The political reasons and motives for the exclusion of scholars and its impact on the Arab Islamic state in the Umayyad era (41-132 AH / 661-749 AD)
Keywords:exclusion, scholars, era, Umayyads, political reasons
Scientists in the Arab Islamic state, especially in the Umayyad era, enjoyed a distinguished position before the Umayyad caliphs, as they paid attention to science and scholars, and the scientific movement reached its peak. However, many scholars were subjected to exclusion and deportation in the Umayyad era, and the reasons and motives that led to their exclusion and exclusion differed. The political reasons and motives were one of the main and most important motives that pushed the authority to expel the scholars. Exclusion could be for opposing the authority or disobeying it, or criticizing its policy, which was a policy followed by most of the Umayyad caliphs and governors who did not allow their policy and authority to be violated, which would affect the internal conditions of the caliphate. The reason for the scholars’ departure from power was a result of the policy of some of the governors of the Umayyad caliphs, which was characterized by harshness, violence, and cruelty. Especially the policy of Al-Hajjaj bin Yusuf Al-Thaqafi, which prompted a number of jurists and scholars to confront and oppose this policy and try to limit it.
Another source of the exclusion decision appeared in the Umayyad era. The governors who were appointed by the Caliph had the right to issue the exclusion decision, including what Al-Hajjaj bin Yusuf Al-Thaqafi did by excluding a number of scholars and jurists.
There were many means and methods of exclusion, including killing, imprisonment, confiscation, torture, exile, or defamation and insults. More than one method was used to exclude some scholars, which could reach three or more together. And the resulting positive and negative effects and results. There were many negative consequences for the excluded country when compared to the positive ones. The exclusion of scholars had negative effects on the Arab Islamic state in the Umayyad era, on the country they were excluded from, as the caliphate lost many scholars, and their loss had a major impact on the state. While the exclusion of scholars and their deportation from their cities had positive effects on the areas to which they were excluded, as their people benefited from Teach them and favor them