Tribulations of Scholars of Sects and Doctrines in Andalusia (138–897 AH/ 755-1492 AD)


  • Anwar Abdullah Farhan Department of Religious Education and Islamic Studies
  • Eman Mahmoud Hammadi University of Anbar College of Arts, Department of History


Scholars, Sects, Doctrines, Political Trials, Intellectual Challenges


The research deals with the most important trials and tribulations that the scholars of the sects and sects in Andalusia were subjected to from the era of the emirate until the fall of the city of Granada at the hands of the Christians, as scholars and jurists gained a prestigious position among the princes and the general community of Andalusia, due to the status of knowledge in the hearts of the public and rulers on the one hand, and on the other hand the need These rulersReligious legitimacy with the aim of consolidating their influence and consolidating their rule and authority through the support of scholars and jurists for them. The state in Andalusia used to respect scholars, seek help from them in solving its problems, and assign them jobs, whether it was with his consent and conviction, or for a political purpose, especially in the era of the emirate.The scholars were respected by the generality of the Andalusian people who loved them, and saw in them the protectors of Islam who are keen on the interest of society. The higher the status of a person, the greater the amount of difficulties that he is exposed to, and scholars, like others, are subject to trial in themselves, their money, or their loved ones. It is a Sunnah that God enacted for His faithful servants, and this affliction may be general and afflict the scholars and jurists as it afflicts the general public.Some of the rulers of Andalusia deceived them for fear of increasing their influence or intensifying their power. Some scholars and jurists were subjected to the ordeal of imprisonment and arrest for political reasons, scientific opinions, or reasons related to hatred, envy, and slander, while grudges and grudges prompted some guardians to rob money or property from a number of Scholars and jurists praise through flimsy arguments and pretexts, and the weakness of the state in some periods was a reason for the scholars to be subjected to such ordeals, and another part of them was exiled from their homes and homeland, so they tasted alienation and suffered from a life of homelessness and loss, and part of them were killed and removed from office and property confiscated .