year 61 AH, and historical narratives remember the facts of the road to Mecca because of their great importance in the success of the blessed renaissance, especially the meeting with some important figures, including Ibn Abbas and Ibn Omar, and this is what the research explained in the study of narratives that dealt with time and place in the transition of Imam Hussein Peace be upon him from Medina to Mecca, as she explained the importance of receiving people to Imam Hussein in this ...</p> Iyad Abdul-Hussein Sihoud Al-Khafaji; Khudair Abbas Jiyad Al-Jubouri Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Endowments and presents - and khul during the Ikhshidid era <p>Praise be to God, we seek His help and trust in Him, and prayers and peace be upon the Seal of the Prophets, Muhammad bin Abdullah (PBUH), and upon all of his pure family, and after:</p> <p>History is the science that is concerned with studying the chronological record of events that affected a nation and is concerned with studying the human past through written documents left by humans and is the firm foundation on which historians stand. This science has received great attention from researchers and scholars throughout all ages.</p> <p>The importance of the topic comes from the fact that it is one of the social studies that constitute an important aspect of Islamic history, and reflects the overall social activity of the Islamic nation throughout its prosperous eras.</p> <p>After research and investigation, we clarified the importance of donations, gifts, and dislocation and their value through the linguistic meaning and the verses mentioned in the Holy Qur’an that explain the gift, and what was mentioned in the Prophet’s Sunnah of hadiths urging gifting, and the importance of exchanging gifts among the Arabs before and after Islam.</p> <p>This is the fruit of our efforts that we made in order to record a new study of Islamic history, in the hope that it will benefit researchers in the future. At the same time, we cannot say that we wrote down and recorded everything here, but we say that we shed light on an important model in social life, and praise be to God first and foremost. I say this. And I ask God for success, and I ask forgiveness from God for every omission, mistake, or deficiency that I have committed, because the shortcomings are among the requirements of human beings. Perfection belongs to God alone.</p> Nour Hilal Jiyad Al-Gharibawi, Shaima Badr Abdullah Al-Saray Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Employing amulets in contemporary ceramic formation <p>This research was concerned with studying the issue of employing amulets in contemporary ceramic formation as an intellectual product descending from the ancient arts, which carries within it heritage features, environmental features, and symbols of belief, in a contemporary constructive style implemented by the researcher, considering that employment is an intentional intellectual process, so to speak&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Hence this research came to study the use of amulets in contemporary cerami formation, which included four chapters&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The first chapter dealt with a presentation of the probleThe research - its importance - the need for it - the goal of the research and the temporal and spatial limits. As for the second chapter, the theoretical framework included three axes. The first axis included the concept of employment, the second axis the concept of Mesopotamian and Islamic amulets, and the third axis dealt with the concept of employing popular heritage in contemporary ceramic formation. While the third chapter came with the research procedures, the research community included five samples that the researcher completed within the limits of the research. Four ceramic models were analyzed, and the researcher adopted the experimental and applied research approach in completing ceramic works. The fourth chapter came with a set of results, the most prominent of which are&nbsp; :</p> <p>1-The inspiration of the researchers for the technical forms of complements an explanation of the essence of the brokerage dimension and s as it came in the sample samples.</p> <p>2-The maturation of technical and technical awareness in the contemyour researchers to use forms of absolute aesthetics according to the&nbsp; our conclusions, and my results:</p> <p>1-The aesthetic value of amulets is the basis of artistic symbolic scenes in the creation of ceramic works in search of abstraction and flattening beyond the limits of reality.</p> <p>2-The contemporary Al-Kazafian works, which are associated with the technical forms of the Rafadinian and Islamic amulets, have created var</p> <p>As well as researching numerically, I have proposals and recommendations with their inspiration and Arabic and foreign source</p> Hawraa Kazem Abdul Hussein Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Significance Controls in Ancient Arabic Criticism Al-Jurjani as a Model <p>The most important thing that pushed me to choose and write this research is the response to the widely spread Western approaches that openly declared the death of the creator. So some of them understood the text through the text itself, such as structuralism, formalism, and the like. Others gave the reader absolute freedom to understand the text without controls that control it, so they understood the text as they desire and like to understand it, not as it should be understood. Others, such as Deconstruction, neglected the creator and the message, and appointed the receiver as a judge, not to prove a meaning, but rather to prove that everything he proves has no reality and does not exist, so the signifier quickly turns into a signified, and so on.</p> <p>This research tried to prove three principles that can control the significance which the poet intended specifically, and thus the reading is framed and becomes within a framework within which the recipient walks and does not deviate from us, namely:</p> <ul> <li class="show">a control in the creator.</li> <li class="show">a control in the message.</li> <li class="show">a control in the receiver.</li> </ul> <p>This leads us to important questions, including:</p> <p>Is the meaning accomplished in poetic texts?</p> <p>And how is it accomplished?</p> <p>Is there a possibility to adjust the reading? Or is the door wide open?</p> <p>This research will answer these questions, God willing<strong>.</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Noor Ahmed Najy Mostafa Naanaa Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 German-American political relations 1941-1945 <p>The study explained that the German-American political relations (1941-1945) were characterized by competition, which is a dominant feature in most international dealings, especially in its political, military, economic and technological aspects, and a natural pattern in international political relations due to the intersection of interests and their conflict in many areas that led to tension in relations politics between the two countries.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; German-American political relations turned from competitive to warlike when World War II broke out, which raised American fears that Germany would use its colonies, which it acquired in Europe, as military bases to launch armed attacks on the lands of a country that wanted to control it, and the Germans would have the superior ability to put an end to American hegemony and political influence and a broad military that makes it control the will of different peoples and control their political and economic potential .&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The study revealed that the political relations between the two countries have worsened and reached a dead end. The United States of America achieved tangible war progress by preparing its strategic plans, which aimed at bringing about strategic destruction and gradual dismantling of the German military, industrial and economic system, and undermining the morale of the German people to a point where it weakens its peak and its ability to armed resistance.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; German-American political relations were characterized by the opposite duality, one of which is the German force and the second is the American resistance allied with Britain and vice versa. Advanced radars and cameras, but the balance of power was tipped in favor of the United States of America in the period between (1943-1945) and the first achieved great victories that led to Germany's defeat and surrender. The reason for this is that the military mentality of the US Air Force officers through intelligence and reconnaissance units was able to detect the most important sites in which German aircraft are manufactured and their locations and succeeded in bombing them, thus eliminating the German technical distinction.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The study revealed that there are no permanent friendship relations between Germany and the United States of America, but there are common interests which are the basis of international political&nbsp;&nbsp; relations.</p> Nadia Jasem Kadhim Al-Shammari Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Legal consequences of canceling a contracting contract <p>The legal effects of terminating a contracting contract are among the important topics, especially its impact on the contract and the consequences that result from it, because the contract is one of the most important sources of commitment that binds an individual in his transactions with others and is an effective means by which economic and social interests can be achieved as long as these interests are compatible with public order and public morals However, it may happen that one of the parties is unable, and the contract is terminated, which is considered, as a general rule, to dissolve the contract and erase its effects retroactively between the two parties to the contract. This results in the disappearance of the obligations that had arisen from it before that, so the contract after the termination is concluded does not exist from a legal standpoint with respect to the party. The contracting parties and to third parties, and therefore each of them is returned to what it was before the contract was concluded, because the contractual relationship no longer exists on which the creditor or debtor can rely. Rather, this relationship disappeared as an inevitable result from the date of termination of the contract, as the problem around which the subject of the research revolves is based on the element of breach that comes from one of the parties to the contracting contract, in particular (the contractor), who bears the greatest obligation and through which the contracting work is completed. The importance of this study lies. It is based on a contract whose commitment is permanent work, and this work represents the main commitment in it and through it the form and reality of urban development and achievement is determined, which prompted the administration to intervene in the details of this work. It aims to ensure that the law gives one or both of the contracting parties the right to dissolve the contractual bond by referring to the nature of the contract concluded by the contracting parties and duly approved by both parties. The research plan consists of two requirements. The first requirement will address the effect of terminating the contracting contract on the contracting parties, and the second requirement will address the effect Termination of the contracting contract with others</p> Fadhel Saleh Mahdi, Siamak Jafar Zadeh, Reza Nikkhwah Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Vocal performance by Al-Marashi (Al-Sajagli) <p>In my research, I dealt with the vocal performance of Marashi due to the wide culture that this scholar enjoys, and a deep understanding of the truth of the voice. His vocal analyzes were completely consistent with what scientists have reached in the modern era, despite his reliance on self-observation, but his results were amazing. He was a pioneer in many of his affairs, and a developer of many of his concepts.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Al -Marashi is a jurist Hanafi from the scholars, a participant in the knowledge of his time from the people of Marash, who is attracted to him, and in which we grew up and learn the sciences in the first stages of his life, two of them are on the authority of Sajali Zada, for everyone who translated for him, what is indicated by him, which indicates that he has reached and collect it. He undertook a study trip with which he met Sheikh Abd al-Ghani al-Nabulsi in Damascus, and he practiced Sufism at his hands. Then he returned to Marash, where he had a seminar to teach students. His life was characterized by being full of writing until the end of his life, and the works he left behind testify to his activity and high aspiration in this field. Lots of books and letters.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Al-Marashi followed a scientific methodology based on experiment and extrapolation, through which he reached new facts in phonetic studies, because he knew the reality of the pronunciation process, and realized the basic elements that make up linguistic sounds, and he is also the most clear of later scholars in discerning the relationship between the soul and the sound, through his access Until speech occurs with the breath, which is the cornerstone of the sound, that is, with the exhalation coming out of the lungs, and vice versa, the sound is ugly. And the most clear scholars of his time to clarify the relationship between loudness and whispering and the intensity and softness. He also pointed out an important issue, which is the issue of time, that is, the time required for the processes of confinement in the hard and the flow in the soft, as the hard is temporary and does not require time, while the soft is temporal and requires more time for its flow, and this is what the hadith scholars have drawn attention to.</p> Saba Fareed barto Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Prohibition Tools in Semitic Languages A Comparative Study <p>In this research we studied the method of forbidding and its tools in Semitic languages. As this method is considered one of the grammatical methods that the Semitic languages ​​group shares in. This study focused mainly on studying the grammatical tools used in this method, as it was studied in four of the sister Semitic languages ​​that were the subject of the research, namely (Arabic language, The Hebrew language, the Syriac language and the Akkadian language).<br>First, I studied the tool of prohibition in the Arabic language, which grammarians called (no) the nahiyyah or (no) the order. This tool was studied in terms of the structural composition and in terms of its entry into the present tense verb and the necessity of its sentence or its calming, and its significance to time in terms of transmitting the present tense verb To the future and use it with the addressee, the absent and the speaker, and review its metaphorical meanings.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Then studying the tools of prohibition in the Hebrew language, as it became clear that there are two tools for prohibition in this language, namely, the tool <br>(<strong>לֹא</strong>) and the tool (<strong>אַל</strong>), and through their study it became clear that each of these two instruments has its own work. Where the use of the tool (<strong>לֹא</strong>) in the divine prohibitions and prohibitions, and the strict and permanent, and the use of the tool (<strong>אַל</strong>) in the immediate and current prohibitions and that both tools were used in the books of the Old Testament. The forbidding tool in the Syriac language has also been studied, which is the tool (لاُ), and its entry into the present tense in the speaker, the absent, and the speaker.And studying the tools of prohibition in the Akkadian language, which is both the tool (La) and the tool (uL). Through the study, it was found that these tools used in the method of prohibition in Arabic, Hebrew, Syriac and Akkadian are almost the same in terms of meaning and significance in ceasing or preventing the performance of the act and its entry exclusively On the present tense and moving its time to the future, this indicates that these languages ​​actually belong to one language known as the mother Semitic.</p> Alaa Abdel-Daem Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Al-Hindi in the balance of Al-Jami in the raised section of the explanation of Al-Kafiya <p>Al-Kafiya" is one of the valuable books in the science of grammar, which was written by Ibn Al-Hajib in the seventh century AH, and due to its comprehensiveness of the branches and rules of grammar, and its comprehensiveness of its provisions and complexities with good organization and arrangement, it became accepted among people and became popular in the countries of Islam. A group of scholars explained it and solved its jokes, even the compiler himself, and his explanations amounted to more than one hundred and fifty explanations. Among the most important and well-composed of these commentaries are the two commentaries by al-Hindi and al-Jami. In his commentary, al-Hindi objected to Ibn al-Hajib at times, and in his explanation al-Jami tried to resolve the objections of al-Hindi and other commentators of al-Kafiyah. This study was based on the analytical descriptive method in explaining and classifying Ibn al-Hajib's victories in resolving al-Hindi's objections to al-Kafiyya in the Marfu`at section. The results of the study indicate that al-Jami, in refuting the objections received against Ibn al-Hajib, followed the method of abbreviation, not in his perseverance to state all the objections, but he explains the text in a way that is safe from the occurrence of objections to it, and brings the objections of al-Hindi to ten in the raised ones, three of these places are not a real objection, but Al-Hindi responded to the objection contained in the text, but since his answer to the objection was weak and it was necessary to rectify Ibn Al-Hajib's statement, Al-Jami rose to respond to it. to answer originally.</p> Hossein Yosofi, Mehdi Shahrokh, Nader Zahedifer Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 The Qur'anic Expositions as a Collection and a Rhetorical Interpretive Study <p>The Noble Quran, considered a divine miracle, has achieved this miracle from various moral and linguistic perspectives. The foundation of its linguistic miracle lies in the rhetorical techniques, including allegories, which are important and common methods in the Arabic language and the Quran. The study of allegories in the Noble Quran is essential from a rhetorical perspective to uncover the beauty of the Quranic language and its linguistic miracle. Understanding and analyzing these techniques help us better comprehend the divine message and contemplate the greatness of Allah's words. The study of allegories contributes to enriching our knowledge of rhetoric and expanding our understanding of the Arabic language and its linguistic aspects.This article will rely on a descriptive-analytical approach to analyze and interpret the allegories present in the Noble Quran. It will make use of reference books and previous research in the fields of rhetoric and Quranic interpretation to support the raised points and guide the research towards a deeper and more comprehensive reading. In summary, the study of allegories in the Noble Quran represents a valuable opportunity to explore its rhetorical and aesthetic dimensions, shedding light on the methods it employs to deliver its message with power and inspiration. Through the analysis of these allegories, we can understand the extent of the Quran's rhetorical impact and its superiority in expressing profound meanings and spiritual concepts.</p> Zohreh Babaahmadi Milani, Ghasem Bostani, Abbas Taleb Jihad Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 The unknown efforts of the Arab architect “Ikhtiyar Al-Din” in building the city of Beijing The capital of the Mongol Yuan Dynasty (665 AH / 766 AH) <p>Beijing is one of the most famous Asian cities in the Middle Ages, and it gained even greater fame when the Mongol Yuan Dynasty declared Beijing its capital. With its distinctive architecture, beautiful alleys, and stunning gardens, it attracted the attention of travelers such as the Italian Marco Polo and the Moroccan Ibn Battuta, and he was commissioned to build it. Al-Din", an Arab Muslim architect by the Mongol Emperor Kublai Khan, who was ruling China (658 AH/693 AH), however, many people do not realize that he was also its architect and attempts have been made to obscure the truth about the efforts of the Arab Muslim architect." "Choice of Religion" in historical studies dealing with the history of Beijing. The Arab engineer was not able to live long to wander around his new city, which he designed and supervised its construction, as he grew tired and died shortly after the city was built and his giant project was completed. Ironically, the engineer’s name, “Ikhtiyar al-Din,” was not mentioned in the official history of Chinese engineers, while it was He mentioned his colleagues, the Chinese engineers who were working under his supervision, and it seems like a kind of racism because Kublai the Khan (d. 693 AH / 1394 AD) imposed on the Chinese a class system that they did not like. He placed the Mongols at the top of the state’s social pyramid, followed by the Arabs, Persians, and Turks, then the Chinese and minorities, and he placed them at the bottom of the pyramid. This matter was not understood by the official Chinese historians, who wanted to take revenge for this insult, and so they deliberately deleted the name “choice of religion” from the history of the construction of the city of Beijing.</p> Mohammed Jassim Alwan Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Press processing about Spicker massacre subjects in the site Al-Furat News Analytical Study For the period from 15/6/2014 to 31/12/2017 <p>The aim of this research is to seek knowledge about the process of</p> <p>electronic journalism, represented by the Al-Furat News website about the topics of the Spiker massacre, and to identify the site’s direction regarding this massacre. In addition for recognition the accuracy, credibility and objectivity of the site in its treatment of the massacre topics. And to reveal the methods used by the electronic press, represented by this website, in dealing with these topics. Therefore, the researcher used the descriptive method, as it is one of the most appropriate methods used in media studies. It helps in describing the events and analyzing them accurately, relying on the content analysis method, by listing all the topics of the Spiker massacre for the period from 15/6/2014 AD - 31/12/2017 AD.The researcher analyzed the contents according to a form prepared for this purpose, which included categories (what was said, and how was it said). After getting the quantitative and qualitative results to be analyzed and interpreted, the researcher reached several conclusions, the most notable one is:</p> <p>The research community website focused on the fact that the real reasons for which young men were killed in the Spiker massacre were on a sectarian and doctrine basis.Ignoring the political conflicts, security breaches, and the presence of terrorist organizations as a reason for the massacre, so the site relied on simple news, by transferring official data and statements to convey the news without conducting in-depth reports and investigations about the topic. As well as the sectarian response to the massacre, and the research community’s website focused on multimedia (images) in the news. Furthermore, the site did not use videos because of the horrific methods of killing. The research community website showed the negative attitude of the Iraqi government in counting only the numbers of victims without revealing the facts of the massacre.The site focused on the issue of court rulings against those involved in the massacre at the center and demanding urgent retribution for those who killed Shiite youth.The research community website decided to publish the topics of the Spiker massacre on the main page due to the importance of the event, being one of the important local events that occupied local public opinion.</p> Mohammed Falih Hasan Alasadi Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Manifestations of the semantics of words when Nazik angels <p>The semantics of words in the language of poetry is considered the first and the basis, and it is the tool of transmission and communication in the language, and the talent of the artist appears in his ability to choose, select, and synthesize words to convey his experience in the best way, and this requires him to be familiar with the language, its rules, the characteristics of its use, and the multiplicity of its methods and methods. Verbals are a container into which the poet pours his feeling to achieve meanings that are a mirror that reflects his own experience that resulted from many circumstances and experiences. Therefore, profanity has no refuge in which it takes its specificity and enters into photography except in poetry, just as the poetic meanings that language bears are based on a double basis of reference. And the signifier.</p> <p>Since the word in poetry differs from one context to another, because it is found in more strange circumstances, and the effect that the word actually generates is a reconciliation between one of its possible effects and the special circumstances in which it exists. And the poet carries suggestive energies that give pleasure and admiration, and he also believes that what gives the word its beauty and poetic description is that the poet empties it of its traditional inherited charge, and fills it with a new charge that takes it out of its ordinary frame and its common significance.</p> Hossein Nazeri, Ameer Ahmed Obaid Hussein Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Oil contract disputes (Corona crisis as a model) <p>This study aims to know the direct and indirect effects of force majeure on oil contracts and the resulting disputes that affected oil production, export and import, which led to a breach of the obligations and rights of the parties, and we based this study on a model of force majeure represented by the Corona pandemic, By presenting some texts of national legislation and the terms of oil contracts that referred to the concept and conditions of force majeure, to show then the effect of suspending the contract before the start of the negotiation stage between the parties due to force majeure for the purpose of avoiding the dissolution of the contract, which was referred to by national laws as a modern concept to avoid the effects of force majeure in order to continue the contract to achieve its objectives, The negotiation procedure is stipulated by many oil contracts and arbitration awards issued by international arbitration institutions, and then we will show the impact in the event that the parties fail to reach an agreement through negotiation by going to the means of arbitration, the means that may not be free of an oil contract as a means of resolving disputes, In addition, we will address the impact of the pandemic on arbitration and how it turned from adversarial arbitration to remote arbitration to transcend by its nature the spatial and temporal limits of dispute resolution, as well as it is distinguished from other means of dispute resolution that it is more suitable for resolving disputes because it is characterized by speed and flexibility of procedures that are not available in the ordinary judiciary, not even in traditional arbitration, Therefore, we will follow the descriptive approach and the analytical approach in order to describe the jurisprudential and legal controversy regarding force majeure and its impact on oil contracts, and we used in this analysis the oil contractual texts and special legal texts in Iraq and some Middle Eastern countries related to force majeure and its impact on the contract if applied, The comparative approach regarding the legal texts related to force majeure and the texts on the resolution of disputes through negotiation and the arbitration system in Iraq and some countries of the Middle East, for the purpose of setting clear foundations to avoid problems in resolving these disputes in the future and seeking to legislate competent laws and enter into agreements related to arbitration in light of these pandemics and organize contracts with wording proving the idea of negotiation and the means of arbitration as protection of the public interest from any similar crises in the future, In line with the development in the national legislation of developed countries and neighboring oil-producing countries, we will show in our study, so we divided this study into two sections under the first section The effects of the Corona crisis in oil contracts and the effects of the Corona crisis on the settlement of oil contract disputes in the second section.</p> Alaa Farhan kareem, Siamak Jafarzadeh, Reza Nikkhuah Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 The Ten Commandments in Surah Al-An'am, with a focus on Shia interpretations <p>Surah Al-An'am is considered one of the important chapters in the Quran, as it contains the ten commandments that hold great significance in Islam. This research aims to study and analyze these ten commandments in Surah Al-An'am through the Shia heritage of interpretations. These commandments are found in verses 151 to 153 of Surah Al-An'am, listed in the following order:1 .The first commandment: Prohibition of associating partners with Allah.2. The second commandment: Goodness and kindness towards parents. .3. The third commandment: Prohibition of killing children out of fear of poverty.4. The fourth commandment: Prohibition of approaching indecent acts.5. The fifth commandment: Prohibition of killing a soul that Allah has forbidden. 6. The sixth commandment: Prohibition of consuming the property of orphans.7 .The seventh commandment: Fulfillment of weights and measures with justice.8. The eighth commandment: Upholding justice.9. The ninth commandment: Fulfillment of covenants and agreements.10. The tenth commandment: Following the straight path. This article utilizes a descriptive and analytical approach to examine the ten commandments in Surah Al-An'am, relying on scholarly works and textual analysis. The content, context, arrangement, and significance of each commandment in the Surah are analyzed, along with clarifying their meanings and practical applications. This study concludes that the ten commandments in Surah Al-An'am encompass important religious and ethical directives in Islam. These commandments reflect values such as monotheism, justice, mercy, cooperation, and kindness</p> ghasem Bostani, Zohreh Babaahmadi Milani, salah eimran Alawi Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Positive Ions In The Soils Of Al-Hindiya And Ain Al-Tamr Districts And Their Impact On Agricultural Land Degradation <p>This research dealt with the chemical properties of soils, especially the positive ions such as (calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium) and their role in the decline and deterioration of agricultural soils in the case of their presence outside the limits of balance. Also, how important it is for soil and plants on the other hand alike.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; A total of (11) samples were taken for each district distributed in separate places randomly to cover the study area and from two depths, the first depth is (0-30) cm, and the second depth is from (30-60) cm. The samples were (4, 3, 2, 1) in terms of good deeds, while samples (7, 6, 5) were from the center of Al Hindiya district, and the last samples (11, 10, 9, 8) were from the western stream. As for Ain Al Tamr district 4 samples were taken from the center of the district, represented by (1, 2, 3, 4), while the rest of the samples (5-6-7-8-9-10-11) were taken in separate places in the district so that the region is properly represented. By following the random method of selection, and after conducting laboratory operations to analyze them and identify their values and compare them, the results show that there is a discrepancy in the values of magnesium and potassium between the districts of Al-Hindiyah and Ain Al-Tamr, due to the nature of the parent rocks from which the soils of the study area were formed.</p> Zahraa Aziz Bhar AL Nasrawi, Murtadha Jalil AL-Mamouri, Hussien Fadhil abd Al Shibly Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Objective control over the validity of the jurisdiction of the foreign court when ordering implementation ( A comparative study ) <p>When the foreign judgment is submitted to the judge who is required to issue an order for its implementation, he begins with an audit procedure aimed at ensuring that the objective conditions for the validity of the foreign judgment are met, including the validity of the jurisdiction of the foreign court that issued the judgment requested to be ordered to be executed.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; he control over the validity of the foreign court’s jurisdiction takes place on two levels, the first level is the control of the international jurisdiction, i.e. the jurisdiction of the state’s courts in disputes with a foreign element vis-à-vis the courts of other countries, which is called direct general jurisdiction, and the second level is the control of internal jurisdiction, i.e. determining the competent court from among the courts of the issued state. Among them is that ruling, and it is called special jurisdiction, and in some cases this system may reach the extent of the intervention of a court competent to implement in reforming or amending the foreign ruling after reviewing it objectively in preparation for its implementation within the region.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; In order to stand on the objective control over the condition of the jurisdiction of the court that issued the judgment to be implemented, we have divided this research into two sections. In it, we showed the most important findings of this research.</p> AbdulRasul AbduLRedda, Najat Karim Jaber Abbas Al-Shammar Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Position of the Arab and international community regarding the 1989 Taif Agreement <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>The Taif Agreement ended the civil war in Lebanon (1975-1990) after difficult consultations between the political parties in Lebanon, under Saudi auspices and Arab and international support. It was signed in the city of Taif in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia on September 30, 1989, with great international support, especially from the United States of America and under the supervision of Direct from the Supreme Arab Tripartite Committee, which made great efforts to approve the National Accord Document through its contact with Lebanese political forces and parties. Thus, the committee was able to create the appropriate atmosphere for the Lebanese representatives to sign the National Accord Document in Taif, and aimed to restore the political process to its normal state, return Lebanon to its Arab surroundings, as an independent, sovereign state, and end a civil war that destroyed the structure of the state and destroyed its human and material resources. The Taif Agreement worked to achieve societal reconciliation and end the civil war, and strengthened national cohesion. It also sought to support internal reforms that worked to build a state of institutions with the participation of all Lebanese social forces and segments. It also contributed to the equitable distribution of government positions and laid the foundations of collective governance that ensures everyone’s participation in decision-making. Politically, it was a real guarantee for all sects and nationalities in Lebanon.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;The agreement received very large Arab and international support and support, and it constituted sufficient cover to implement its provisions and to help Lebanon emerge from a state of civil war with regional and international dimensions and influences to a state of stability and civil peace.</p> Ammar Hussein Ali Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 The lineage of Ibn al-Jawzi and his method in giving weight to the narrations in the book Mirror of Time in the History of Notables <p>Sibt ibn al-Jawzi is considered one of the men of the intellectual movement in the seventh century. As he was a jurist and historian of historical events, he was able to produce many important works, and the book “The Mirror of Time in the Histories of Notables” is considered one of the important historical works. It contains a lot of valuable information.</p> <p>By tracing the lineage of Ibn al-Jawzi and the narrations he transmitted to us in his book, we found that he was a critical historian, and he was not satisfied with just quoting, but he also practiced criticism and analysis of historical texts, in addition to that, giving preference to one narration over another by using certain verbs, including: “the most famous,” “the most correct,” and others. Of phrases.</p> <p>In view of the importance of this book, we decided to present this study under the title: The tribe of Ibn al-Jawzi and his critical approach in preponderating the narrations in the book Mirror of Time in the History of Notables.</p> <p>Due to the large number of these introductions, the results were at a high level of accuracy, and despite the fact that they enjoyed the merit of submitting the results of the predecessors, a number of the latecomers and those who came along who were interested in commenting on heritage books, showed in their research the many oppositions to the imams of criticism, from among the predecessors, so the modern criticism approach He refuses to cling to an abnormal narration, and demands that all other narrations related to a specific incident be collected to complete the picture, and to detect attempts at falsification and falsification of news when a particular source is eccentric. These objections are often made by correcting and correcting what the predecessors have stated.</p> Israa Yacoub Youssef, Shamkhi Yaber Awaid Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 The effect of mental context on understanding the Qur’anic text (an interpretive study) <p>Our research study aims to identify and explain the importance of rational evidence in proof and its role that contributed to revealing the meaning in the light of contemplation and contemplation, as the Qur’an’s call came explicitly to use this, and its call to establish argument and proof was not limited to one path or method, but rather we find it taking different methods in Revelation and inference, including the power of reason, as the Holy Qur’an abounds and indicates to us that we must return to the Qur’an itself to obtain the evidence that proves that reason is an argument. . Since none of the nation’s predecessors and imams denied the correct intelligibles at all, nor did they reject them. Rather, they used the clear intelligibles as evidenced and indicated by the Qur’an. In general, the divine demands were indicated by the Qur’an with rational evidence and certain proofs.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;Hence, the mind occupies a wide place in the Holy Qur’an, and God Almighty, in His decisive and mighty Book, never ceases to discuss and evaluate proofs, evidence, and arguments, using the past and referring to the present as well as presenting his reading of the future. As a result of its great importance, our research came under this title: (The effect of rational evidence on understanding the Qur’anic text (an interpretive study). Evidence is one of the famous terms in many sciences, in addition to linguistics and rationality. It is considered an important control for understanding the Qur’anic text, as studying it contributes to contemplating the verses of the Holy Qur’an and revealing Its lofty meanings behind the text, in addition to laying down the scientific foundations on which it is based, which means our research from those (mental) clues, as it is the subject of our study.</p> Ihsan Judah Al-Birman Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 The crime of overthrowing the republican system of government established by the Constitution <p>The crime of overthrowing the republican system of government established by the Constitution is the focus of attention of most legislation. The legislator has sensed the danger of this crime as it aims to harm the existing political system of government in the state with the intention of harming it, overthrowing it, changing it, or making other attempts in ways other than those specified by legislation and law. Legislation, especially Iraqi and Emirati legislation, have combined to criminalize the attempt to overthrow the government system, whether by force or seizing power, given that the special protection of the constitutional institutions in the state represents the basic interest of the state’s legal system, so an attack on those institutions represents a blatant attack on legitimate authority. The Constitution targets territorial unity and has established appropriate penalties for criminal behavior. The perpetrator is punished with death because the behavior he commits represents dangerous behavior that affects the security of the state, its institutions and the existing system of government. Therefore, this crime is considered a dangerous crime and a positive crime that is based on tangible physical behavior and is apparent to the external agent regardless of the public outcome of the crime. Why not, the crime is real and continues, even if the result of the crime is not achieved</p> Ishaq Ali Muhammad Jassim, Mortada Fathi Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Surah Al-Shams, a reading in the linguistic and moral dimension <p>The topic of ethics is one of the topics that aroused the interest of researchers, both ancient and modern. Rather, their interest in it extends from the ancient culture represented by Greek philosophy, as Socrates in his philosophy showed interest in man and his behavior, and raised many problems in the ethical environment, which still preoccupy the minds of intellectuals until the present era. He wanted to build morals on the mind, and put its foundations on firm rules, and canceled the return of morality to an external authority, so he released his famous saying: (Virtue is science, and vice is ignorance).</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; As for the Qur’an, it can be said that it is a moral book that calls for virtue in all its meanings, after man leads himself to the first source, which is God Almighty, and from this concept I started from one of the suras of the Holy Qur’an, which is Surat Al-Shams; To clarify the moral path that surrounds it that pushes to build a person as the venerable heavenly values wanted him, after showing him the ways that lead him to the higher ranks in which she chose to be, although the research came in a part of this surah, whose verses reached fifteen verses, so he took the research The special part in morals of these verses, which are the ten verses of them.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The research has shown that God created man according to the common sense, (the nature that God created people with) and guided him to the helpers, either thankful or unbelieving, and thanksgiving is achieved by self-recommendation, and avoiding the intrusion of its goodness and lofty deeds; Because the goal is to raise the value of man to the status that was the goal of his creation, so it became clear from the research that usury, for example, has a clear material increase represented by an increase in the amount given, but on the other hand it is considered a moral defect; It degrades a person's worth and value by committing a sin that came by exploiting the efforts of others without getting tired or making any effort. While the zakat is a material loss; It is a graduation of excess money, so it decreases its amount, but the Qur’an showed that it is of moral value by which a person succeeds and rises to a position in which he is intended to be. This appeared from the rooting of the &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;linguistic meanings that the Holy Qur’an came with in this meaning, although&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>The research was not satisfied with the opinion of the commentators, whether they were ancient, late or modern, but the science of ethics and psychology took a field in it. Because these two sciences have a clear impact that cannot be overlooked in clarifying the meaning of the verses, and the foreign sources had good additions that support what the interpreters and moralists can go to&nbsp; .&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Kadhum Ajeel Sarbot Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Abdul Rahman Al-Qaisi, Minister of Education in the Ministry of Naji Talib (9 August 1966 - 3 May 1967) <p>This study focused on the role played by Abd al-Rahman al-Qaisi, especially in the educational field, as he played a positive role in working to establish many educational institutions, which Iraq was lacking during that stage. As this research dealt with a study of the Iraqi Ministry of Education during the era of Abd al Rahman al-Qaisi, who took over it since the formation of the Ministry of Naji Talib on the ninth of August 1966, and one of his first works in the ministry was the educational plan for the year 1966-1967, and he explained in it the schedule for the work of the aforementioned year in the ministry, and what it will offer This year, the honor of the ministry and students, in addition to his interest in providing religious lessons in all schools in Iraq, and directed all directorates to pay attention to religious lessons in schools, because of their great importance to serve the community and its children, and Abdul Rahman Al-Qaisi was keen to set special conditions for admission to the teachers’ house. It is worth Mentioning that he was keen to educate those who could not learn in an attempt to eradicate illiteracy, and he had developed a plan to educate most of the community and in cooperation with other ministries in order to educate most of their illiterate employees. Abd al-Rahman al-Qaisi also brought Iraq into the cultural fields with other countries in order for Iraqi students to complete their studies abroad, and the return of this arm to Iraq, as he needed new experiences in several fields, as well as his interest in the field of agricultural and industrial education because of his It was of great importance in Iraq, as this was one of the most prominent works of Abd al-Rahman al-Qaisi until the resignation of Naji Talib's ministry on May 6, 1967.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Jamal Faisal Hamad Al-Muhammadi, Anwar Younis Muhammad Al-Muhammadi Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Sourcec of Ownership among the Umayyads <p>The Umayy era witnessed economic prosperity after the extensive Wars of liberation . The Umayyad dynasty was able to control most of the trade routes in the ancient world and its commercial movement as well . This modest research deals with the economic sources of the Umayyads , money and fiefs from before Islam until they assumed the caliphate , as trade was the main source of possession of money and fiefs for the Umayyads in particular and for the Quraysh in general . Their financia policy became clearer when the Umayyads contacted the Levant , as they knew that the path to leadership and control in Mecca must be by creating an effective commercial activity with the levant, and by the sixth century AD, the Umayyads were one of the most influential and influential branchecs of Quraysh , to the point that some historians counted them as the leaders of Mecca and the people of the solution and contract before the emergence of Islam .This research monitored other economic sources for the Umayyads . Such as the privileges obtained by the Umayyads during the reign of Caliph Uthman ibn Affan , and from other sources, the system of excise taxes and taxes and its relationship to the funds of the Umayyads, Newroz taxes , festivals, and attempts . we also tried to show the relation ship of Muslim Arabsto Nowruz holidays and festivals and what their relationship is to the economic situation of the Umayyad Arabs . Sources are also illegal taxes such as industrial and trade taxes and the tithe tax . Among other sources are also the confiscation taken by the caliphs and princes as a pretext to recover the money seized by some state employees. Even though the confiscation could not have been a major financial source for the Umayyad state , it would have been small in comparison to the imports of the Umayyad state .&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Afham Ghleb Abdel Latif Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Manifestations of the Iraqi Feminist Novel after (2003 AD) <p>Feminist writing shared with men on various topics, and she did not stand idly by the change that took place in the year (2003 AD), but rather the woman wanted to advance the feminist pen and enter all fields that were the preserve of men, so she wrote on topics that touch people's lives in general, and kept pace with all the events And the changes that took place in Iraq with all their details and events, especially after the author was freed from the chains of tyrannical authority, Which he has always been subjected to while he is subjected to questioning and threats to his life that reach the point of denial and deportation at several times, which made most of the writers follow two paths: some of them withdrawn into themselves and withheld their pen from creativity, and some of them sold that pen, employing their thought to keep pace with the dictatorial power and serve it, which made their production The literary drifts to the descending ideological level.<br>The Iraqi feminist novel has undergone several shifts in its journey, ranging from the stage of silence during the twenties, thirties, and forties to attempts and perhaps the shy and modest presence during the fifties and sixties, and then the distinguished presence to a degree that cannot be overlooked in the years that followed, and this is what can be observed more clearly in this time .<br>After the year (2003), which is called (the year of change or the year of fall), and the opening of the public space to its death in Iraqi society, a situation resembling chaos prevailed in all areas of life, and despite its negative aspects, it mixed between (darkness and bright light). In vision and discrimination, by virtue of the many changes that afflicted the country, once on the one hand of the occupation, the philosophy of death and the struggle for life that prevailed in society, and on the other hand, the rupture of class unity and identity conflicts, as well as the various issues related to women.<br>From a literary point of view, this period was accompanied by the brightness of the star of the Iraqi novel, especially the feminist one, which began to flourish in quantity and quality unobtrusively until it became more daring and present in the Arab novel scene in general and the Iraqi novel in particular, as the Iraqi novelist excelled in mastering the elements of the modern novel such as The varied beginning tending to present the final event, the marginalization of the traditional narrative sequence, the open endings, the ambiguity of characters, the use of text lines, making the margin a center and the center a margin, and the diversity of the event, And the tendency towards modern methods and techniques that inspire in the reader the spirit of professionalism and renewal, which opened the genre of fiction to more bold types related to society and women in particular, for this reason the research was titled (The Iraqi Feminist Novel after (2003 AD), and from here the importance appeared in standing on the most important axes which emerged feminist novel writing.<br>The Iraqi novelist excelled in employing models and characters for her narration with a high technique, so that she made her events in a technique that brings her closer to the living reality, so that she revealed to the reader the different repercussions, purposes and tendencies of the mixed human souls that entered our country, Iraq, as well as shed light on the great injustice and killing that befell the Iraqi individual, especially Iraqi women In various sects, as the weakest link in a violent society, not to mention the pioneering role of women in their families, as they have borne the core of suffering, as they are the mother, wife, sister, and beloved. Thus, feminist narratives came to show a realistic picture that seeks to reveal the culture of the occupied society, the culture of the occupation itself, its customs, and how deal with it.</p> Akhlas Abdul Wahid Al-Jubouri Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 The political reasons and motives for the exclusion of scholars and its impact on the Arab Islamic state in the Umayyad era (41-132 AH / 661-749 AD) <p>Scientists in the Arab Islamic state, especially in the Umayyad era, enjoyed a distinguished position before the Umayyad caliphs, as they paid attention to science and scholars, and the scientific movement reached its peak. However, many scholars were subjected to exclusion and deportation in the Umayyad era, and the reasons and motives that led to their exclusion and exclusion differed. The political reasons and motives were one of the main and most important motives that pushed the authority to expel the scholars. Exclusion could be for opposing the authority or disobeying it, or criticizing its policy, which was a policy followed by most of the Umayyad caliphs and governors who did not allow their policy and authority to be violated, which would affect the internal conditions of the caliphate. The reason for the scholars’ departure from power was a result of the policy of some of the governors of the Umayyad caliphs, which was characterized by harshness, violence, and cruelty. Especially the policy of Al-Hajjaj bin Yusuf Al-Thaqafi, which prompted a number of jurists and scholars to confront and oppose this policy and try to limit it.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;Another source of the exclusion decision appeared in the Umayyad era. The governors who were appointed by the Caliph had the right to issue the exclusion decision, including what Al-Hajjaj bin Yusuf Al-Thaqafi did by excluding a number of scholars and jurists.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; There were many means and methods of exclusion, including killing, imprisonment, confiscation, torture, exile, or defamation and insults. More than one method&nbsp;&nbsp; was used to exclude some scholars, which could reach three or more together. And the resulting positive and negative effects and results. There were many negative consequences for the excluded country when compared to the positive ones. The exclusion of scholars had negative effects on the Arab Islamic state in the Umayyad era, on the country they were excluded from, as the caliphate lost many scholars, and their loss had a major impact on the state. While the exclusion of scholars and their deportation from their cities had positive effects on the areas to which they were excluded, as their people benefited from Teach them and favor them</p> siham Jamil Jasim Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 The integrated structure and its effect in clarifying the meaning in AL- Sahifa Al-Sajjadiya The additional compound is a model <p>This study is based on tracing the additional compound - as one of the types of structures integrated into the Arabic language - in texts that are distinguished by their elegance in structure and arrangement, and the significance of this is that they come from an infallible imam, by which I mean the texts of the supplications of the Sahifa al-Sajjadiyyah of Imam Zain al-Abidin Ali bin al-Hussein (peace be upon him), and monitoring its types. And its sections, analyzing them in light of the context in which they appear, and trying to find out the meaning to be learned from them.</p> <p>The study worked to provide an original approach to the vocabulary of the title in light of its provision of a linguistic and terminological definition of the combined structures on the one hand, and the additional compound on the other hand. In light of this, the study also provided a brief statement of the opinions of scholars regarding the addition, its sections, and the significance of each section.</p> <p>The research was divided, based on the guidance of that statement, into two sections. Each section covered one of the two sections of addition. The first section was for pure (moral) addition, and the second section was for non-pure (verbal) addition. Each topic was divided into several demands on the basis of the types of additional compound mentioned in the texts of the supplications of the Sahifa al-Sajjadiyah. As for the first topic: it included four demands, the first three of which were based on the meaning that the addition gives in light of the scholars’ divisions of it (lamic, verbal, and adverbial), while the first section was devoted to The last of them is for conjunctions of addition, I mean words that do not appear in speech except as added.</p> <p>As for the second section: it included three demands based on the type of derivative as an additive.</p> <p>The research showed a number of results that revealed the linguistic importance of the additional compound and its pivotal impact in explaining the potential meaning of the samples studied.</p> Imad Fadhil Abed Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 The international position on the popular uprising in Iraq in March 1991 <p>In the second half of the last century, the United States of America realized that it had become qualified to play a greater role in the international arena, based on its internal structure that was stable and developed politically, economically and militarily. The Middle East region was one of the strategic and important areas in its foreign policy directions to have a greater role in He drew the events of that region, and this appeared clearly in the Iraqi-Iranian war, which lasted for eight years, and after the entry of the Iraqi army into the State of Kuwait on the second of August 1990, the United States of America, with its strength, became the leading and leading role in removing those forces from the lands The Kuwaiti government was called at the time the Second Gulf War or according to the American names (Desert Storm), which was a direct cause of the outbreak of the Sha’bani uprising in March 1991. As it encouraged it at the beginning, but it changed its position, and gave the green light to Saddam Hussein to eliminate the uprising, as it allowed helicopters to bomb the areas, as for the position of the British government on the popular uprising, it was neutral, after it announced non-interference in Iraqi internal affairs And support for any of the parties to the conflict inside Iraq. As for the position of the French government on the popular uprising, the French constitution refused to involve the French army in the events taking place in Iraq.</p> Manal Zaki Abdul Majhol Al-Fatlawi, Mushtaq Talib Hussain Al-Khafaji Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 A graphic and vocal study of Adnan Al-Sayegh’s poetry, Diwan “And” as an example <p>The poet Adnan Al-Sayegh is considered a great poet, a brilliant writer, and a creative poet. He is considered one of the poets who preserved the poetic form in Iraq, and Al-Sayegh was distinguished by his poetic maturity and the easy, smooth style that is close to the heart that is beloved by the listeners. Again, in vocabulary, words, the language of poetry, and in the forms of poetry, he surpassed Al-Sayyab, Al-Bayati, and Nizar. This is what the thinker Madani Saleh sees. He is a true poet who used... Language is used to reveal and crystallize experience and is a tool for deep, predictive vision that explores the self and the world around it. The researcher dealt with this study entitled (a graphic and vocal study in Adnan Al-Sayegh’s poetry, a collection as a model), in which he touched on the poet’s life, his environment, the importance of his poetry and its characteristics, and revealed the cultural sources that he relied on in composing In his literary text, we noticed the poet’s extensive knowledge in various fields and intellectual and cognitive diversity. This study was carried out on the inductive, descriptive, and analytical approach. In conclusion, we obtained several results, including: Adnan Al-Sayegh’s poetic language was characterized by magnificence, smoothness, elegance, ease, and flexibility in performance. In terms of graphic images, there was consistency. It is complete through simile, metaphor, and metonymy, and the collection was dominated by images of simile and metaphor, and on the vocal side, the poet employed repetition, introduction, and delay to create the musical rhythm in the text and to maintain the vocal level, in addition to the role of alliteration of its types in giving the text beautiful music that pleases the souls and attracts the recipient to the text through The echo formed by the similarity of sounds in homogeneous words. Homogeneity also increased in the connotations of the text through the variation in meanings of similar and homogeneous words in Al-Sayegh’s texts and his poems in the collection. His revolutionary and enthusiastic poetic texts were shaped by voiced and strong sounds, while the texts expressing feelings and sensations were dominated by medium and soft sounds.</p> Ahmed Makki Khalil, Ali Reda Hosni Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 The impact of force majeure on contractual obligation <p>In the execution of a contract, the contractor may be exposed to several unforeseen circumstances for the contracting parties after the conclusion of the contract that threatens the integrity of the legal entity of the contract, necessitating intervening in order to strike a balance between the burdens to be borne by the contractor and reducing the consequences of force majeure, through which the debtor may have a partial effect that ceases to implement its commitment until the temporary impediment demise unless the time factor is necessary and influential in the execution of the contract, or a permanent impediment leading to the termination of the contract. This research was aimed at demonstrating the concept, conditions and types of force majeure, and then the impact of force majeure on contractual obligations and their implementation and applying the rules of this theory to the coronavirus pandemic as an extraordinary event that could not have been foreseen or pushed and is therefore a pandemic fit for the application of force majeure provisions.</p> <p>&nbsp;The study was conducted through a comparative analytical approach between Iraq's legal texts and France. Numerous outcomes have been attained and the most prominent of which is that Force majeure can be achieved by an incident that is both unpredictable and non-producent and defined as an external cause beyond the control of the parties makes it impossible to fulfill the obligation. In case the implementation of the obligations cannot be fulfilled, the theory of force majeure, which results in the expiration of obligations, is used. It must be a permanent or relative impossibility, not a temporary or relative one. No party can fulfil the obligation even if its implementation is onerous and arduous. unless the contracting parties agree to tighten the debtor's contractual liability by assuming all risks, including force majeure, as it is not discharged from its contractual obligations in the event of an impediment even if it is absolute and permanent.</p> Muhannad Othman Khudair Al-Mousawi, Ahmed Al-Dailami Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 The inferences of the textual argument in the sermons of Imam Ali, peace be upon him, in Nahj al-Balaghah <p>Guidelines are the thing that leads to the required certification, and it can be said that they are what indicates the validity of the claim. Inferential directives come by using a word or structure, with textual or mental evidence, and so on: The grammatical directives of the argument are: textual or rational evidence in affirming the opinion of the addressee and proving against it, or negating them both, and proving another ruling other than them. The textual evidence is what defines sacred or literary evidence, and as for the rational evidence, it represents one of the evidences of grammarians based on language logic, or abstract mental logic, which is in fact an aspect of argumentative thought based on logical standards. Ali (peace be upon him) It is of great importance in directing the Alawite discourse, and in this study I followed the descriptive and analytical approach, and reached several results, including: He deviated them so that his saying would be a compelling argument against them and a witness to their actions.</p> <p> It is clear from the texts that the Imam, peace be upon him, supported his statement with many references that strengthen his sharpness, including the Holy Qur’an and the hadith of the Messenger, may God bless him and his family and grant them peace, to show that the Messenger is the religious, intellectual, and cultural authority on which he relies in what he says. Whoever doubts or objects has doubted and objected to the Messenger, because the hadith represents the solid ground upon which he relies, and from which he proceeds in persuasion, because of the argumentative connotations it carries that have a high impact on the souls of its recipients, achieving understanding, enjoyment, and conviction at the same time.</p> <p> </p> Rafea Samaa Ali, Mahdi Moghaddasi Nia, Wisam Majeed Jabir Al-Bakry Copyright (c) 2024 Wed, 10 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 The legendary motif in the poetry of Raheem Al-Gharbawi <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;The motif represents the intellectual and emotional image of the poet, and it expresses his emotional insides that carry a higher value in poetic texts by describing the motif as a technique added to the poetic techniques of the text such as metaphor, metaphor, analogy, symbols of all kinds, irony and written emptiness. Text,</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Perhaps the study took it upon itself to illuminate the concept of motif, so it showed the difference between it and the repetition that was circulated in the books of grammar and rhetoric, although one of the derivations of the motif is the repetition of the word, but what it carries through directing the context is other semantic loads, as it is not that the repetition is a verbal state in The motif is primarily moral, and since the study has dealt with the motif in the poetry of Rahim Al-Gharabawi, who has knowledge in the literature of poetry, he made the motif carry with it two techniques, namely the employment of the myth, and then its repetition; To form two techniques at the same time, the motif and the myth, and the type of myths that he dealt with in two types of the first motif was the motif of the word directed by the context, which resulted in multiple connotations that enriched the text with meanings, in addition to that it summarized the phrases within his poetic texts as well as hoarding the surplus of meaning and from that carried The meanings of heroism, love, waiting, striving to attain immortality, daring, rebirth, and frustration.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; And the other is the motif of the image through which the poet achieved multiple meanings, including rebirth, giving, and happiness, as well as the meanings of loss and death. From that, we find that the legendary motif in Al-Gharabawi's poetry has formed, thanks to his creative abilities, a clear phenomenon, and it carries various semantic dimensions.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;Thus, we find that Al-Gharabawi's poetry rose to the level of contemporary poetry with modernist techniques that outlined for us the path of adulthood, reaching, and ending in order to achieve his purpose, which made it reach poetry to the recipients.</p> Razzaq Kazem Jalil Al-Zamli, Ati Abiyat Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Turnkey contract in construction contracts in comparative law <p>The contractor must respect the contract and implement all obligations arising from it. If the contractor attempts to breach his obligations, whether it is a matter of not implementing the obligation in whole or in part, or it is a matter of implementing it inappropriately (violating the terms or specifications of the contract), this is considered a breach of the contract, and this constitutes major damage. On the employer, so the legislator took the initiative to grant the employer a number of means that enable him to confront the contractor who violates his obligations and hand over the key to no person being bound to a contract unless his will is directed towards concluding it in accordance with the general conditions. So that the place where the contractual wills meet and the reason motivating the contract are legitimate, but the purpose of this study is not to investigate the traditional pillars and conditions for the meeting of the wills necessary to form the contract. Therefore, we will not address the conditions for the validity of the will in accordance with the general rules in terms of its issuance by someone who has the capacity to contract and the will is free of defects.</p> Raafat Hamid Rais Ashgah, Muhammad Ali Haji Dabadi Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Connotations of place in the Hebrew novel Selected models <p>In this research, we will try to identify "the connotations of place in the Hebrew novel." Place is one of the most important elements of the novel, as they say that it is the scene or scene of the novel’s events. The sense of place is an innate feeling inherent in the human soul that cannot be ignored or forgotten, just as we cannot forget or ignore time - that is, the time of childhood. This is why the place where a person was born and lived his childhood moments carries a deep human dimension within himself that is automatically reflected in his literary productions. Sometimes we find the writer describing the place in his novel, and at other times in his poetry.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Since ancient times, the dictionary of writers has been full of mentioning the place, its vocabulary, and its significance. They have frequently mentioned the land and places they love in their novels because it is linked to their sensory concerns and arouses their longing and nostalgia for the places of their residence, their amusement, the pastures of their youth, and their memories. Different feelings arise depending on the writer’s connection to this place. These feelings vary between love, longing, and nostalgia for this. The place, so its connotation is love, and among haters, he said to this place: With many motives, so its connotation is unloving and repulsive.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The spatial connotation had a great impact in highlighting the author’s point of view that he wanted to prove through the novel, which is the role that the Jews played in their writings. Therefore, researchers believed that the novelist’s life is a psychological focus in which space and time come together. The novel and the place are closely linked to each other, as it needs it to establish the structure of its world to be a stage for its events and characters. In contrast, the appearance of the place is not complete except in the novel, which helps to reveal its connotations and functions. Therefore, the place can be considered as an introduction through which one can look at the world of the novel and find out what it is. Its trends and deep meanings.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The nature of the research that focused on studying the place in the novels necessitated the literary works of Iraqi Jewish writers because of its importance in influencing the Jews and is due to two important things: that the Jewish novelists wanted to make the place a refuge for freedom and memories. Therefore, they had to return to using the place in their novels, and they succeeded in using that place in their approaches and to serve their goal. The other matter is due to the keenness of the novelists to choose the place because the place adds psychological connotations, feelings and emotions, and that dimension appears in the novel.</p> <p>The researcher - after tracking and extrapolating the novels - studied and analyzed those novels, and explained the aesthetic values and artistic advantages of the Iraqi places. Therefore, we find that the presence of the place in the fictional work is clear in the novels of Iraqi writers, and it is no secret to anyone that he achieved clear goals and proceeded in successive steps. Aiming to give the recipient a clear picture of the events of their narratives and the communication of their ideas.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The aim of this research is to examine the influence of place memory on the productions of writers and how they included this in their productions to serve a political and social goal. The research reached an important result, which is the cultural and educational background of writers, which affects their productions and their choice of places that have a great impact on the reader because the writer’s relationship with the place is a dialectical relationship that is formed through the process of influence and being influenced between them.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The study attempts to reach results based on an analysis of the events of the novel and the dialogues that take place in it, in a way that supports and proves the aforementioned point of view. The research concluded with a brief conclusion that included a condensed summary of this research and its most important results.</p> Majeed Rheimah Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Following and intermarrying in the book "The Legislation of the Language " by Youssef Bin Ismail Bin Ibrahim (d: After 812 AH) the chapters (Al Jeem , Al Ha’a, and Al khaa) Models <p>The research aims to View One of the Phenomena of Arabic language which is Follow –up and mating. We do not forget that one of the greatest Scientific gifts is that you are absorbed in one aspect of a Science, and if you are guided to another aspect of it, then you draw from what other Scholars have invented, and this is what I am in the process of exposure to it. While I am Searching in specific field , I find myself standing on a sub-topic for which effort and time deserve to be exerted , namely following and mating in <strong>Y</strong>ousef&nbsp; Bin Ibrahim Ibn Ismail’s book (d: After 812 AH) a linguistic lexicon in which the author followed the approach of authenticity and its School of writing, So I explained the limit of following, and mating each separately, and the types of following and mating in the chapters (Al Jeem&nbsp; Al Haa and Al khaa) 3. Following and pairing are two of the original and common phenomena in our Arabic language in the past. This importance lies in the way linguists have dealt with it, and they have dedicated books to it and divided chapters for it in their works, including following and pairing: by Abu al-Tayyib al-Lughuqi, following and pairing: by Ahmad Ibn Faris, and following: by Abu Ali. Al-Qali and Al-Ittiba’ by Al-Suyuti Jalal al-Din, this is with regard to complete books. As for those who devoted chapters to them and devoted parts of their books to them, it is like the anteater in the chapter “Al-Ittiba’” from his book Al-Mukhtab from the Kalam of the Arabs, Ibn Duraid in his book Al-Jumhara, and Ibn Qutaybah Al-Dinawari in his book Adab Al-Katib. And the book Al-Sami fi Al-Asami by Abu Al-Fath Ahmad Al-Maidani, and many others. so I have succeeded in that way.</p> Mohammed Suleiman Abood Al- Dulaimi, Mahmood Khalaf Hamad Al- Sabhani Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 The reality of using the aesthetic approach in teaching Arabic to achieve the goals of linguistic aesthetic education among middl school students_Schools in Anbar province, the city of Ramadi as a model <p>The aim of this research is to study the extent to which teachers use the aesthetic approach in teaching the Arabic language to achieve the goals of linguistic aesthetic education among preparatory stage learners. And knowing the reality of employing the aesthetic approach in teaching Arabic to middle school learners from the point of view of its teachers. Knowing the reality of achieving the goals of linguistic and aesthetic education after employing teachers, the aesthetic entrance for preparatory stage learners. Also knowing the reality of interaction with the aesthetic approach and its impact on the beautiful linguistic production, and to achieve this, the researcher used the descriptive approach to describe the variables of the study, and clarify them by relying on the literature. The research community consisted of 110 schools, and the number of Arabic language teachers in the preparatory stage in these schools is (1363). The research tool was the questionnaire as a main tool for the data collection process in order to verify the objectives of the study and test its hypotheses. High. And that they use the aesthetic approach, so they achieved the goals of aesthetic education for sensory perception with a high degree, and there was a strong direct relationship with statistical significance between the sensory perception of aesthetic education and the aesthetic approach in teaching the Arabic language to achieve the goals of aesthetic linguistic education among middle school learners. While there were no differences between the average answers of the respondents about the relationship between aesthetic education and the aesthetic approach in teaching the Arabic language according to the gender variable.</p> Rima Azmi Al-Ahdab, Wassim Thabet Hammoud Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 The role of authentic leadership among the heads of academic departments at King Abdulaziz University in achieving the welfare of faculty members from their point of view <p>The study aimed to identify the role of authentic leadership among the heads of academic departments at King Abdulaziz University in achieving the well-being of faculty members from their point of view, and the study adopted the descriptive analytical approach. A simple random sample of (201) members of the study population was drawn, and a questionnaire was prepared and distributed to the study sample. The study reached a number of results, the most important of which are: that the degree of practicing authentic leadership by heads of academic departments at King Abdulaziz University was high, and that the level of well-being of faculty members at King Abdulaziz University was high, It also found a positive effect of authentic leadership in achieving the well-being of faculty members at King Abdulaziz University. There were differences due to the variable of years of experience, as well as the absence of statistically significant differences in the level of well-being of faculty members at King Abdulaziz University from their point of view due to the variable (educational rank and years of experience), while there were differences due to the gender variable. The study recommends: King Abdulaziz University adopts authentic leadership as an entry point to achieve the well-being of faculty members, due to its positive effects on increasing the efficiency and effectiveness of the university, and improving the quality of career at the university.</p> Manal Hussein Al-Hamidi Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Developing Children's Verbal Communication Skills Using Smartphone Apps Siraj Application Model <p>The study aimed to identify the role of smart phone applications in developing children’s verbal communication skills by identifying the role of the Siraj application in developing children’s listening skills, and identifying the role of the Siraj application in developing children’s speaking skills?&nbsp; To achieve the research objectives and answer its questions, the study relied on a qualitative approach through the tool of in-depth interviews from a sample of experts and specialists, including (2) technical experts and (2) experts and consultants in child psychology. The study concluded that the Siraj application plays a role in developing the skill of&nbsp; Speaking with children by diversifying its audio-visual services, adopting shapes, drawings, sounds and interactive movements, following the auditory method, developing the speaking skill, in addition to the educational games method, providing interactive shapes, drawings, sounds and movements, rewarding the child with vocal encouragement and enhancing the level of speech in children.This can be explained based on behavioral theory, as behavioral theory can be used to analyze behavioral variables associated with smart phone applications and developing speaking skills. It has been shown that the Siraj application plays a role in developing children’s listening skills through the use of drawings, colors, and favorite shapes, adopting the method of using words of thanks and encouragement, and using vocabulary.&nbsp; Educational in a gentle and enjoyable manner, using audio techniques, in addition to the process of repeating sounds and words, the style of sounds, music and audio instructions, striving to break the routine in educational paragraphs and using sounds and drawings, and expressions of praise. The study recommended constantly developing visual and video content to ensure the child’s continued attraction and achieving the goal of learning, and the necessity of Finding solutions to prevent children from being drawn to smartphones for long periods so that this does not negatively affect them, in addition to constantly updating and developing educational games, as it has been shown that they are an important tool in improving children’s pronunciation and listening skills.</p> Maytham M.Hussein A.AL. Abdulraheem, Ismail Saadipour Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Cancellation of the construction contract by unilateral decision <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The main obligation that results from the contracting contract and falls on the contractor is to complete the work that he pledged to do. The contractor is obligated to complete the work in accordance with the agreed upon conditions and specifications, as well as in accordance with the conditions required Dy the principles and traditions of the craft. The contractor's obligation to deliver the building is an obligation to achieve a result and not an obligation to exercise care. If the contractor violates this and the employer discovers that the contractor is carrying out the work in a defective manner or in violation of the terms of the contract and the customs and traditions of the workmanship ,and whether that discovery was by experts in architectural and construction affairs, then such a breach for this purpose , the Iraqi legislator has given the employer a number of means that enable him to confront the contractor who violates his obligation , including issuing a warning for specific implementation if it is possible or canceling the contract with compensation if specific implementation is not possible . The Iraqi legislator also allowed departure from this principle mentioned in ln some cases , it is permissible for the employer to cancel the contracting contract of his own volition , without the need for the will of the contractor , and here it does not only entail dissolving the contractual bond , duty it requires more than that , It is the obligation of the contractor to stop working , and if he continues to complete the work assigned to him , the employer is not obligated to pay the value of the work carried out by the contractor after he learns of the cancellation , but this cessation of work does not take place at all . Rather, the contractor may perform some necessary work to maintain the integrity of the previously completed work, but in Sometimes the contractor may continue to carry out the work despite his knowledge that the contract has ended due to cancellation by the employer.&nbsp; Is the contractor entitled to the value of the completed works, or is he completely deprived of compensation for those works? In this most likely opinion , he stated that the contractor is not entitled to any compensation in this case because entitlement to this compensation doubles the right drawn up dye law and approved dye the employer , since obligating the employer to do this compensation would burden his financial liability and restrict his hands in using the cancellation machine , which makes this license ( the cancellation machine ) constitutes an exception and a departure from the principle of the contract under the law of pact a sunqa , which was stated in Article ( 146 , paragraph 1 ) and Article ( 885 , paragraph 1 ) of the Iraqi Civil Code . (1 (</p> Muntazar Abdul Hussein Abdul lah AL Rabie, Siamak Jafar zadeh, Muhammad Hassan Jawadi Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 The contextual significance of conjugating the present tense with the subject's name in the Qur'anic text <p>In this research, we dealt with the contextual significance of the conjugation of the verb intransitive with the name of the subject in the Quranic self. It seemed to us, in the light of what we came across from the Qur’anic evidence, that this signification takes many forms and overlaps with other grammatical functions.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; We have divided the research into two sections. The first section was titled: The Significance of the Present Tense between the Ancients and the Moderns. As for the second section, its title is: Applied Evidence for the Significance of the Present Verb Conjugation with the Name of the Subject, in which it dealt with a good number of the blessed Quranic verses in which it was mentioned. The verb and the noun of the subject of one structure are similar. I showed through this research the contextual significance of the words through the conjugation, through what was mentioned by the owners of dictionaries and language books and the opinions of the owners of interpretation in that. Then I concluded the research with a conclusion in which I dealt with the most important results that I reached.</p> <p><strong>First:</strong> The present tense denotes the case, if it is devoid of clues.</p> <p><strong>Secondly:</strong> its indication is specified in the case, and that is if it is associated with (now) and what is in its meaning such as: Zaid is standing now, or (may), or with a moral presumption, or if it is negated by (not, what, if) towards: God’s creation is not like him, And the Almighty said: {Say: It is not for me that I change it of my own accord if I follow only what is revealed to me} (Yunus: 15), or it comes after (if) the incident after the oath, or sympathizes with a situation, or sympathizes with a situation.</p> <p><strong>Third:</strong> Its indication of reception, and that is if it was preceded by one of the letters of catharsis (Seen and Wassouf)</p> Abbas Mohsen Hussein Ali Al-Khafaji, Hussein Ali Hadi Al-Mahna Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Protection is a leg for moral wealth <p>Moral rights have a scientific, cultural, social and economic value that authors and inventors themselves acquire, and therefore they must be protected by all means, so they must be protected by all means; enacted by special laws or that have not yet been enacted, by working in the research field of this legislation, and moral money is regulated in many Iraqi laws: such as Civil Law No. (40) of 1951, and Law on Copyright Protection No. (3) of 1971, as amended, And the Law of Copyright and Neighboring Rights for the Kurdistan Region of Iraq No. (17) of 2012, and the Law on Patents and Industrial Models No. (65) of 1970 as amended Thus, we will shed light on the definition of intangible property in terms of terminology and learn about the legal nature of intangible property, as its nature has raised disagreement among jurists. Some of them considered intangible property as a property right, and some of them considered it a personal right, while a third school of thought considered intangible property to have a mixed nature. Intangible property also appears in the form of commercial rights and intellectual rights that require legal protection, whether the protection is criminal or civil, given that the penal law protects interests deemed most deserving of protection, in addition to civil protection. The Iraqi Penal Code also referred the regulation of intangible property provisions to special laws such as the Right Protection Law. Author No. (3) of 1971, amended pursuant to the dissolved Coalition Authority Order No. (83) of 2004, which clarified the provisions of copyright and that it is one of the intangible property that requires criminal and civil protection through the definition of copyright and the content of copyright. The law also stipulates that the author has a moral right and a financial right to the work. Deposit is also considered a means of protecting copyright, as the author is obligated, in accordance with the Iraqi Deposit Law No. (37) of 1970, to deliver one or more copies to the competent authorities or one of the national offices specified by the law to ensure Copyright.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Aseel Hatem Toman Elwi Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Intellectual communication among the Ahl al-Bayt (peace be upon them) The two imams al-Sadiq and al-Rida (peace be upon them both) as a model <p>Our research shed light on one of the important topics that referred to the associative and communicative thought between the imams of Ahl al-Bayt (peace be upon them). May God Almighty grant him his reappearance), so our study entitled (Intellectual Communication among Ahl al-Bayt <sup>(peace be upon them)</sup>, the two Imams al-Sadiq and al-Ridha <sup>(peace be upon them)</sup> as a model) came to discuss the most important incidents that occurred in two different eras between one imam and another, except that the action, attitude and behavior were the same.</p> <p>Thus, we can say that our definition of it is the intellectual communication between two people in terms of thought and not matter, i.e. researching intellectual matters that make the researcher aware of the connection of the thought of Ahl al-Bayt <sup>(peace be upon them)</sup> to each other. To confirm the meaning, we find that the hadiths of Ahl al-Bayt <sup>(peace be upon them)</sup> came from a single source, which is the Holy Messenger Muhammad (<sup>may God bless him and grant him peace)</sup>. In fact, it is nothing but continuous and inspired knowledge from God Almighty to them.</p> <p>Intellectual communication was present between the two imams (peace be upon them both) in exploiting the breakthrough of the political situation in the era of each of them. 132-656 AH / 750 AD-1258 AD) to rule the Arab Islamic state.</p> <p>The second Hijri/eighth century AD witnessed the spread of false ideas and doctrines under the auspices of the ruling authority at the time. Every Umayyad or Abbasid ruler seemed to be his first concern to surround the imams of Ahl al-Bayt (<sup>peace be upon them)</sup> and work to reduce their activity, harass them with all he could of force, and eliminate them by any means. A method, in contrast to the other side, which was open to doing whatever it wanted with complete freedom, especially if it merged with the ruling authority, which encouraged the spread of false principles in Islamic societies.</p> Mithaq Obais Hussein Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Research trends in curricula and methods of teaching the Arabic language, an evaluation study <p>The aim of this research is to identify the most important research trends in curricula and methods of teaching the Arabic language, an evaluative study. In writing her research, the researcher relied on the descriptive approach. The researcher divided her research into two sections: The first section included the research problem and its importance, and then through it she was exposed to the most prominent of these research trends. Which included “methods of teaching the Arabic language through the Qur’anic approach, and it was also subjected to an analytical study of the theses of the Arabic language curricula and methods of teaching it. The researcher referred to studying the general trends of Arabic teaching research.”&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;The researcher found that these studies relied on the integrative trend, which is based on a kind of unity and interconnectedness between groups. The second topic: Identifying research trends in teaching Arabic language skills. There have been many research trends in teaching the Arabic language, starting from a serious attempt to develop a comprehensive guide. For teachers of Arabic to non-native speakers.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;The research concluded that it is necessary to benefit from these trends and employ them in the field of the Arabic language and its teaching methods in an effort to address the weakness in some of the teaching methods used.</p> Sama Abdul Rasool Mughir Hussein Al-Shukri Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 The effect of flipped learning on developing self-learning in mathematics among sixth grade middle school learners <p>This study aims to teach mathematics through flipped learning strategies, use modern technology to improve the performance of basic skills among experimental group students, determine the impact of flipped learning on basic skills through video clips or audio files, and compare it with teaching. Experimental methods were used to achieve the research objectives, and the validity of this study was verified through the following results: In the fourth chapter.</p> <p>The study found that there is better cooperation, interaction, perception, and unification of knowledge and skills among students who learn according to the flipped learning strategy compared to those who learn using traditional methods, and then he supervises their activities and provides appropriate guidance. Support is provided to those who fail, and thus the level of understanding and teaching is high. Teaching mathematics using the flipped learning strategy increased the achievement of the experimental group students. The cooperation and interaction of students who studied according to the flipped learning strategy is better than the interaction of students who studied in the traditional method.</p> <p>&nbsp; Conducting experimental studies on this strategy and trying to compare the effect of using the flipped learning strategy and some other strategies on self-learning and thinking in mathematics. Conducting a study to identify the impact of using the flipped learning strategy on gifted students and students who are behind in school, and its suitability for them. Applying the flipped learning strategy in some academic subjects, and in all stages of general education, with the support and supervision of a specialized team of specialist supervisors. Adopting the flipped learning strategy because it matches the learning skills required in the second millennium and because it is capable of activating learning based on brain research, modern educational patterns, and intelligences, and accelerating the learning process. .&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Hassan Al-Siddiq, Akram Salim Salem Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 The impact of the flexible group strategy in teaching mathematics and solving mathematical problems among middle school students <p>One of the most important goals of teaching mathematics is for the student to acquire speed, accuracy, and mastery in reaching results, so skill means doing the process quickly, accurately, and proficiently. Making calculations and generalizations are taught for the purpose of their direct uses and applications, and the use of these generalizations directly or in other typical situations. The curriculum, which also means the use of knowledge quickly, accurately and proficiently, and there are basic skills that every educated learner is indispensable for if he wants to deal with others easily and easily, especially in the life of the present and the future. Second: Recommendations</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;In light of the results obtained, the study recommends the following:</p> <p>Training mathematics teachers - before and during service - on how to use modern teaching strategies, including the flexible group strategy, to teach mathematics at different levels of education.</p> <p>Providing all the necessary capabilities for the mathematics teacher to use modern teaching strategies in teaching within the school classroom.</p> <p>Recommending the inclusion of the flexible grouping strategy in teacher guides for mathematics at all academic levels.</p> <p>Based on the results of the study, the following future studies can be suggested:</p> <p>The effectiveness of the flexible group strategy in developing life skills and problem solving.The effectiveness of the flexible groups strategy in modifying alternative concepts among primary school students.</p> Muhammad Salman Saeed, Rita Shahwan Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 The critical moral effects of personal freedom <p>Since personal freedoms are complex social phenomena because of the overlap in their practice and each individual’s attempt to achieve them for himself, but often with the opinion of others and their religious freedoms, which requires a high level of awareness and a great deal of organization and accuracy in how those freedoms are exercised in a way that clarifies the limits of their practice in a way that achieves for everyone what he wants without prejudice to the freedoms of others and their religious beliefs, so the process of monitoring and analyzing them requires several approaches in order to reach the desired goal, and therefore man alone is no longer subject to penal accountability. Rather, he shared this responsibility with him by another entity independent of him – even if the person is a part of it – which some consider to be hypothetical while others consider it to be a reality. Therefore, freedom makes a person able to criticize the negative habits around him in order to correct them. But if the society in which we live does not have freedom, then society will become like a dark room that does not distinguish between right and wrong. His birth (man is born free).</p> <p>In view of the expansion of the activities of this moral personality due to the developments produced by the modern era, and its possession of huge capabilities in order to carry out its activities, and the possibility of errors occurring in it in exchange for the benefits it achieves, these activities may be used as a cover to cover up some crimes, unlike the Anglo-Saxon legislation that recognized this responsibility similar to the recognition of his civil responsibility, which in turn was reflected in the position of legislation and the judiciary between establishing it as a general principle, approving it as an exception, or excluding it altogether. And in detail.</p> Hossam Rahim Khalaf Al-Sharaa, Ismail Aqababaei Bani Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 The effect of (attention and Mind Reading skills) program on information processing efficiency in a sample of children with autism spectrum disorder in central Erbil, Kurdistan-Iraq <p>The current study aims to investigate the effects of (attention and Mind Reading skills) program on information processing efficiency in a sample of children with autism spectrum disorder.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The research population consists of all the children diagnosed with mild to moderate autism spectrum disorder in the public and private centers aged between (6-8) years in central city of Erbil for 2022-2023.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; To achieve the goals, 62 children were chosen as research sample to extract the psychometric properties of research tools, and 7 children were chosen as experiment group. The experimental methodology was chosen as it is suitable for the nature if the current problem and the nature of the sample. The researchers depended on one group experimental design with pre and post-test, in order to discover the effects of the program on information processing efficiency as a dependent variable. The researchers depended on tools such as: Goddard scale for children IQ (board of shapes) (Henry H. Goddard,1957), Gilliam rating scale which was standardized and translated to Arabic by (Mohammed and Mohammed 2020) which is used to diagnose intensity of autism and its symptoms and (Task Theory of mind scale) by (Sayed And Rushdy,2011). The researchers prepared the (attention and Mind Reading skills) program, attention and information processing tests. The statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) was used to analyze the data according to the research goals, and the results were:</p> <p>There is a large effect of the (attention and Mind Reading skills) program on information processing efficiency in a sample of children with autism spectrum disorder.</p> Arazo Talaat Mohammed, Rezan Ali Ibrahim Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Writer.. Emaduddin Khalil <p>Amazement possesses you as you move between the pages of (Dr. Emad El-Din Khalil)'s writings in his striking style, beautiful eloquence, and flowing phrases, which involve wisdom, depth of experience, years of experience, and the illumination of the word. And you find effortlessly the extent of the realism of his intellectual and literary propositions, as his writings crossed with his innovative tools in the historical method and in Islamic literature, in Islamic and literary formulations full of theorizing, analysis, gracefulness of language, and the originality of the flowing thought.</p> <p>&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;My attention was drawn to the diversity and richness of this man's w ritings, so I devoted myself to examining his literary works, and delving into them in order to highlight and clarify his approach, interventions, analyzes, and calls for renewal in Islamic thought and literature. What is remarkable about all of his writings is that he writes according to the duality of the historian and the writer. All of Imad al-Din Khalil’s theses were embellished with literary style and scientific richness, whether in his historical treatments, literary writings, or critical and theoretical interventions. In all of his theses, he was an Islamic preacher who employed his academic experiences in framing his opinions systematically, based on the Holy Qur’an and the Noble Sunnah to present An advanced model of enlightened thought</p> Dewali Haji Jassim Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Cultural cooperation between Iraq and Italy in the field Of archeology (1963-1979 AD)In The Iraq Press <p>This research came to shed light on the nature of cultural cooperation between Iraq and Italy in the field of antiquities during the years 1963-1979 and its impact on the course of development of relations between the two countries, as antiquities are a basic pillar in cultural cooperation and an important factor towards shaping bilateral relations between the two countries, as antiquities represent a factor in strengthening cultural relations between The two countries because the antiquities represent an important value to most of the peoples of the world. The fact that Iraq is one of the oldest civilizations in the world has prompted most countries to delve into searching for its antiquities in order to learn about its civilization. Italy was one of those countries, which prompted it to send a mission to excavate the antiquities of Iraq. It succeeded in doing so. This helped to develop the relationship between the two countries and reveal historical stages and eras of civilization in Mesopotamia. This success achieved by the Italian mission contributed to the establishment of the Iraqi-Italian Center for the Maintenance of Monuments in 1969 AD, and in the same year the Iraqi-Italian Institute of Archeology was established, which contributed In the further development of relations between the two countries in the field of antiquities.</p> Munir Abbood Jdeah, Omar Musa Naje Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 The significance of the non-explicit praises <p>In the Arabic language, there are expressive methods in which the speaker expresses his own emotional feelings, including the method of praise, and the grammarians agree that this method is based on three pillars (the act of praise, its subject and its specific), so they built their rules on these pillars. They called it (standard praise).</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; But the matter is not limited to this method and its pillars in the statement of praise among the Arabs, as there are eloquent linguistic structures that express praise in an explicit manner that is understood in the context in which it was placed. A special chapter, and this research deals with an aspect of non-explicit praise in the chapter on “Mansobs” and under the title ((Indication of praise for non-explicit praise)).</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Since its inception, Arabic grammar has focused on meaning in formulating grammatical rulings. “Grammar, according to our early scholars, was an integrated system of symbols and signs that verbally and morally indicate the meaning that the Arab intends to express... and the words of the early grammarians were not the intended ones and their orbit.” Their research, as some researchers imagine, is rather tools for expressing the meanings they intend.)</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; In their adherence to grammatical rules, the grammarians did not ignore the relationship that existed between what the Arabs spoke and what they intended of the causes, purposes, and purposes attributed to them. The speaker’s intention affects the control of the grammatical functions and their definition in the way they should be.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Arabic grammar has largely combined appearance and connotation. Its study was not only based on controlling the last words that make up a sentence according to the laws of syntactic syntax, but rather it went beyond explaining the purposes of speakers in composing sentences and what the words in the sentence should be.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The ancient grammarians provided worthy observations and sound indications about explicit praise - standard and non-standard - in their study of grammar. They built many grammatical concepts in standard and non-standard praise on the basis of the grammatical rule.</p> salih kathem ajeel Al- Joobory, Safa Abduljabbar Hasan Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Religion and politics A reading of the most important factors that reject separation between them according to Islamic thinkers <p>The views of intellectuals differed greatly in their reading of European history, thought, and civilization. The first movement is an educated Christian who believes in Western thought and its ability to extract Arab countries from their reality, provided that they adhere to European thought and development, especially in separating religion from politics because it is the most important issue, and a second movement that studied European thought and tried to reconcile Between him and Islamic thought, he presented his justifications, and a third movement rejected the separation between religion and politics, and presented his vision.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Muslim thinkers dealt with the relationship between religion and politics, and the subject was dealt with some caution and ambiguity so as not to cause a conflict between the Islamic perspective of life as a religion and the world, and politics as a purely worldly matter that people have to deal with. This ambiguity still prevails today, as a large share of the conflict between fundamentalist currents and ruling regimes is due to the concept of politics and governance, and from where does the ruler derive his authority and legitimacy?</p> <p>The main problem that faced Muslim thinkers since the beginning of the so-called renaissance era, and their awareness of civilizational lag, was to retrieve the lost identity and search for methods to rectify this lag, and achieve the desired breakthrough. Between religion and politics, he presented a vision based on the Islamic experience and its success during the era of the Messenger , and that it is possible to benefit from it to build an Islamic society based on Islamic values ​​and principles without the need for the secular West.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The most important research dealt with the problem of separating religion and politics in Islamic thought, and dealt with the position of Al-Azhar Al-Sharif on the call to separate religion and state, the vision of the Muslim Brotherhood in separating religion from politics, and the position of the Salafist movement rejecting secularism.</p> Younis Abbas Nehme Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Quantitative Assessment of Surface Runoff in the Nile Drainage Basin in Northern Yemen : a Hydromorphometric Study <p>The research dealt with a study of the Nile Valley basin, which is one of the valleys of seasonal flow, with an area of about 701.4 km2, and is located in the northern of Republic of Yemen within the dry region, and is considered one of the studied basins, so the sports model (CN-SCS) was adopted Which is one of the most important methods that are used to reach the estimates of the surface flow size, which depends on a set of procedures and inputs. Modern geographical technologies have been used, because of the available information in a short time. The Geographical Information Systems program has been used. System and technology (Remote Sensing) In addition to the use of the Berkeley equation, which is an important mathematical equation in the calculation of surface runoff estimation to obtain accuracy in identifying areas that help the surface flow and water -executed areas that hinder the occurrence of superficial flow. Researchers and research centers interested in hydrological studies of water basins have contributed to the formulation of many mathematical solutions. The Runoff Curve Number (SCS - CN) method, also called Runoff Curve Number (RCNs) for short, is one of the most important methods used in calculating surface runoff in hydrological studies. It has been developed The US Soil Conservation Service, affiliated with the US Department of Agriculture, used this model to calculate surface runoff in 1970, and the final version was approved in 1986 ( ), and it will be adopted to estimate the amount of surface runoff in the Nile Valley Basin.</p> Amal Abdulrahman Ali ALguhmari Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 The general conditions of the Turkmen in Iraq, a historical study in terms of origins and attitudes. <p>The research aims to study the conditions and attitudes of the various ethnic and religious components in Iraq outside the Muslim Arab majority, especially the Turkmen, as Iraq has represented since ancient times a model of peaceful coexistence between its religious, ethnic and sectarian components, as cultures, social customs, and political, educational and even religious participations of ethnic components indigenous to thousands of years ago and other settlements from Turkey, Iran and other countries merged in it The Turkmen minority is one of the ethnic minorities whose importance emerged in more than one field during the stages of Ottoman control over Iraq. It assumed an important political and social position, and the Turkmen minority constituted an important social weight for Iraqi society. This group sought to prove the reality of the Turkmen presence in Iraq as An integral part of the Iraqi population, and their long-standing contribution to all issues related to Iraq socially, politically and culturally, with its distinctive civilizational and cultural heritage.. Most historians have confirmed that the majority of Turkmen in Iraq trace their origin back to the Ottoman Empire after their success under the leadership of Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent in making the city of Mosul their main mandate in Iraq, which led to the migration of many Ottoman Turks to northern Iraq and settling in it, followed by the conquest of the city of Kirkuk and the migration of Turks and settlement in it, and this explains that both cities are among the most important presence of the Turkmen element in Iraq at the present time.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Falah Majeed Hasoon, Muhannad Abboud Jassim Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 The stylistics of Michael Naima in (Najwa Al-Ghoroub <p>The subject of the research is a stylistic study of the group "Najwa Al-Ghoroub" by Michael Naima. Our poet is one of the most famous writers and poets of the Diaspora in the twentieth century. He is the Lebanese poet and writer Michael Naima. He was born in Mount Sannine in Lebanon in 1889 AD.&nbsp; In Ukraine for about five years, after that he emigrated to the United States of America to continue his studies, so he settled there for more than twenty years and was able to obtain American citizenship, and he was one of the members of the Pen Association that Gibran Khalil Gibran founded in New York in 1920 AD, and the poet Michael Naima was Gibran’s deputy in it. You have chosen this group because it was the fruit of his literary production at the end of his life when he returned from the Diaspora to his original home in Lebanon, and the poet was unique in it in devoting his philosophical thoughts on various topics, including those related to nature, including those related to the creation of man and many others.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp; The aim of the research topic is to do justice to the poet, especially this collection of poems written by the poet while he was at his artistic peak and his experience inside and outside his country when he was in al-Mahj, where he lived in estrangement and deprivation, and for the lack of researchers for this wonderful collection of poetry, so we wanted to shed light on it due to the abundance of poetic sense and its place among the poet's works.&nbsp; Michael Naima.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; In addition, he dealt with special sub-issues related to the days he lived in the Diaspora and exile, how he dealt with society, and what he conveyed to them from the Arab civilization, especially when his books were printed and translated into foreign languages ​​and published in newspapers and magazines, as well as what was conveyed to us from Western civilization and how it was affected during the days that He lived there.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The research dealt with the studies of literary texts in the "Najwa Al-Ghoroub" group, a stylistic ynthetic level, and the semantic level).&nbsp; Until he became one of the modernizers in Arabic literature and creators who left the classical mold and went to renewal and modernity influenced by Western civilization, where cultures were fertilized at their hands through the establishment of institutions and ties such as the pen association.</p> Meethaq Kazem Abdul Abbas Abdullah, Muhammad Khaghani Isfahani Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 The poetic image in Poor Poetry and its impact on the artwork <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The subject of this research is the study of the poetic image, an artistic study of the poetry of the Umayyad poet Maskin al-Darimi. His poetry was studied through the artistic approach of the most important poetic contents and tributaries from which the poet drew and shaped his poetic experience in addition to the most prominent technical aspects of his poetry. This study was based on the printed collection of the poet. Which included everything kno wn from his hair. The poet, through the image, expresses the contents of himself, his feelings, and his conscience, and through it his vision of reality becomes clear, so it will be more effective in influencing the recipient, especially if he takes care of the templates in which he pours his experience, so he chooses the structures and connotations with which he formulates the image that expresses his idea. An imitation of it, the poet does not convey it as it is, but rather submits it to his formation, so a picture of his idea comes and not a picture of itself..This research aims to shed light on his poetic experience to devise his potential Aesthetic and his creative energies and studying them artistically, which will provide an independent source for the study of his poetry, so the study came with a preamble that includes talking about the artistic approach followed in this study. Specially. The poetic image is represented in "the artistic form taken by words and phrases after the poet organizes them in a special graphic context to express an aspect of the full poetic experience in the poem, using the energies of the language and its capabilities in significance, composition, rhythm, truth, metaphor, synonymy, antagonism, contrast, homogeneity and other means of artistic expression." .</p> Ashwaq bint Khareef Al-Khareef, Zeinab Fouad Abdel Karim Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Violence and terrorism "Concepts" <p>Studies dealing with violence and terrorism are of great importance in today’s world, because of their impact on the lives of individuals, peoples, and countries. It is clear that these practices threaten the lives of people and societies, and confuse international relations and the future of development, peace, and stability. Defining concepts in social studies in general is extremely difficult because they overlap. The circumstances, conditions and times through which these concepts were expressed. Therefore, these concepts presented a challenge to the researcher in all the times and political ideas that they dealt with.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Violence and terrorism are two terms intertwined with each other, to the extent that the common space between them overlaps to the extent of the privacy of each of them. Violence contains terrorism, and terrorism is a form of violence. They are two concepts as old as humanity, and no era or place has been devoid of them. But to make them a basis for life. Or the extinction of a nation or a group of people is surprising and astonishing, because humanity was created to coexist and interact, and sometimes conflict. However, the existence of any nation or group becomes dependent on the demise and end of the other, it is a perception that indicates an aggressive and savage state.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Violence has multiple facets, including terrorism, tyranny, war, assassination, rape, revenge, and revenge... Thus, the problems of violence, such as the number, seem infinite. It is renewed, life is renewed, and it attracts attention with its repetition. It is a (legitimate) means for those who practice it, under the pretext of assuming safety. Its goals are based on religious and non-religious ideas and beliefs, although religions have a deeper impact than being limited to a specific human meaning. It is a spiritual bond that brings people together, connects peoples and individuals, satisfies their need for cooperation, forms their hearts, and regulates their behavior.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Violence can represent the most prominent manifestation of power, because all political forces can compete and struggle for power, and violence is the ultimate level of conflict, or it is a means of controlling people. The struggle for power, influence, and wealth has given justification for violence, and terrorism is a single entity that is mixed in a broader context. Its meanings include the concept of violence on the one hand, and the right to self-determination on the other hand, and despite the inability of political and legal jurisprudence to define the functional significance of the concept so Authority or opposition, coupled with a lack of trust in others, creates some destructive tendencies in them to preserve their freedoms, beliefs, laws, and sometimes their lives. that a definitive distinction can be made between that which is implied under any of these three terms. Terrorism assumes the use of means that, in and of themselves, are illegal means, because the fear of individuals or groups that they will be exposed to situations of violence and terrorism by...</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Ahmed Jassim Ibrahim Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Characteristics and connotations of generosity in Al-Farazdaq’s poems <p>Generosity, with its various meanings and multiple interpretations, is a desirable moral trait among the Arab people, which they always boast about in their speech and action., and it is considered the most important axis of honors and good moral virtues of a person or a nation or those praised. This good moral quality has been manifested in the poems of most of the poets of many literary periods. It should be said that this morally desirable feature has a diverse range of meanings in terms of words and meaning as well as ironic interpretation. which sometimes appears in explaining the reasons and motivations of round-the-clock hospitality, or when the cold winter wind blows, and the lighting of the reception fire and the barking of dogs to summon guests, as well as feeding the needy. It also refers to doing good deeds such as zeal, bravery, respect for neighbor's rights, and defending one's honor. The mentioned components have been manifested in their various semantic fields in the poems of poet: Farzadaq to explain the praise and admiration of their people or to express individual characteristics. Sometimes poet use this moral component in satirizing each other. In this research, according to the main research question, how are the manifestations of generosity manifested in the songs of Farzadaq? We are looking for it to find the most important signs of generosity in the poems of poet who are famous for writing contrasts. And on the one hand, they were proud of being generous and generous to themselves and their relatives.</p> Atheer Obaid Abbas Al-Janabi, Muhammad Saadi, Nour Al-Din Parwin Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 The phenomenon of the Levantine cultural impact and the effect of the Arabic language on Ibn Shahid's message through the disputes between peoples <p>This research deals with familiarity with the concept of acculturation and acculturation throughout Islamic history in Andalusia, and the Levantine cultural impact of Ibn Shahid Al-Andalusi’s journey in the treatise (Disciples and Whirlwinds). This research presents the concept of acculturation and Levantine culture in contemporary critical thought in search of the issue of the historical problem and dialectics with its literary and cultural dimension that constitutes this. The concept in contemporary Arab thought, through a presentation of the term acculturation and how to interact positively in a way that suits the Arab Levantine and Islamic culture.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;Therefore, Islamic civilization in the countries of Andalusia may be considered one of the fruits of Arab culture, and a historical turning point in the field of culture and thought. Because the human connection has been characterized by scientific production between the real meaning and the metaphorical meaning, the term and concept of culture is the coming together of two or more things in some capacity, such as closeness and similarity from some point of view. The scientific-cultural connections, and the cognitive interconnection between Western civilization in Andalusia, and its literary impact on the message of the Disciples and Whirlwinds. It may be “acculturation” at times, and “acculturation” at other times</p> <p>&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;The importance of the research is demonstrated by the necessity of cultural similarity and the extent of the Levantine influence through the narration of historical events, then the social and intellectual interconnection between literature on the one hand and the fields of cultural knowledge on the other hand, and the interest in studying cultural exchange with all its connections and relationships with aspects of cognitive culture, such as the Arabic language, civilization and travel literature. Cultural, many scientific research in comparative literature focused on knowing this aspect of the concept of acculturation and acculturation from a cultural perspective.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The aim of this research is to document historical events, and from the interest of researchers and historians in the relationship of culture to language, and that the research focuses on reading cultural criticism from the impact of the culture of the civilization of the Arab East on the cultures of the countries of Andalusia, and on the African culture that the slaves carried through the Saqlaba in the countries of Andalusia, and they became an element. Essential in Andalusian and Maghreb society, and the approach followed in this research is the historical and descriptive approach.</p> Thamir Abdul Ameer Al Khafaji, Abbas Arab, Sayed Hussein Sidi Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Naval military confrontations between the United States of America and Japan Pacific Ocean January-March 1943 <p>The year 1943 is one of the important years in the history of the Second World War, especially on the Pacific front, as the US Navy played a decisive role in resolving the battles, by applying a unique military strategy of its kind represented by the strategy of moving between the islands, besieging the Japanese Navy and preventing it from invading the Pacific Ocean and Southeast Asia, by controlling the islands of strategic importance, and building advanced bases for the US Navy on these islands to manage the Pacific War, the purpose of which was to bypass the islands controlled by the highly fortified Japanese Navy instead of trying to seize each island in sequence, and the reason for this is that these islands The other strategy applied by the US Navy is Operation Wagon Wheel, the purpose of which was to neutralize the important Japanese base at Rabaul, and this operation was directed by the Supreme Allied Commander in the south-west Pacific region General Douglas MacArthur, whose troops advanced along the north-eastern coast of New Guinea to control the corridors of the south-east of the president occupied the neighboring islands Led by Admiral William Halsey, the Allied forces led by the US Navy advanced from the South Pacific region through the Solomon Islands towards Bougainville, to complete the operation of besieging the Japanese islands in preparation for their military invasion and work to get them out of the war, destroy the Japanese Navy and its military power and force them to surrender to ensure the security and integrity of the borders and vital interests of the United States in Southeast Asia and the Pacific.</p> Omar Nafie Nouri, Mohamed Yahya Ahmed Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Freedom of markets, buying and selling, and their limits during the era of the Messenger, peace and blessings be upon him, “an economic study” <p>Man possesses many mental talents that enable him to think, work, sell, buy, invest, import, export, consume, and then spend and save for himself by virtue of the freedom of private ownership or personal ownership. All of this is evidence of the Islamic economic freedom granted to the individual according to what Islam has approved, with limits accepted by reason and logic and accepted by Sharia and law. Exploitation, embezzlement, theft, disputes, and tampering. The Islamic religion has forbidden, in general and in detail, harm and damage. There are Qur’anic verses and many Prophetic hadiths that confirm this. Islam does not restrict the individual. Rather, he called on him to work, to love work, to respect time, and to earn good money, to practice various types, methods, and economic operations, represented by economic activities, including industrial, commercial, and agricultural, to invest resources and wealth, and the blessings of God Almighty, with the means of production he possesses, in order to obtain the greatest benefit as a result of Islamic economic freedom, which does not mean the exclusion of the state. From the follow-up and monitoring of economic activities, merchants, market owners, and measures and weights by state officials and clergy; Because economic freedom is one of the foundations of the Islamic system and the actual application emphasized by the Islamic religion. The study included two axes: the first axis: the concept of economics and freedom in language and terminology, and the second axis included economic patterns that proved economic freedom during the era of the Messenger Muhammad, peace and blessings of God be upon him, according to the Qur’an and the Sunnah, including: the freedom to give in charity and not impose amounts on the goods that are bought and sold, the freedom to choose a place and build a market, the freedom to enter markets from Before all, with the remembrance of God, His Majesty, and other obligations, and the freedom to buy and sell, except for the hour when selling is disliked: the freedom to buy and sell with the aim of staying away from religion and market disputes, the freedom to buy and sell and export goods and commodities in accordance with the principle of tolerance, the freedom to buy and sell in accordance with the prohibition of fraud in the markets, and the freedom to refrain from buying and selling goods. Unsuitable fruits and freedom to buy and sell away from receiving and promoting</p> Ahlam Salman Ali Al-Janabi Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Checking the creativity requirement when protecting digital works( A comparative study ) <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; In light of the widespread technological development and the spread of artificial intelligence, new types of intellectual works and innovations have emerged that are dealt with in the digital environment, which are digital works. As the digital environment now allows the copying and distribution of these works, which is a major violation of the rights of innovators.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Based on that, national legislation has focused on protecting intellectual property in the digital environment, in order for it to fall under the umbrella of legal protection requires the presence of an innovation element. The research aims to clarify the different trends in the subject of innovation in digital works, trying to answer the research problem that revolves around a main question, “Is there innovation in digital works?”, relying on the descriptive and analytical approach associated with the analysis of legal texts, in addition to the comparative approach,</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; We have reached the conclusion that jurisprudence has divided regarding the location of innovation in digital works into two directions. The first direction believes that the location of innovation is in the information flow map. On other-hand the second direction believes that innovation occurs at any stage of the preparation of the digital program. We also recommended the necessity of establishing a law, special in the Sultanate of Oman regarding the protection of intellectual property rights in the digital field. This relates to the protection of digital works, electronic programs, networks, and other areas of digital intelligence, similar to what comparative laws have followed.</p> Khalil bin Hamad Al Busaidi, Nizar Hamdi Qeshta Copyright (c) 2024 Journal Of Babylon Center for Humanities Studies Wed, 10 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 The philosophy of the American drug war in Latin American countries during the era of President Ronald Reagan 1981-1989 <p>The United States of America criminalized drugs since 1914. Then the event developed into President Nixon declaring a war on drugs after he considered them a threat to American society and working to promote crime. However, the Reagan administration took a completely different path from his predecessors, after he described them as a threat to American national security. It was adopted by the communist countries. Nixon's first steps were to link organized crimes to drugs and target black Americans as they represented a danger to American society. A large number of blacks were imprisoned and a clear racial target was imposed. As a result, prisons were privatized and capitalist companies were assigned to build additional prisons due to the large numbers of prisoners. Black women were subjected to imprisonment more than white women, and because of this, there were many social corruptions and children were left on the streets after being subjected to racial persecution. The Reagan administration transferred the drug war to Latin American countries, targeting countries with communist tendencies, and it was an appropriate opportunity to strike Marxist influence in the region. And remove the communist threat and prepare the appropriate ground for American capitalist investments. Therefore, one of the most important results of the hidden drug war was the spread of American capitalism in Latin America and the overthrow of regimes opposed to capitalist tendencies. It was able to liberalize the Mexican economy and privatize important sectors in Mexico, Colombia, and Peru, and implemented the new American liberalism. The political level: The American administration employed drug dealers on the political side to spy on communist countries and carry out secret operations, and provided logistical and military assistance to opponents of communist regimes as long as the common goal was to fight global communism.</p> Fadel Rahm Al-Aidi Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 The impact of political developments on Sadat’s assumption of power and his monopoly of power in Egypt 1970-1981 <p>The research dealt with the impact of political developments on Sadat’s assumption of power and his monopoly of power in Egypt from 1970-1981. It touched on the role of the members of the Supreme Executive Committee of the Socialist Union and the Council of Ministers in Sadat assuming the position of president and how he was able to transform their convictions and thus their bias towards him and nominate him for the position of president, and how Sadat was able to He wins the position of President of the Republic, beginning a new phase in Egyptian history, which is one of the most dangerous phases that Egypt has passed through, as in the seventies, the largest war was fought with (Israel) and a peace treaty was concluded with it. This constituted a historical turning point in the lives of Sadat and Egypt.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Sadat launched a movement against the symbols and men of the Nasserist regime, which he called the “Revolution of Correction,” which still carries many secrets and mysteries, and many of the details of its events and behind-the-scenes are still kept secret. Therefore, the importance of the events of May 1971 lies in the serious shift they brought about in the direction of Egyptian political thought internally and externally. In particular, and a turning point in contemporary Egyptian history in general, as it represented a coup against the Nasserist regime with all its material and intellectual legacies and what the Nasserist experience produced over twenty years of the revolution.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The research discussed the issue of political reform and its place in the political peace, which was one of its priorities in the Egyptian street. The debate was intense and ongoing on the Egyptian political scene, which is considered the most important issue of all because of its significant role in establishing a true democratic life, especially since all national forces agree that the treatment What is decisive for getting out of the problems and challenges that Egypt faces is democracy, on the basis of which a clear formula is determined to regulate the relationship between the ruler and the ruled, in addition to dealing with the events of the uprising that occurred in 1977.</p> Omar Anad Hamoud Mutlak Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 The State And The Commendation Phenomenon In The Early Islamic Ages <p>The Gatherings of the peasants suffered from so hard living conditions in the wide territories that were occupied by the Muslim rulers. The Islamic governance, as a feudal power, used so cruel means in imposing various taxes over the subjects that they resorted to give up their lands to the major lnand lords. This way was called as “Commendation” in the medieval terminology which was widely spread at that time. Consequently, the operations of the redistribution of the cultivated lands resulted in commotions and chaos in most of the feudal areas which were dominated by the Muslim governors. In addition, the national income exclusively went to the oligarchic elite instead of the public who were barely earning daily living. Thus, peasantry loose minor properties, commendation enlarged and landowners get more and more possessions in a way that could be called the tragedy of the working class. This maladministration led to an economic collapse and social imbalance in favor of an oligarchy that gained priority in all the aspects of the life After these Arab societies that lived in the deserts of the Arabian Peninsula initially witnessed a major transformation in their class identity and the pattern of their economy, when Islam appeared and spread throughout them, as the Prophet (peace and blessings of God be upon him) tried, seeking to fuse the components of those societies into one nation under the name “society of brotherhood.” “So the rule of piety and sacrifice became the standard that separated the people of that society, but soon this nation became influenced by the historical background - the heritage of ancient society - and the inevitability of feudalism and its destructive influence became features of its economic life, and an expression of its social class system in the various eras that it passed through.” Country .</p> Zaman Obaid Wannas Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 The consistency in the Kufic calligraphy of Badee' Al-Zaman Al-Hamadhani is a textual linguistic approach <p>The text is a comprehensive unit composed of various elements, some of which relate to the grammatical aspect (horizontal surface level), and some relate to the semantic aspect (vertical deep level). Surface structures consist of smaller units that are connected through grammatical relationships evident in the sequence of words and sentences. On the other hand, deep structures are composed of holistic conceptualizations interconnected through logical semantic coherence, reflected by words and sentences as well, but relying on the recipient's ability to extract and describe this coherence.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; In essence, a text is a major entity encompassing multiple parts that are arranged in sequence, provided there is logical semantic coherence. Therefore, the science of text deals with aspects that go beyond the sentence frame and extend further, considering the larger textual unit that constitutes discourse.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Cohesion is one of the key foundations that determine the coherence between formal elements to give the text its textual quality, setting it apart from other utterances. Its structural components draw from sentence elements to transcend them, creating something deeper, broader, and more comprehensive. Additionally, cohesion draws on abstract meanings from the lexicon, refining them within a system based on continuity, structural flow, and semantics, which enhances the coherence of the text.</p> <p>The role of textual cohesion becomes evident in achieving coherence and linkage between the components of the textual structure, whether through surface-level grammatical cohesion that connects the formal elements of the structure or through deep lexical cohesion that requires the collaboration of lexical units to achieve the overall semantic structure of the text. This leads to the integration and harmonization of both formal and deep elements as a unified whole.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Textual cohesion also expands our understanding of the text by viewing it as a singular structure linked to the topic of communication and the axis of discourse. It allows the recipient to employ their interpretive abilities and comprehend references, contexts, and references to achieve an understanding of the text.</p> Hiba Abedalaziz Kokash Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 The role of public relations in spreading the culture of dealing with rumours A survey study of the role of public relations in the Department of Combating Rumors in the Iraqi Ministry of Interior in spreading the culture of dealing with rumours <p>The research aims to identify the role of public relations in spreading the culture of dealing with rumors in Iraqi society, by conducting a survey of the opinions of workers in the Department of Combating Rumors in the Iraqi Ministry of Interior, adopting the survey method and the questionnaire as a tool for collecting information and obtaining data, from a sample of (200) individuals working in the department, and after collecting data and analyzing it using the statistical program (SPSS) and drawing conclusions, the researcher reached the most important results: There is an important role for public relations in spreading the culture of dealing with rumors, and its procedures in confronting rumors enjoy the confidence of Iraqi society. And the support of senior management. The research also concluded that security rumors are the most widespread type of rumors in Iraqi society, and that the purpose of their spread is partisan competition for electoral purposes, and that seminars, bulletins and posters are more methods used by public relations in spreading the culture of dealing with rumors, and in From these results, the researcher concluded that the success of public relations in performing its role is due to the trust it enjoys in addition to the presence of a specialized staff with high experience in its field of work. In light of this, the researcher recommends the need for continued attention to the department for continued success. Therefore, the researcher suggests conducting a periodic periodic examination to determine the extent to which The continued success of public relations in spreading the culture of dealing with rumours.</p> Muhammad Faleh Al-Tamimi Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 War, Violence and Trauma in Sarah Kane’s Blasted <p>This research illuminates the occurrence of the notions of violence and trauma in Kane’s character which she has portrayed obviously as an illustration of wide entrenched influence of war, trauma and violence in both her literary and real experience. The study looks into Kane's personal tragic circumstances as well as trauma in British theater. It is a social and psychological analysis. The central point of this study is look after concepts of trauma and violence involvement and its representation exactly as the scope of theatre even with the greatest circumstances. In this analysis and interpretation of <em>Blasted</em>, Kane attempted to concentrate on important topics in a way that was reminiscent of Artand's "Theatre of Gurley," which gave viewers the impression that they had actually experienced something. Additionally, the traumatic element of <em>Blasted</em> may be found in the themes of violence, suicide, death, and rape; these themes contribute to Kane's exceptional accomplishment and are a reflection of both his own difficult personal life and society at large. lastly, Sarah Kane aims to depict as well as grievances of a mind that has forget its perception of self. Moreover, the devastating belief that trauma is a result of the inability to cope with the outside society</p> Nadia Aliakbar Ibrahim, Rawaa Jawad Kadhim Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Strategies for coping with professional pressures among primary school teachers <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; This study aims to identify the strategies followed by primary school teachers to confront the psychological and professional pressures to which they are exposed. The study was conducted on (60) male and female teachers who were randomly selected from the Nineveh Education Directorate. To achieve the goal of the research, the researcher adopted the (Al-tmime) scale to identify strategies for confronting professional pressures used by primary school teachers, which consists of five strategies. The researcher verified the scientific properties of the scale, such as validity and reliability. After applying the research tool, the study found that the most common strategy used by primary school teachers was the (problem solving method) strategy. According to the research results, the researcher came up with a set of recommendations</p> <p>1-One way to evaluate the behavior of primary school teachers is to adopt a professional scale for coping with professional pressures prepared by the researcher.</p> <p>2- Conduct research, including designing mentoring programs to promote positive strategies to address occupational stress for primary school teachers. The field of work in education is also one of the areas where workers suffer from stress, which leaves psychological and social consequences for individuals. Workers in this field face many situations and conditions during which they are exposed to a state of distress, anxiety, frustration and anger, which affects their health and psychological state and negatively affects their performance in the workplace<strong>.</strong></p> <p>There have been many studies that have dealt with dealing with psychological and professional stress across many segments of the educational community, such as supervisors, teachers, and school principals, so the current study seeks to complement the efforts of researchers in the field of dealing with stress and to identify the most important strategies that primary school teachers rely on to deal with stress. The pressures they are exposed to</p> Alaa Sharif Kazem Ali Al Kazem Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Defeatism according to the pre-Islamic poet between rejection and acceptance, the value of blood money as an example <p>This study, titled (Defeatism among the pre-Islamic poet between rejection and acceptance / the value of blood money as an example), aims to explain the state of defeat in the pre-Islamic poet and his rejection of it through the value of blood money as it is a great value and the pre-Islamic person must adhere to it and insist on not violating it, because it was a social control for the pre-Islamic individual. At that time, in the absence of the rule of law that protects the weak and stands up to the aggressor. Blood money was a law that limited conflicts and preserved lives, but the pre-Islamic era rejected it. Because he considered it a form of cowardice and submission, and insisted on rejecting it and taking revenge, and this is what we found when we interrogated the poems of poets, and we do not deny that we found here and there examples of poets who accepted blood money and considered it something acceptable and a good practice that should be followed. But it did not come from the poets who accepted the blood money themselves. Rather, it reached us through other poets, whether those who took a position of rejection or acceptance of it. In this research, we will focus on the concept of “blood money between rejection and acceptance.” Perhaps we are not exaggerating if we say that pre-Islamic literature included all the pre-Islamic values of that era. Values represented a social control that required the pre-Islamic person to appear strong and able to obtain his rights by the force of the sword. Therefore, it was necessary for the pre-Islamic person, who hoped for prestige and status, to refuse blood money and consider it a kind of defeat. Thus, most of the pre-Islamic people refused blood money, and this is what the poets themselves declared in their poems and boasted. This does not mean that this “blood money” has completely disappeared. There are those who accepted it but did not declare it for fear of the influence of society. None of the poets were able to transcend the constants and challenge society by declaring it. Therefore, we found examples of accepting blood money in pre-Islamic poetry on the lips of other poets, and this is what we will find in the folds of this research.</p> Yasser Ahmed Fayyad, Khaled Majeed Farhan Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 The impact of authority on Andalusian literary creativity in the eras of the Taifas and Almoravids Balancing analytical study <p>This study aims to explain the authoritarian influence on Andalusian literary creativity in the eras of the Taifas and the Almoravids, as this period was characterized by the unexpected political circumstances that occurred, which left their mark on the lives of the figures of thought and literature, as tyranny and control over the subjects, and the dominance of absolute rule, emerged. Overthrowing everything that thought accepts, rejecting common sense, caring for and sanctifying the ego, the dominance of personal interest, and lack of awareness and feeling of the general interest of society.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; One finds such influences evident in Andalusian society, especially during the period of my research during the era of the Taifas and the Almoravids, as this period of time in the history of Arabic literature in Andalusia was characterized by political fluctuations and social unrest, in addition to the tribulations and strife that afflicted many writers in the era of the Taifas. It led him to poverty and deprivation and made him homeless, searching for his strength and livelihood. The period during which the Almoravids ruled was characterized by a decline and delay in literature, as many books and writings were lost in the heat of the ongoing conflict at that time, either burned or drowned for political reasons, as they put the finger on those in power and those who caused the loss of security. Thought was scattered, but what cannot be overlooked is that these and other influences contributed greatly to the emergence of the Andalusian personality. Because it expresses the state of the poet, reflects his privacy, and highlights his artistic expression of his feelings, emotions, emotions, and thoughts, especially during the period when the princes of the sects ruled despite the political rivalry, and there was a noticeable cultural and social growth</p> Bashar Khalaf Abboud, Mustafa Ismail Khalifa Muhammad Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 A critical view of the vices embodied in Nahj al-Balagha (The negative other is a model) <p><strong>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </strong>Nahj al-Balagha was concerned with the other, as it took into account all patterns of interaction, both negative and positive. It dealt with the other and the vices that resulted from it in different ways. It also dealt with it within a variety of formats, and linked it in many ways to its semantic context.</p> <p>Scholars and commentators in the field of literary and intellectual studies have tried to touch upon some of the secrets of this subject, whether in the Holy Qur’an, or in Nahj al-Balagha, or in the field of hadith or poetry... or otherwise. There have been comprehensive readings that cover the positive and negative aspects, especially in Nahj al-Balagha, where Multiple cultural, linguistic, religious and social fields.</p> <p>Nahj al-Balagha dealt with the other through two main styles: the human other and the inhuman other. Regarding the human other, Imam Ali (peace be upon him) dealt with it through two opposite images: the image of the negative other, and the image of the positive other. A negative other can be defined as a person who poses a threat or danger to another, whether that other is an individual, group, or society. The negative other is characterized by negative characteristics such as tyranny, condescension, ingratitude, and rejection of the principles of justice, love, and humanity.</p> <p>Nahj al-Balagha dealt with the image of the negative other through several images, including the unjust ruler, who is a clear example of the negative other, as he is the one who rules unjustly, oppresses people, and exploits his power for his personal benefit. The caliphs who opposed Imam Ali (peace be upon him) are another example of the negative other, as they were the ones who fought the Imam and tried to assassinate him, and caused a lot of strife and unrest in Islamic society. A person who disagrees in religion, belief, or doctrine is another example of a negative other, as he is one who refuses to accept the truth and tries to impose his opinion on others. The infidel, the dhimmi, the hypocrite, and the enemy are another example of the negative other. They represent a danger to the Islamic community and try to undermine its security and stability.</p> <p>The image of the negative other leads to many negative effects, including injustice, persecution, strife, unrest, wars, and conflicts.</p> Ali Hussein Waheed, Shahriar Hemmati, Ali Salimi, Hamid Pour Heshmaty Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 The influence of the Arabic maqamah on the Andalusian Hebrew maqamah <p>This study sheds light on a literary genre that appeared in the eighth century known as “Maqama”. The Maqama is a literary style of artistic prose that appeared in the Levant at the hands of Badi al-Zaman al-Hamdhani, and Hariri followed suit. The Maqama flourished in various Arab environments, including Andalusia. The shrine became widespread, especially during the time of the Taifa kings in Andalusia. Hariri’s Maqamat is widespread not only in the East, but also in the West, and has become famous and widely spread. The Jews in this period were influenced by the works of Arabic literature, poetry and prose, and did not forget the importance of the Hebrew language by emphasizing that the Hebrew language is a rich language and has a rich vocabulary. Al-Harizi's goal in compiling Maqamat was to prove that&nbsp; Hebrew&nbsp; language is capable of everything that the Arabic language&nbsp; can do doThe roots of the H Andalusian ebrew maqama go back to the ancient Jewish poetic tradition. However, in the era, the Hebrew maqama gained specificity as an independent artistic type, as it was influenced by Arabic melodies and the unique musical composition of Andalusian art. The revival of the Hebrew language, especially the language of the Bible, was Alharizi's most important goal in writing his maqama in Hebrew and in this he says: (I wrote this book to show the power of the holy language of the holy people).</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Indeed, al-Kharizi was what he wanted, he revived his Hebrew language and became the only Jew who was able to write fifty</p> <p>maqama in Hebrew, similar to the classical Arabic maqama. It is perhaps well known that the Jews did not touch the literary writings until after their contacts with the Arabs and after their admiration for the poetic and prose correspondences, and they envied their Hebrew language, and began to imitate the rhythmic and rhyming Hebrew poetry, and composed Hebrew poetry on the same basis as the Arabic poetry</p> Balsam Saleh Mahdi Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 The availability of legal personality in smart robots <p>Linguistically, the word “person” refers to a human being, while a person in legal terminology is one who acquires legal personality. Legal personality means the authority to acquire rights and bear obligations. Everyone who enjoys this authority is still a person from the point of view of the law, regardless of whether he is a human or not. man. Regarding the position of the law, it only recognizes two types of persons: the natural person and the legal person, and there is no third for them. Everything that results under the two types acquires rights and bears obligations, and anything other than that falls outside the scope of the person in the law.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; It can be said that there are several considerations that naturally call for recognition of the legal personality of smart robots, such as social ability, necessity, and legal suitability. Social ability means the social interaction that smart robots enjoy and makes them independent, while necessity is the social and legal need for recognition of their legal personality. And the legal suitability allows the legislator to intervene to grant smart robots legal personality, especially since these are considerations that exist on the part of smart robots&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;</p> Hoda Sadoun lafta Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 The political rapprochement between the revolutionary leader Augusto Cesar Sandino and the Conservative Party in Nicaragua 1932-1934 <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Nicaragua is a Latin country full of events, since its history passed through important stages that deserve attention from researchers and historians. The research studied one of the most important developments in it, which is (the political rapprochement between the revolutionary leader Augusto Cesar Sandino and the Conservative Party in Nicaragua 1932-1934). Popularity and spread his revolution outside the borders of the city of Segovia, which was the center of his movement, as it was a rural, mountainous city in which peasants lived, who represented the main pillar of his revolution, being the son of a farmer and living in this city since his childhood .&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;This rapprochement was based on the interests of the two parties. Augusto Cesar Sandino fought the US interventions in Nicaragua and became very popular and became a symbol of resistance to US hegemony in all parts of Latin America and an example to follow. Between the two prominent parties in Nicaragua, the liberal and the conservative, and this is what made the US administration interfere directly in the internal affairs of Nicaragua under the pretext of protecting it from unrest, but the truth is otherwise, its goal was to protect its economic and political interests in that country, and the people of Nicaragua suffered from these unrest and US interventions , which aroused the masses who were fed up with these interventions and began to rise up against US control led by Augusto Cesar Sandino. The Conservative Party tried to exploit Sandino's popularity to gain power after losing it and the Liberal Party took power.</p> ILham Hamzah Mansi AL-Tufaili Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Islamic Sufism through the writings of the British Orientalist De Lacey Evans O'Leary – optional <p>Islamic Sufism is a spiritual journey or a journey of ascension that has a beginning, an end, and a middle. The beginning is purification and escape from the false world, and the middle is solitude, spiritual rest, and Sufi struggle. The end is the encounter and self-connection. Sufism is built on four essential components, which are struggles, unseen manifestations, karamats, and wanderings. Ibn Khaldun defended those who perform the struggles, the unseen manifestations, and the karma of the Sufis and the righteous saints, and distinguished them from the miracles of the prophets. He also considered the one who exaggerates as being excused, because he is in a state of drunkenness and ecstasy and is not aware of what he is saying or the sayings, words, or narrations he is repeating. The importance and status of Sufism lies in the formation of the Muslim personality, and that it is the practical application of Islam, and that it is concerned with reforming the servant’s outward appearance and building his inner being, correcting his character, and correcting his acts of worship and dealings, and that Sufi scholars are not content with clarifying to people the rulings of Sharia law and its etiquette, with mere theoretical talk, but in addition to that They take the hand of their students and walk him on the paths of advancement, accompany him in all stages of his journey to God Almighty, surround him with their care and concern, cover him with their compassion and tenderness, encourage him with the height of their determination and great sincerity, remind him if he forgets, correct him if he deviates, check on him if he is absent, and revitalize him if he stagnates.</p> Saad Abd Mutlaq Hammoud Al-Jubouri Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Establishing a legal dispute once the opponent is present in the case <p>The convening of the dispute does not depend on the completion of judicial notification of the case. Legislation has approved other means of convening it, including the presence of the opponent before the court. However, the legislation has not had a unified opinion regarding attendance and its role. There are those who linked the idea of presence to false notification, and some of them approved the idea of the adversary’s mere presence as a means of convening the dispute. This difference appears more in the writings of jurisprudence and is due to the difference between two trends: the first sees that adherence to legal formalism is a legal necessity that cannot be avoided, while the other trend believes that simplifying formalism and adopting justifications for achieving knowledge of the case without legal means is something that should be taken into account absolutely because it has a role. To preserve the judicial procedure and subsequently the right subject to be protected Adopting the idea of attendance as a parallel procedure as an alternative to judicial notification, regardless of the status of judicial notification, that is, without linking it to the invalidity of the notification, while ensuring that the opponent’s right to defense is not disturbed by his mere presence, that is, his knowledge of the case is the same as the knowledge achieved by judicial notification, provided that the text is in the following form (in the presence of the opponent or whoever is present His presence in the specified session forfeits the right to claim the invalidity of the notification, unless that violates his right to defense, and his presence is considered evidence that his right is not violated unless proven otherwise</p> Ahmed Khudair Abbas Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Fourth-Level Students in The Arabic Language Department Were Able to Write The Spelling Hmazat <p>The study aimed to identify the extent to which fourth-level students in the Arabic Language Department were able to write the hamzats, hamzat al-wasl and qat`, and the researchers used the descriptive analytical approach. The study population consisted of fourth-level students in the Arabic Language Department at the College of Education, who numbered (48) students, including (2) male students and (46) female students. The study sample consisted of fourth-level students in the Arabic Language Department at the College of Education, who numbered (27) students, including (2) male students and (25) female students. The study relied on the questionnaire as the main tool for collecting data and information necessary for the study. The study reached the following results, the most important of which are: The results of the study showed that the general frequency of the responses of the study sample members regarding Hamzat al-Wasl was repeated for writing and extracting with (369) correct words out of a total of (864), with a percentage of (41.5%). The results of the study showed that The general frequency of the responses of the study sample members regarding the fragment and the hamzat al-qat’ was repeated for writing and extracting with (373) correct words out of a total of (594), with a percentage of (72.7%). The researchers attribute these results, and the errors of neglecting the hamzat al-wasl came first with a percentage of (41.5). %), then the hamzat al-qat` with a percentage (72.7%). The reliance of teachers on the method of recitation, and the lack of diversification in teaching methods for dictation, which increases the prevalence of spelling errors among students, and because teachers have a direct impact on students, and the lack of understanding by students of the spelling rules related to the conjuncts of connection and interruption, and students’ feeling that they do not need to master dictation, and the speed Students while writing, and the lack of training for students in spelling practice.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The level of reasons for the fourth-level students in the Arabic Language Department to make spelling errors in relation to (the axis of reasons related to the teacher) is very high, while the level of (the axis of reasons related to the student) is medium to high.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The level of reasons why fourth-level students in the Arabic Language Department make spelling errors in relation to (the axis of reasons related to the student) indicates medium to high. The level of reasons for the occurrence of spelling errors by fourth-level students in the Arabic Language Department in relation to (the axis of reasons related to the curriculum) indicates a very high level</p> Ahlam Mohmmed Mohmmed Sharf -Aldeen Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Receiving Al-Khansa’a poetry in modern Arabic criticism <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; This research deals with modern critical studies that dealt with Al-Khansa’a’s poetry through study, analysis, and criticism. I divided the research into two sections in light of the material that I collected. The first section I devoted to studies that studied the contents in Al-Khansa’a’s poetry, which are many studies and researches. The second section I devoted to studies that dealt with stylistic and artistic characteristics. In the poetry of Al-Khansa, the research reached a set of results that I mentioned in the conclusion of the research. Al-Khansa excelled in poetry of lamentation, to the point that this content overshadowed the contents of her other poetry, according to the testimony of all critics, ancient and modern. This in turn made most of the modern critical studies that specialized in Al-Khansaa’s poetry stop at the contents of lamentation primarily and then with enthusiasm.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Many modern Arab critical studies of Al-Khansa’a poetry were characterized by their reliance on the criterion of comparison and comparison between Al-Khansaa and her fellow poets who excelled in elegiac poetry or produced distinguished elegiac poetic compositions belonging to different time periods. Some of them compared it to its pre-Islamic contemporaries, and some compared it to the poets of the Islamic or Abbasid eras. And even some modern-day poets as well, and these studies have produced a conclusion that is almost a given to them, that Al-Khansa exceeded her standards with her prowess in lamentation</p> Sahar Kazem Hamza Al Mansouri Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 "Manifestations of the Other in the Poetry of Muhammad Kadhim Jawad" <p>Muhammad Kazem is a poet who has a very quiet experience. He writes everything he sees, but he repeats the scene and builds his perceptions upside down. Sometimes, as one sees him, and for a moment he finds that his poetry is moving energetically forward. He ventures to visit the poet and makes a soft friendship with him before the drops of imaginary blossom when the poet needs love. Nostalgia for the place where the gharabi sang the migratory tunes moments later.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Contiguousness, negation, and migration whenever features are not apparent as is known by the daily, but rather they are telegrams and remain hesitant between the one who is able to move on the distant lands, but the individual / being inside with the poetic voice and also with the narrator is the most present and dominant, so he is the most enriching and losing, because the moment he leaves for a place He does not know his details, but he is not very different, and the frequent changes of places made a sensitive poet like Muhammad Kazem more delicate as he chooses his new place and also the moment of escaping from it, because loneliness in the place / desert is unified, and flight.</p> Hassan Goodarzi Lemraseky, Mehdi Shahrokh, Anmar Falih Mahdi Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Baghdad Khatun (D. 736 AH / 1336 AD) and Dilshad Khatun (D. 752 AH / 1351 AD) (A study of their political and administrative role ) <p>Women in various historical stages have a prominent role in various fields, it has a clear imprint in the state administration and has a successful mind in politics and economics. Baghdad Khatun (D. 736 AH/ 1336 AD) is the daughter of Prince Joban (D. 728 AH/ 1327 AD) is one of the most famous women of its time, so it was A wife of important figures that left a great impact in the Ilkhani Mughal state (651-756 AH/1253-1355 AD), she is the wife of Ilkhan Abu Saeed Bahdar (717-736 AH/1317-1335 AD), giving her wide powers and controlled in the Ilkhani Mongol tiles for several years .. Also discussed the research. The position of Prince Joban rejecting her marriage to Al -Ikhhan Abu Saeed Bahdir and is considered an important reason for the bad relationship between them despite all the services provided to the Mongol state of the Ilkhani, until Al -Ikhhan ordered his killing with his son, so this was a reason for the hatred of Baghdad who betrayed him, especially after he neglected and married to him Dilshad Khatun (D. 752 AH/ 1351 AD), which was competed with the authority and powers, and the research also discussed the reasons for its killing in the year 736 AH/ 1336 AD by order of the Ilkhan Erba (D. 736 AH/ 1336 AD) because of its refusal to take over and try to reduce it. The research also highlighted the biography of Dilshad Khatun and her marriage to Ikhhan Abu Saeed Bahadur and then her marriage to Sheikh Hassan Al-Jalairi (D. 757 AH / 1356 AD), who granted her broad powers in the state and her political and administrative role until her death in 752 AH / 1351 AD</p> Suaad Hadi Hassan Al-Taai Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Dirar bin Al-Azwar and his heroism are in doubt <p>The Arabian Peninsula was united after the Islamic religion spread in it, as the Noble Messenger, may God’s prayers and peace be upon him and his family, laid down the rules and principles of Islamic law. After that, the caliphs after him began to follow the approach that the Messenger, may God’s prayers and peace be upon him and his family, set in spreading the Islamic religion outside the Arabian Peninsula, and the conquests began. Islam and the battles in the places where Muslims arrive to call for this religion. During those battles and conquests, many heroes and leaders appeared who had a significant impact in spreading that call. Historians have had an important impact in illuminating the actions and achievements of those heroes. Historians represent the means of propaganda and media in the process of transmitting Tournaments and battle incidents, and while reporting the news, there was a bias among some historians in favor of specific heroes, exaggerating their status. This affects the integrity of the transmission of historical material and requires researchers to be careful, accurate, and investigate facts to find out whether these heroes really performed heroics or whether they were fictitious. It is doubtful, and Dirar bin Al-Azwar is one of the heroes whose heroism and deeds he performed are doubted. The research (Dirar bin Al-Azwar and his heroism in the circle of doubt) aims to introduce the character of Dirar bin Al-Azwar and the actions he performed according to what was reported in historical sources, while highlighting Shedding light on the questionable narratives and comparing them with the original historical narratives available in the first sources that deal with this subject, in order to uncover the circumstances and the truth of the heroic aura that was painted around that character, and did Dirar ibn al-Azwar really deserve those qualities with which he was branded? Did he actually perform heroic and positive deeds that deserve attention, or was all of this a myth created by the imagination?!</p> Uday Sahar Abbas Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 The effectiveness of the Investigation-based learning strategy in the achievement of biology subject and entrepreneurial learning skills among fourth-year science students <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The research aimed to identify the effectiveness of the Investigation-based learning strategy in the achievement of biology and entrepreneurial learning skills among fourth-grade science students. To achieve this, an experiment was conducted that lasted two months, in an-Najah preparatory school for boys, and the fourth-grade science students reached (77) students, using a simple random method. Two groups were selected, with (39) students for the control group and (38) students for the experimental group. The two groups were rewarded on variables (chronological age, intelligence, and a measure of entrepreneurial learning skills). The researcher adopted an experimental design with partial control for two equal groups (experimental and control). Extraneous variables were also controlled, and the experiment was implemented in the second semester of the academic year (2022 - 2023 AD). After completing the experiment, the results were analyzed statistically using a t-test for two independent samples. The results concluded that there was a statistically significant difference in favor of the experimental group in achievement and entrepreneurial learning skills. In light of this, the researcher came up with recommendations and proposals, including:</p> <p>1- Using the investigation-based learning strategy in teaching academic subjects, including biology for other levels of study. Conducting another study to determine the effectiveness of the investigation-based learning strategy in other variables.</p> <p>2- Introducing the inquiry-based learning strategy into the teaching methods curricula in the Life Sciences Department of the Colleges of Education, in order to teach students how to apply it in teaching after they graduate.</p> <p>3- Building a training program for biology teachers according to entrepreneurial learning strategies, which will reflect positively on their students.</p> <p>4-Paying attention to entrepreneurial learning skills and adding them to the curricula in schools and universities because of its role in producing entrepreneurial ideas that reflect positively on the academic and personal lives of students</p> Rasoul Thamer Tohme Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Thresholds and the aesthetic of the imagined discourse in the novels of Naeem Abd Muhalhal <p>Modern and contemporary critical studies break into the worlds of the fictional text to&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; approach its imagination and touch its magic through its textual thresholds. They are the keys to the secrets of this work, revealing what it contains as an intense text that reduces what is within the text. The texts connect one to the other to get acquainted with its various details. Therefore, the thresholds are among the most important of these relationships that announce and reveal its secret because it is the natural entrance to the text as it works to direct the reader and guide him in his communication with him, and enables him to touch its semantic dimensions, openness to its composition, and identify the elements of its architecture, as well as the methods Its organization and imaginary realization, and thus it is possible to reveal through it the strategy of writing, as it contains the text and stands on its borders - inside and outside it at the same time - as it relates to it and overlaps with it until it reaches a degree of defining its independence and separates from it to allow the textual interior to work on producing its own semantics. Writing his text may be simulating previous textual constructions or creative within the scope of the qualitative possibility with new organizational methods for the data of the text that he writes, and the text he created is formed from it according to the necessities of shaping the meaning or the writer’s vision of his creative work, and the thresholds have functions and patterns that make studying them a way to know and understand texts; Because of its goals, reading interpretations, and aesthetic connotations; Therefore, the writers paid attention to these thresholds accompanying the text in their writings, including the novelist Naeem Abd Muhalhal. This research study came to reveal the importance of textual thresholds or parallel text in his novels, and the methods of their operation. These thresholds represented in the cover, title, and the name of the writer will be presented gender, image, and color, as well as dedications, intertitles, introduction and introduction, and note; Because these thresholds give a plastic, aesthetic, and semantic character to the fictional text..</p> Naeem Amouri, Gholamreza karimifard, Masar hameed abd alnaseri Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Samples of famous women in Andalusia in the field of science <p>Andalusian women contributed significantly in various forms and types of religious activities to serve the Islamic faith. This included building mosques, disseminating education, and transcribing the Holy Quran, and other religious and scientific books. They also cared for the sick, assisted the impoverished and orphaned, and directed their charitable efforts within their extensive society. Additionally, This work included the wives of caliphs, concubines, female scholars, and others. As a result, a substantial number of women interested in charitable work emerged in the land of Andalusia. This had a noticeable impact on social, cultural, and economic life, and the advancement of society, as well as on serving humanity and contributing to the development of Islamic civilization.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Women awaqf "endowments" in Al-Andalus and its Civilizational Role during the Eras of the Umayyad Caliphate and Emirate (138-422 AH 756</p> <p>1031Women endowments in Al-Andalus are an extension of endowments that were dominant in other Muslim countries as they had a positive impact on the Islamic Civilization and supporting Andalusian woman. In Al- Andalus, woman provided scientific services for science and students by granting mosques, Holy Quran copies, schools and mosques librariesThese endowments contributed into the prosperity of civilization, the development of community and the achievement of social quality in all forms. Thus, they worked to satisfy the needs of individuals through endowments. Woman interest in in social endowments was incarnated in taking care of and helping the sick, the poor, orphans and the old. They also played their social role very well in search for Allah's reward and seekingactive social participation.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Since women's experience in the history of the Waqf deserves to be studied for its richness and importance in the various fields of the Renaissance, and due to the lack of recent historical studies on the role played by women in Andalusia in terms of endowments and scientific andocial participation, we found that we highlight this aspect of this research on" Muslim in Andalusia and its Cultural Impact in the Umayyad Period (138-422).</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Sabreen Bahaa Abdel Reda Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300 The Grants of Ibn Asfour Al-Ishbili for the Grammar Scholars in the Book (Summarization of the Phrase in the Elucidation of a Sign) by Taj al-Din al-Fakhani <p>Ishara is an important grammatical text of a scholar, jurist, and great author, a brilliant grammarian, and a distinguished narrator. Rather, he explained it in an explanation in which he clarified its words, clarified its purposes, loosened its restrictions, and solved its problem, then presented it softly to all Arabic readers and students of knowledge, so it was a cold ablution and a right drink.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; It is sufficient for al-Fakhani’s crown to be famous among the people of Arabia for al-Fakhani, and for his book marked (al-Ishara) to be a grammatical text, and an important introduction to the science of grammar, on which scholars devoted themselves and sincere students of knowledge benefited from it. And his easy-to-follow teaching style.In the book Summary of the phrase fi Sharh al-Ishara, a number of grammatical issues that need presentation, study and scrutiny. in their opinions Scientifically objective, or their opinions were merely criticisms and tendencies to the opinions of others.</p> <p>Praise be to God, the Possessor of glory, majesty, favours, and grants. I praise Him much that reaches His satisfaction, fulfills His blessings, and&nbsp; brings more of them. I pray and greet the best of God’s creation, Muhammad bin Abdullah, and all his family and companions.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; This research discusses Ibn Asfour's approvals and responses to the grammarians in the book Summarizing the phrase in explaining the indication of Taj al-Din al-Fakhani, so his approvals were present in most of the grammatical issues, while his objection came to some of the others. Convincing, enriching the grammatical arena with strength in transmission, and his evidence, as conveyed in this book, is about revealing confusion in grammatical issues, and what was based on his opinion by other scholars, and the purpose of that is to reveal aspects that are close to health.</p> Alaa Ahmed Zgheir Khulaif Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 23 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0300