The dystopian view in the poetry of Forough Farrokhzad


  • Khaled Hadi Naji Al-Mousawi
  • Bahar Siddiqui
  • Ahmed Reda Heydarian


the city, dystopia, Forough Farrokhzad, pessimism, rebellion


At the end of the eighteenth century and the beginning of the nineteenth century, a new term appeared within the literary field (dystopia), which is the opposite term for (utopia). Plato adopted it and looked at it. Dystopia is the opposite word for it in the sense that it leads to many meanings, including (the burned city, the ruined city, the demolished city, ... etc.) of the words that give rise to despair and pessimism in the future of this city. Dystopia was embodied in novels that appeared in Europe between the first and second world wars, and it is a product of the scene of devastation left by wars on the level of infrastructure and humanity. For independent cities that have been exposed to war. Forough's poetry is located in its own isthmus. It lies between the world of innocent, naive, simple, and luminous childhood, and the world of the conscious present, full of aches, evils, and disfigurement.. As long as childhood, with all its descriptions, is no longer empowered by present, mature behavior, what is possible for it is immersion in Remembering to face the present and specific cruelty. If this self-absorption did not last, the poet has the advantage of immersing himself in nature, passing through it the charges of her crisis soul, in search of the impossible balance.. The poet (Forough) found herself or discovered herself suddenly after her early marriage.. she found Her soul was besieged by pains, evils, and disfigurement, so her divorce was her frantic and dangerous journey on the isthmus of past innocence/present cruelty. The remembrance of childhood was not a sufficient solution to her permanent crisis, which was caused by the distorted present, so she resorted to a sublime other than the sublimity of childhood, so she had to wander in nature and penetrate its parts that are able to embrace and protect it from the cruelty of what has become of it and what life has devolved to in its individual and collective sense. The dystopia in her poetry started from religious rebellion, social rebellion, and self-rebellion, which was determined that its origin is the upbringing on which Forough Farrokhzad grew up due to her pessimism, so she produced texts that belong to the field of dystopia without realizing it