The concept of (pilgrims) between the past and the present among the Arabs and the West


  • Twana Kader Saber


argumentation, article, discussion, explanation, persuasion


The concept of Argumentation from the Arab and Western perspectives – ancient & modern.The concept of argumentation has been used by Arab and Western scholars since the longstanding times and they have referred to its role in many places of their writings to expose their objectives and determinations.Due to its widespread utilization since the early times, its form and content has been changed in various ways. Accordingly, it has been used under diverse titles and contents by the academics.In this study, the researcher has attempted to focus on the most significant stages of the use of this concept by Arab and Western scholars and enlighten the variations of their opinions on its usage.For this purpose, the role and views of these scholars in the past and modern times are presented in two main chapters, in addition to the summary in Arabic and English, an introduction to the research and the bibliography. The research has been conducted according to historical descriptive analysis method  The study showed that pilgrimage has been of great importance since ancient times, as scholars paid attention to it, discussing its pillars and determining the framework of its concept and how to employ it in the desired field. The study confirmed the change in the concept of pilgrims and their laws. This depends on the requirements of the times, the context, and people’s need for this type of communication in various areas of life. The study proved that Al-Hajjaj was included in ancient and modern times in many fields of knowledge such as (language, philosophy, rhetoric, logic... etc.), starting from the writings of Greece to the most important Arabs in this regard. The study focused on the long historical path of pilgrims and its development, and found that this path shows, in general, that the concept of pilgrims is limited to three main concepts: 1- The Greek concept, which makes it a common denominator between controversy and rhetoric, and is prominent in the works of Plato, Aristotle, and the Sophists. 2-The Arab-Islamic concept, which is a concept that makes it synonymous with controversy. We find it among the ancients, including Al-Jahiz, Al-Jurjani, Al-Sakaki, and Hazem Al-Qartajani. 3-The contemporary concept, which is (dialogue), is more precise and deeper than the previous two concepts..