The consistency in the Kufic calligraphy of Badee' Al-Zaman Al-Hamadhani is a textual linguistic approach


  • Hiba Abedalaziz Kokash


Consistency - Grammatical consistency - Lexical consistency - Linguistic coherence - Calligraphy


The text is a comprehensive unit composed of various elements, some of which relate to the grammatical aspect (horizontal surface level), and some relate to the semantic aspect (vertical deep level). Surface structures consist of smaller units that are connected through grammatical relationships evident in the sequence of words and sentences. On the other hand, deep structures are composed of holistic conceptualizations interconnected through logical semantic coherence, reflected by words and sentences as well, but relying on the recipient's ability to extract and describe this coherence.

         In essence, a text is a major entity encompassing multiple parts that are arranged in sequence, provided there is logical semantic coherence. Therefore, the science of text deals with aspects that go beyond the sentence frame and extend further, considering the larger textual unit that constitutes discourse.

        Cohesion is one of the key foundations that determine the coherence between formal elements to give the text its textual quality, setting it apart from other utterances. Its structural components draw from sentence elements to transcend them, creating something deeper, broader, and more comprehensive. Additionally, cohesion draws on abstract meanings from the lexicon, refining them within a system based on continuity, structural flow, and semantics, which enhances the coherence of the text.

The role of textual cohesion becomes evident in achieving coherence and linkage between the components of the textual structure, whether through surface-level grammatical cohesion that connects the formal elements of the structure or through deep lexical cohesion that requires the collaboration of lexical units to achieve the overall semantic structure of the text. This leads to the integration and harmonization of both formal and deep elements as a unified whole.

      Textual cohesion also expands our understanding of the text by viewing it as a singular structure linked to the topic of communication and the axis of discourse. It allows the recipient to employ their interpretive abilities and comprehend references, contexts, and references to achieve an understanding of the text.