The impact of modernization on Copts in Egypt 1805-1878


  • Etlal Salim Hanna College of Education, University of AL-Hamdaniya


Copts, modernization, citizenship, Egyptian society, tolerance policy


The experience of modernization in Egypt, which began at the beginning of the nineteenth century, is considered a unique experience, which affected the components of Egyptian society and its social fabric in all political, economic, social, cultural and religious fields. Hence, we aim in our study to focus on the impact of modernization on the Copts during the period 1805-1879 and its repercussions on their general conditions, especially their social and religious conditions, and how the policy of tolerance and non-discrimination pursued by the rulers of Egypt contributed to spreading the spirit of citizenship and equality among all components of Egyptian society. The social change of any society takes place through the issuance of a set of laws that aim to bring about real change in society, which is reflected through a set of policies pursued by the ruler to express an actual desire to make change, especially if this Society suffers from economic, political and social crises that affected all its citizens. And it led to a real change in the structure of society, and thus an actual modernization that was reflected in the components of society in Egypt. The Ottoman administration in Egypt in the nineteenth century was not based on social structures. Rather, the rulers of Egypt, starting with the governor Muhammad Ali Pasha and ending with Khedive Ismail, were the first to notice the importance of this social structure based on equality in rights and duties, in addition to the policy of tolerance that they pursued. Priorities of the rulers of Egypt in dealing with the subjects. The rulers of Egypt during the period 1805-1879 were able at that historical stage to give the Copts a greater role to integrate into society and allow them to be more close with their Muslim compatriots. The authority of law and justice in dealing with all citizens regardless of religion, nationality or sect