The position of the Jews and Christians on the Umayyad state in Andalusia (138-366 AH)
Keywords:Jews, Christians, Umayyad state, Andalusia
The Muslims conquered Andalusia in the year (92 AH / 711 AD) and it became part of the Islamic state, as it is an Islamic region that has its own life, which is characterized by being rich in its various aspects. An independent state after it was just a wilaya belonging to the central authority in Damascus, as the Andalusian society consisted of several groups that all met on the land of Andalusia, including Arabs, Berbers, Mawali, Muslim and Mawlid, as well as the Saqalaba element, and religions mixed with Muslims and non-Islamic elements of Christians and Jews, and the country is almost unique Andalusia, with its demographic composition, is among the countries of the Islamic world as a whole, and human groups of Christians and Jews were subject to the rule of Islam, and Muslims dealt with them in accordance with the provisions of Islam and its tolerant law, as these elements were linked to Muslims by a covenant that protects their rights, and the freedom to practice their rituals and their own religion without forcing them to enter into Islam. The Islamic religion, in exchange for their respect for the teachings of the Islamic religion and not to prejudice its beliefs and respect for the laws of the state, and the Jews and Christians formed an important part of Andalusian society and occupied a great position in the way the state dealt with and applied the teachings of the Islamic religion, so their position towards the ruling Umayyad state was the position of the cooperator and the coexistence of the community with friendliness and respect to build a civilization Ancient, influenced by Islamic civilization and Islamic thought to enlighten Europe for many centuries, although there were some whose private interests were affected, so they revolted against the state and took advantage of the name of religion to declare their disobedience and rebellion, as they were cooperating with the Islamic revolutions that were emerging against the ruling Umayyad authority, and some of them felt that Islam had destroyed their religious status They tried to undermine Islam by distorting it and trying to stir up Christians and Jews in an attempt to restore the religious status that they enjoyed. Despite this, the Umayyad state treated them after eliminating the revolutions that broke out against it with a spirit of tolerance and leniency.