Islamic Sufism through the writings of the British Orientalist De Lacey Evans O'Leary – optional


  • Saad Abd Mutlaq Hammoud Al-Jubouri


Islamic Sufism , Orientalism and Sufism , Orientalist writings on Sufism , Sufism and whims


Islamic Sufism is a spiritual journey or a journey of ascension that has a beginning, an end, and a middle. The beginning is purification and escape from the false world, and the middle is solitude, spiritual rest, and Sufi struggle. The end is the encounter and self-connection. Sufism is built on four essential components, which are struggles, unseen manifestations, karamats, and wanderings. Ibn Khaldun defended those who perform the struggles, the unseen manifestations, and the karma of the Sufis and the righteous saints, and distinguished them from the miracles of the prophets. He also considered the one who exaggerates as being excused, because he is in a state of drunkenness and ecstasy and is not aware of what he is saying or the sayings, words, or narrations he is repeating. The importance and status of Sufism lies in the formation of the Muslim personality, and that it is the practical application of Islam, and that it is concerned with reforming the servant’s outward appearance and building his inner being, correcting his character, and correcting his acts of worship and dealings, and that Sufi scholars are not content with clarifying to people the rulings of Sharia law and its etiquette, with mere theoretical talk, but in addition to that They take the hand of their students and walk him on the paths of advancement, accompany him in all stages of his journey to God Almighty, surround him with their care and concern, cover him with their compassion and tenderness, encourage him with the height of their determination and great sincerity, remind him if he forgets, correct him if he deviates, check on him if he is absent, and revitalize him if he stagnates.