Printing and Craftsmanship from the Perspective of the Writers Article Al-Ehiaeen


  • Ahmed Abdel Aziz Awad
  • Khamis Mikhlif Abdullah


printing, craftsmanship, modern literature, article, revival


This study aims to clarify the concept of printing and craftsmanship among biographical essay writers. It is known that the discussion about these two terms was not a new matter, as critics have dealt with them since ancient times, starting with Al-Jahiz and ending with the last critic among them. Our modern era is filled with many critics who have addressed this issue. Moreover, these two pillars are not unique to one art or another; Poetry and prose alike participated in them. In their treatment of these two terms, the writers of the revival school agree with their early predecessors in prioritizing printing over craftsmanship. Most of them judged the presentation - I mean imprinting on the workmanship - and this does not mean that they belittle the importance of the workmanship or degrade its literary status, for it is inevitably praiseworthy if it comes to the freedom of the mind without the effort or effort, as evidenced by the fact that the ancient critics did not charge the poets of the annals with their revision and refinement. for their poetry; Rather, they were considered virile poets. What is notable about the essay writers in the Ihya school is that they were divided between a printed writer and a manufactured one. Some of them did not adhere to the industry; He was known to narrate his words as they came, without trimming or polishing, and the best representative of this class was the Manfaluti, while some of them aligned themselves with the trend of craftsmanship, so he began to engineer and embellish his phrases until they came out in the best way, as happened with the elegant writer Ahmed Hassan al-Zayat, who was fond of precision of pronunciation and music. The sentence, and he would resort to saj’ from time to time without getting tired. The most prominent writers of the Ihya School who dealt with the two important terms were Amir al-Bayan Shakib Arslan, Mustafa al-Manfaluti, Mustafa Sadiq al-Rafi’i, Abdul Aziz al-Bishri, Ahmed Amin, and Ahmed Hassan al-Zayat, as their articles were filled with many critical opinions that treated them and clarified their concept and status.